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Full text of "Americana"

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ALLEN COUNTY PUBLIC LIBRARY 



3 1833 01753 6936 



GENEALOGY 

973.006 

AM3529A 

1919, 

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Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2012 



http://archive.org/details/americanav13p1amer 



(AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE) 



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Vol. XIII 

Pt: / 

January, 1919 — D e c e m ber; 1919 



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The American Historical Society 

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One of the two Suits of Armor presented by the City of Worcester, 
England, through Col. Albert Webb, V. D. J. P., Nov. 6, 1908. 
This armor was born by soldiers of King Charles II at the bat- 
tle of Worcester, Sept. 3, 1651 






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AMERICANA 

Published by The American Historical Society, Inc., formerly 
published by the National Americana Society. Issued in Quarterly 
Numbers at $4 per annum ; single copies $1. 

Publication Office, Somerville, N. J., Unionist-Gazette Association 
Building. 

"Americana" is a Quarterly Magazine of History, Genealogy, 
Heraldry, and Literature. Manuscripts upon these subjects are in- 
vited, and will be given early and careful consideration. It is de- 
sirable that contributions should contain not less than two thousand 
nor more than ten thousand words. Contributors should attach to 
their manuscript their full name, with academic or other titles, and 
memorandum of number of words written. 

All correspondence relating to contributions should be addressed 
to the Editor. All communications should be addressed: 

The American Historical Society, Inc., 

£>omerville, N. J., or 
267 Broadway, New York City. 



BOAED OF OFFICERS: 

Benjamin F. Lewis, Marion L. Lewis, 
President ; Managing Director ; 

Florence A. Kelset, Frank R. Holmes, 

Secretary ; Circulation Department. 



EDITORIAL STAFF: 

Fenwick Y. Hedley, James A. Ellis, 

Editor-in-Chief; Genealogical Editor; 

John P. Downs, Edward C. Finley, 

Biographical Editor ; Contributing Editor ; 

William B. Towne, Marcus Ulbricht, 

Contributing Editor ; Heraldic Editor ; 
Elmer E. Putnam, Art Editor. 




The American Historical Society, Inc. 

| HE AMERICAN HISTORICAL SOCIETY, Inc., has 
for its purpose the acquisition and dissemination of 
authentic information relating to the history of the 
United States, their peoples and their institutions — re- 
ligious, educational, professional, and commercial. 

This, to the end that in this present age, when to a greater de- 
gree than ever before, the people are confronted by practical ques- 
tions relating to everyday affairs, there shall be a vehicle for the 
conveyance of such lessons from the past as shall prove an inspira- 
tion to a most deepseated patriotism, and recognition of the weighty 
responsibilities resting upon those of today as worthy descendants 
of noble forbears, and as exemplars of the loftiest civic righteous- 
ness. 

In furtherance of these purposes, it has during many years of dili- 
gent labor, assembled a vast accumulation of material — printed 
volumes, many of great rarity ; and manuscript writings represent- 
ing the life work of eminent antiquarians, historians, and geneal- 
ogists, various of whom have passed away in well preserved old 
age and still at the zenith of their mental powers — material which 
is not to be found in any other hands. The names of those whose 
work remains in the hands of the Society, makes a noble roll, includ- 
ing: John Howard Brown and William S. Pelletreau, of New 
York; Hon. William Nelson and Francis Bazley Lee, of New Jer- 
sey; Gen. William H. Davis, of Pennsylvania; Samuel Hart, of 
Connecticut. 

As a most essential part of such history is that of families and 
individuals, the Society gives particular attention to genealogical 
research — tracing family lines to their source in mother countries. 
The Society has in its present service a most capable corps 
following along these lines of investigation — men and women 



of large ability, familiar with its invaluable archives, and 
most of whom had the great benefit of long association with the mas- 
ters before mentioned. To these are to be added a noble array of 
contributors representing every State in the Union — litterateurs, 
educationists and authors, entirely familiar with the history of 
their respective regions, and of their people. 

As an agency through which the results of such labors may be 
given to the people at large, the Society presents a magazine under 
the title of "Americana." Its pages are held sacred to the pur- 
poses hereinbefore set forth — to the propagation of a fervent pa- 
triotism, and an appreciative knowledge of American history and 
American institutions. They will contain historical narratives from 
all parts of the country, and relating to all periods ; the identifica- 
tion of spots made famous in colonial and revolutionary times ; of 
family lines traced to their sources in the mother countries ; and 
biographical sketches of men and women whose services are worthy 
of commemoration. 

Not the least feature of importance will be the department of 
Heraldry, in which will be described and depicted the arms of prom- 
inent families, as identified by a master of this science, and pre- 
sented in their proper colors by a skilled heraldric artist. 

To these ends, the Society invites communications from all socie- 
ties giving attention to such pursuits, and from individuals in pos- 
session of historical biographical or personal history, which will 
add to the wealth of such knowledge already in its possession ; and 
for promulgation to the reading public through a responsible and 
capable medium. 



<£ 




AMERICANA 

JANUARY, 1919 




*£ 



Beginnings of Worcester, Massachusetts 




EVEN or more men from the older towns — Woburn, Sud- 
bury, Concord, Boston, Maiden, Cambridge, Watertown 
and Marlborough — settled here as early as 1674. The 
record of ownership of land remains, but it is not known 
where the little village itself stood. The first house was erected by 
Daniel Gookin and his associates in 1673, but it is not known who 
occupied it. On account of the conflict between Ephraim Curtis 
and the other proprietors, Curtis has been given the honor of being 
the first settler. In the edition of Hubbard's narrative, published in 
1677, there is a map to illustrate the events of King Philip's War, 
showing Quinsigamond, as the settlement was then called, among 
the places assaulted by the Indians. In the work it is described as 
"a village called Quonsigamog, in the middle way between Marl- 
borough and Quabaog (Brookneld), consisting of six or seven 
houses." 

A country road was the highway from Boston to the western set- 
tlements. From Shrewsbury at the end of Lake Quinsigamond, it 
followed the course of the present road there, and ascending the hill 
west of the courthouse, but at that time was merely a path cut 
through the woods. On this country road, south of the fording 
place at the lake, a garrison house was built to protect the first set- 
tlers from hostile Indians. It was doubtless of the uniform type of 
garrison house then built in the towns of the province ; of timbers 
hewn on the sides in contact with each other, firmly interlocked at 
the ends and fastened with hickory pins. There was one heavy 
plank door on the ground floor. The walls were perforated with 
narrow loop-holes, through which the defenders could fire upon an 
attacking force. The second floor was reached by means of a lad- 



BEGINNINGS OF WORCESTER, MASSACHUSETTS 

der, which could be drawn up, if the lower floor were taken by the 
enemy. The upper floor projected on all sides over the lower. The 
roof was sometimes crowned with a sort of cupola or watch tower 
for purposes of observation, but more often the outlook was posted 
on the roof, which had a slight slant. These garrison houses were 
generally quite strong enough to withstand the Indian attacks, if 
well garrisoned. 

There were three original grants by the General Court in the 
vicinity of Quinsigamond ; the first, 3,200 acres, to Increase Nowell 
of Charlestown, May 6, 1657; the second, a thousand acres, to the 
church at Maiden, May 6, 1662, and the third, 250 acres, to Ensign 
Thomas Noyes of Sudbury, October 19, 1664. 

The claim of the Indians to the territory was satisfied in accord- 
ance with custom and law. A deed of eight miles square was exe- 
cuted with great formality, July 13, 1674, by Solomon alias Woon- 
askochu, sagamore of Tatassit, and John, alias Hoorrawannonit,. 
sagamore of Pakachoag. The first payment was two coats and four 
yards of trucking cloth, valued at 26 shillings. The total consider- 
ation was twelve pounds. A verbatim copy of this deed has been 
published in the proceedings of the Society of Antiquity (Abstracts, 
etc., 1907, p. 80). The full consideration was discharged August 
20, 1676, Gookin having advanced half the sum. The following In- 
dians witnessed the deed: Onnomog, sagamore of Occonomessett 
(Marlborough) ; and last ruler of the tribe; "a pious and discreet 
man and the very soul, as it were, of the town," who died in the 
fall of 1674; Numphow, sagamore of Wamesit (Tewksbury) ; Jo- 
seph Thatcher of Dudley, a teacher; Nossonowit of Pakachoag. 

It was necessary for the grantees to settle within the specified 
time and live three years on their farms to perfect their title. If 
all the grantees took possession there should have been some thirty 
houses erected in 1674-5, with a population of over a hundred. But 
in the summer of 1675, King Philip's War put an end to the growth 
of the settlement. Ephraim Curtis was commissioned lieutenant, 
and distinguished himself in the War. Daniel Henchman, Capt. 
Daniel Gookin, Lieut. Eichard Beers, of the founders, were among 
the leading military officers during the war. Probably all the able- 
bodied men saw some service. 

The settlers here abandoned their new homes and in most cases 
returned to their old homes early in the summer of 1675. Their 

2 



BEGINNINGS OF WORCESTER, MASSACHUSETTS 

houses were all burned, according to Eev. Increase Mather, Decem- 
ber 2, 1675. Thus began and ended the first settlement in Wor- 
cester. 

Not all the frontier towns, destroyed in King Philip's W r ar after 
the inhabitants had taken refuge elsewhere, were rebuilt imme- 
diately. Committees were appointed by the General Court to super- 
vise the resettlement of a number of these towns. Lincoln says that 
some of the proprietors' committee earnestly endeavored to secure 
resettlement here after the war, and the records show that on De- 
cember 6, 1677, a year after peace was declared, the right of Pann- 
asunet, a sagamore, who had not signed the original Indian deed, 
was purchased of his heirs, Anthony of W^annashawakum, and wife 
Abigail, daughter of Pannasunet; Xannaswane, the widow; Sas- 
omet and wife Quassawake, all described as natives and inhabi- 
tants, they and their ancestors of Quinsigamond. 

The committee directed the planters to return to Quinsigamond 
before the year 16S0, in an order dated 1678, and "build together 
so as to defend themselves." But the terrors of the war were not 
forgotten, and the settlers at Quinsigamond preferred the threat- 
ened forfeiture of their land to trying again to establish a town 
here. "There was no going," wrote the committee, "by any of 
them or hope that they would do so; for divers of them being 
importuned to go, would not." But a meeting of the proprietors 
was held at Cambridge, March 3, 1678-9, attended by Gookin, Hench- 
man and Prentice, of the committee, and Jenkins, Richard Dana, 
Atwood, Brown, Paul, Graves, Fay, Hall, Skinner, Bemis, Tree, 
Flagg, John Upham, Taylor, Webb and Meyling. Several rights 
had been transferred by sale or inheritance in the meantime. At 
this meeting it was resolved to adopt the plan of Gookin and 
Henchman for a new village, and to plant themselves here again in 
the summer of 1680. Following is the agreement then made : 

1. It is agreed by all the persons named in the margen, that, God willing, they 
intend and purpose, if God spare life, and peace continue, to endeavor, either in their 
persons, or by their relations, or by their purses, to settle the said plantation sometime 
the next summer, come twelve month, which shall be in the year of our Lord 1680. 

2. They do engage to build in a way of a town, according to a model proposed by 
Major Gookin and Major Henchman, or some model equivalent thereunto, for the at- 
taining these six ends; 1st, security from the enemies in case (of alarm): 2d, for the 
better convenity of attending God's worship: 3d, for the better education of their chil- 
dren in society: 4th, for the better accommodation of trades people: 5th, for better 
helps to civility: 6th, for more convenient help in case of sickness, fire or other cas- 
ualty. 

3 



BEGINNINGS OF WORCESTER, MASSACHUSETTS 

3. That the most convenient place is to be chosen and pitched upon to build the 
town, sometime this next summer, by the committee, or the major part of such of the 
people as go up to view the place, which is intended this next May, if God please. 

4. That after the place is chosen and pitched upon, others that are not present, do 
engage to submit and settle there. 

Nothing came of this agreement at that time, however, and in 
October, 1682, the committee received notice from the General Court 
that unless measures were taken to form a plantation the grant 
would be declared forfeited. 

The efforts of the committee finally brought about the resettle- 
ment by the old proprietors. Capt. Henchman, evidently assured 
of support and doubtless accompanied by other proprietors or fol- 
lowed soon by those pledged to come, started for Quinsigamond, 
April 23, 1683. He certainly did not set out alone on such an enter- 
prise. He and his associates came in the spring, and must first have 
erected their log houses, but no record has been found of the num- 
ber here in the summer of 1683, nor of the houses erected. 

The survey by Samuel Andrews of Watertown, dated May 16, 
1683, and presented May 7, 1684, indicates that Andrews and his 
assistants went with Henchman in April, 1683, however. 

In the Commonplace Book of Samuel Sewall, owned by the Marl- 
borough Historical Society, Mrs. Harriette M. Forbes recently 
found this entry: "April 23, 1683. Capt. Daniel Henchman set 
out from Marlborough towards Quinsickamun with his Pack Horses 
in order to setting a plantation there." That others had resumed 
their places here in 1683 is shown by an order of the Middlesex 
County Court, April 1, 1684, viz: 

Whereas the Plantation of Quinsigamond hath some inhabitants already there and, 
it being at least ten miles from the nearest English town, which is too far to travel upon 
the Sabbath Day to the worship of God ; and, forasmuch as the committee of the General 
Court for that place, viz: Maj. Gookin, esq., Capt. Daniel Henchman and Capt. Thomas 
Prentice have applied themselves to this court, desiring that an order may pass this court, 
requiring the people there living to meet together on the Lord's Day to worship God. 

It is ordered by this court that the people of the place do constantly meet together on 
the Sabbath days to celebrate the worship of God in the best manner they can at present 
and until they do increase to such a number as that they may be capable to call and 
maintain a learned, pious and orthodox minister, as they will answer their neglect at 
their peril. 

And Capt. Daniel Henchman is requested and authorized by this court to take 
special care to prevent the profanation of the Sabbath day by neglect hereof. 

Church attendance was compulsory throughout the province. This 
order excused the Worcester planters from taking a journey of 
twenty miles each Sunday to comply with the law. 

4 




North Entrance to the Village of Worcester. Boston road, in 1841. In the little one-story 
building in the foreground, the elder Stephen Salisbury kept his first store, and laid 
the foundations of the ample fortune of so much benefit now to the people of Wor- 
cester. 



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BEGINNINGS OF WORCESTER, MASSACHUSETTS 

At the same time this court licensed Nathaniel Henchman, a son 
of Captain Daniel, to keep a house of entertainment for travelers 
at Quinsigamond, for a year, allowing him "to sell and furnish 
travelers or inhabitants with rum or other strong waters in bottles 
of a pint or quart but not to retail any in his house or suffer tippling 
there." The location of this tavern, the first of the second village, 
has been determined by various investigators as on the present site 
of the Boston & Maine freight station. These orders of the county 
court afford proof that there was a considerable number of the 
planters here as early as the summer of 16S3, as otherwise it is 
unlikely that they would have established themselves, built houses 
and become inhabitants as early as April in the year 1684. Such 
work would not have been done in the winter. 

The settlers and proprietors entered into a formal agreement reg- 
ulating the resettlement, dated April 24, 1684, and recorded in the 
book of the proprietors. The inducements of the arrangement were 
stated to be "that the plantations might be secured; the first plant- 
ers prevailed with to resettle ; others encouraged to plant ; public 
occasions provided for ; recompense made to those who have labored 
therein; those rewarded that shall forward the place; manufac- 
tures promoted; the country advantaged; travellers accommo- 
dated ; and not any damnified that are concerned. ' ' The quantity 
of meadow being estimated at 480 acres, it was proposed to divide 
the whole township into that number of lots ; 200 for the planters : 
80 for public uses or specific appropriations; and the remaining 
200 to be laid out on the northern extremity, forming a division, 
afterwards known as North Worcester, and subsequently rendered 
permanent by the incorporation of Holden. 

Among other arrangements for mutual safety and provisions for 
social happiness, it was stipulated, that "land for a citadel should 
be laid out, on the Fort River, about half a mile square, for house 
lots, for those who should, at their first settling build and dwell 
thereon, and make it their certain place of abode for their f amilies : 
to the end the inhabitants may settle in a way of defence, as enjoined 
by law, and formerly ordered by the committee for divers reasons, 
and each one so doing, to have a house lot there, at least six rods 
square." 

This citadel, or central station, was on the stream flowing by the 
present town, then called Fort River, from the ancient fortress 

5 



BEGINNINGS OF WORCESTER, MASSACHUSETTS 

which had been thrown up on its bank, soon after named Mill Brook, 
from the works moved by its waters; and sometimes denominated 
Bimeleck. From references at a subsequent period, it may be infer- 
red, its northern line was parallel with the town way north of the 
Court House, and that it included the greater part of the village 
of Worcester. 

The name of Worcester was selected by the committee and on 
petition signed by Gookin, Prentice and Henchman "that their 
plantation at Quinsigamond be called Worcester," the General 
Court ordered the change September 10, 1684. For some reason not 
known the name of an English city was. selected. 

The Indians came close to Worcester, August 23, 1696, when 
Goodman Levenz and three children were killed at Oxford. Major 
James Fitch went thither with his command, and on the 27th a 
party of 38 Indians and twelve provincials marched under Capt. 
Daniel Fitch to range the woods towards Lancaster, passing through 
this town on their way, August 28. Capt. Fitch reported that he 
discovered tracks of several Indians at a place called Halfway River, 
between Oxford and Worcester. 

From 1690 the warfare between the settlers and Indians had been 
almost continuous. Queen Anne's W T ar began in 1702, and at that 
time or even earlier the town was abandoned. The settlers left, 
probably not in a body, but in small groups or one by one. Samuel 
Leonard, the constable, alone remained in the summer of 1702. The 
committee, being alarmed for his safety, sent messengers urging 
him to leave, but he disregarded the advice. At length an armed 
force of twelve men was sent under Capt. Howe to compel him to 
seek a place of safety for himself and family. This party arrived 
just after he had been slain, and it was afterward discovered that 
six Indians were hidden in the cellar while the soldiers slept that 
night on the floor above. 

In 1709 an unsuccessful attempt was made to revive the plantation 
here. Joseph Sawyer and fifteen others presented a petition to 
Governor Joseph Dudley, the Council and General Court, stating 
that they were willing to undertake the settlement of Worcester if 
they could have a firm foundation of settlement laid, a fort built, 
and needful protection. A committee was appointed by the council 
to consider the expediency of granting the request and the course to 

6 



BEGINNINGS OF WORCESTER, MASSACHUSETTS 

be adopted, but the House of Deputies refused to concur and the 
undertaking failed. 

From 1702 to 1713, Worcester was uninhabited. There were 
various changes in the ownership of land, and the planters who came 
here in 1713 and afterward were largely of other families. But 
eventually some of the inhabitants of earlier days returned to the 
town when peace came and the Indian no longer threatened. 

The next concerted action to reestablish the town was made by 
Col. Adam Winthrop, a member of the committee in charge of the 
plantation at the time it was abandoned, and by Gershom and James 
Eice of Marlborough. These three in petition dated October 13, 
1713, addressed the General Court in behalf of themselves and oth- 
•ers interested, stating their desire "to endeavor and enter upon a 
new settlement of the place from which they had been driven by 
the war" and prayed "for the countenance and encouragement of 
the Court in their undertaking ; for such directions and regulations 
.as should be thought fit to make them defensible in case of a new 
rupture with the Indians ; and for a proper Committee to direct in 
ordering the prudentials of the plantation till they come to a full 
settlement. ' ' 

In answer to the petition, the following committee was appointed : 
Hon. William Taylor, Col. Adam Winthrop, Hon. W T illiam Dudley, 
Lt. Col. Ballantine and Capt. Thomas Howe. This committee made 
a detailed report, June 11, 1714, of their proceedings in adjusting 
claims of former settlers and promoting the new settlement. They 
allowed the claims of thirty-one proprietors or "ancient inhab- 
itants" and, according to the records, there were few of the rights 
abandoned or disallowed. 

To effect the settlement, grants were made to twenty-eight other 
persons on condition that each pay twelve-pence per acre for their 
planting or house lots, being the same amount collected from the 
-original planters; and that each build a dwelling on each right, 
"whether he acquired it by purchase, grant or representation. It 
"was recommended that the provision made for the support of the 
ministry and schools be accepted, instead of the reservation to the 
Commonwealth in 1668. As compensation for their services, a 
lot of forty acres was assigned to each of the committee. The report 
•was accepted and approved by Governor Dudley, June 14, 1714. 

7 



BEGINNINGS OF WORCESTER, MASSACHUSETTS 

Jonas Rice, signer of the petition and a former resident, was the 
first settler. From the day he came, October 21, 1713, is dated 
the permanent settlement of the town. It is an historic date, but 
of no special significance. The old settlers had not permanently 
abandoned their farms. The original grantees, their heirs and 
assignees, were still the proprietors, notwithstanding the two peri- 
ods during which the plantation was abandoned on account of war. 
Rice built his house on Sagatabscot Hill, on the road from Sutton 
and Grafton, (now Union Hill) and his farm included some of the 
land that Digory Sargent had cultivated. Lincoln suggests that he 
may have lived there during the second settlement. Rice and his 
family were the only inhabitants for about eighteen months. Ger- 
shom Rice, his brother, also a signer of the petition, was the second 
settler in the spring of 1715. At the end of five years, fifty-eight 
dwelling houses had been erected, according to the proprietors' 
records. 

The year 1718 marked the coming of the first Scotch-Irish set- 
tlers and a large number of grants were made to them during the 
next ten or fifteen years. The population in 1718, reckoning on the 
basis of 60 families, was between 200 and 300, and it doubled in a 
few years on account of the Scotch-Irish accessions and more pro- 
vincial settlers. The village in 1718 consisted of the 58 houses of 
the settlers, and at least four garrison houses designed to protect 
the planters in case of another Indian outbreak. 

The first labor of the settlers, after a considerable number 
arrived, was to erect a garrison house on the west side of the 
Leicester road, not far from the Common. During the first year all 
in that vicinity slept in this block-house. Another garrison house 
was constructed by Deacon Daniel Heywood near the head of Co- 
lumbian street, now Exchange street. The third garrison house 
was on the Connecticut road, north of Lincoln Square. The fourth 
was north of Adams Square, where a long iron cannon was sub- 
sequently mounted to give alarm of coming danger. During the 
French and Indian War this gun was removed to the Common; 
during the Revolution it was placed west of the court house, and it 
was fired to call the people to arms when the Lexington alarm was 
given. It is likely that still another garrison house was erected east 
of the intersection of the Lancaster and Boston roads, near Adams 
Square. There was certainly a house there, and Lincoln says it 

8 



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OLD VIEW OF MAIN STREET, WORCESTER, LOOKING NORTH 
Reproduction from a photo in the American Antiquarian Society Collection 



BEGINNINGS OF WORCESTER, MASSACHUSETTS 

bore marks of being a fortified place. The houses on the outskirts 
of the village were each protected by outworks. 

Besides the block-houses, was the saw mill erected by Capt. John 
Wing, on Mill Brook, then owned by Thomas Palmer, Cornelius 
Waldo and John Oulton of Marblehead. Apparently Wing's corn 
mill was gone, however, for Lincoln says the first corn mill of the 
new settlement was erected by Elijah Chase on the Blackstone 
river, near where the Quinsigamond paper mills stood in 1836, and 
that for many years it was the only grist mill. Another sawmill 
was built by Obadiah Ward above the site of the old Red Mills ; it 
was mentioned in his will, December 16, 1717. 

Worcester was still a plantation in 1721, and had been governed 
from the beginning of the first settlement by committees and officers 
appointed by the General Court. In 1721 a petition of the freehold- 
ers and proprietors for incorporation was presented to the General 
Court, with a letter which indicates that a distemper then raging 
might interfere with the work of the court and cause a delay. The 
letter was dated May 31, 1721. The petition was in charge of John 
Houghton of Lancaster and Peter Rice of Marlborough. 

The General Court took action on this petition and others of a 
similar purport, and passed a resolve, June 14, 1722, vesting the 
inhabitants of Worcester with the powers and privileges of other 
towns within the province, and directing that the first town meet- 
ing be held on the last Wednesday of September, 1722. The war- 
rant for the meeting was issued by Francis Fulham of Weston, 
and it was held Sept. 28, 1722. 

The course of events in the town of Worcester was much the same 
as in other towns. At first the town's chief expense was the sup- 
port of the church (the Old South), the keeping of the peace and 
enforcement of the laws made by the General Court, and the regu- 
lations voted at the town meetings. The selectmen administered 
the affairs of the town ; the constables performed what little police 
duty was needed and collected the taxes that the assessors levied. 
There were sealers of weights and measurers of wood, sometimes 
of leather; hogreeves to see that hogs wore devices about their necks 
to prevent them from entering the gardens, which were fenced. 
From time to time other duties came to these and other town offices. 
Municipal government developed here as elsewhere, slowly, and 
according to the needs of the community. The town meetings were 

9 



BEGINNINGS OF WORCESTER, MASSACHUSETTS 

held in the meeting house (Old South Church) until the church 
and town affairs were finally separated by law, after other denom- 
inations had formed societies, built churches, and objected to paying 
for the support of the Congregational church. 

Worcester was originally a tract of eight miles square, containing 
about 42,000 acres. Of this territory, a section five miles wide was 
taken when Holden was incorporated, and 2,250 acres when Auburn 
was founded. Common lands were annexed to the town of Wor- 
cester in 1743 and 1785 ; part of Leicester was taken in 1758 ; the 
Oxford Gore was annexed June 14, 1785; and the Grafton Gore, 
March 22, 1838. 

The County of Worcester was established by an Act of the Gen- 
eral Court passed April 2, 1731. Previous to that time the town of 
Worcester and seven other towns of this county had been part of 
Middlesex; five others, part of Suffolk county. Worcester was 
made the shire town or county seat on account of its location in the 
county, not on account of its size or importance. At that time Sut- 
ton, Lancaster, Mendon and Brookfield had more population and 
property. Worcester was chosen in preference to Lancaster, the 
choice of many of the people and representatives. 

The selection of this town as the county seat gave it a great 
impetus. From that time most of the lawyers of the county made 
their homes here, and the members of the bar were as a rule from 
the well-to-do and aristocratic classes ; they were college graduates, 
and generally held the important public offices both in town and 
county. The county officers and members of the bar formed a 
nucleus of the polite society of the day, a society that grew in 
strength and influence until the E evolution. 

The shire town naturally became a trading center, and the mer- 
chants here prospered. In provincial days the terms of court were 
the great holidays, and from all parts of the county the people came 
for amusement and trade, whether they had business with the courts 
or not. Wrestling, fisticuffs and horse-racing were the principal 
sports of the time. Even the exhibitions afforded by the punish- 
ment of the petty criminals in the stocks and pillory and at the whip- 
ping posts attracted the crowds. From 1745 to 1748, horse-racing 
was forbidden in the main street. 

Gradually Worcester drew settlers from Shrewsbury, Grafton, 
Sutton and other towns in this county, as well as from the towns of 

io 



BEGINNINGS OF WORCESTER, MASSACHUSETTS 

the eastern part of the State, and the flow of Scotch-Irish thither 
continued almost to the time of the Revolution. During the Revolu- 
tion, Worcester became first in population and importance among 
the towns of the county. 

The establishment of the courts here also brought several of the 
most prominent families to town, and in a multitude of ways influ- 
enced subsequent history. Woodstock, Ct., was then in this county, 
and Hon. John Chandler of that town became chief justice both of 
the Inferior Court of Common Pleas and the Court of General 
Sessions of the Peace. 

When the first court was opened by the Common Pleas in the old 
meeting house on the Common, July 13, 1731, a sermon was 
preached by Rev. John Prentice of Lancaster. The other judges 
were Joseph Wilder of Lancaster, William Ward of Southborough, 
and William Jennison of Worcester; John Chandler, Jr., was clerk 
of the courts and Daniel Gookin, Jr., was sheriff. In those days 
all the judges wore wigs and scarlet robes, and holding court was 
an imposing function. 

Hon. Joseph Wilder succeeded Judge Chandler in 1740 as chief 
justice, and Joseph Dwight of Brookfield became one of the court. 
The succeeding chief justices were : John Chandler, Jr., 1754, until 
1762, when Timothy Ruggles became chief justice and continued 
to 1774, when the courts were closed. 

When the courts resumed business under provincial authority, 
Oct. 17, 1775, Gen. Artemas Ward of Shrewsbury was chief justice ; 
Jedediah Foster of Brookfield, Moses Gill of Princeton and Samuel 
Baker of Berlin, associates. Hon. John Sprague of Lancaster suc- 
ceeded Gen. Ward as chief justice . In 1801 Dwight Foster became 
chief justice. • 

Before the Revolution, the highest court was known as the Supe- 
rior Court of Judicature ; since the adoption of the Constitution in 
1780, as the Supreme Judicial Court. This court held its first ses- 
sion in this county in the old meeting house here, Sept. 22, 1731; 
Benjamin Lynde was chief justice at that time ; Addington Daven- 
port, Paul Dudley, Edmund Quincy and John Cushing, associates, 
and all were present. Maj. Jonas Rice was foreman of the grand 
jury, and John Hubbard of Worcester of the first petit jury. The 
court affirmed four judgments of the Court of Common Pleas, tried 

ii 



BEGINNINGS OF WORCESTER, MASSACHUSETTS 

one indictment and adjourned, Sept. 23. One term was held each 
year in October afterward. 

There have been three court houses built successively on the pres- 
ent site. Judge William Jennison gave the land for the first, but 
there was some opposition to the location, many favoring the Com- 
mon as more convenient and accessible. The lot was only a rod and 
a half wide on the south, four rods on the north, and 20 rods in 
length, and was at that time a tangle of brush. 

The Court of General Sessions of the Peace passed an order, Aug. 
8, 1732, authorizing the erection of a court house here, 26 by 36 feet, 
and 13 feet in height. The new court house was opened Feb. 6, 
1734. In his opening address Judge Chandler called it "beautiful," 
and evidently the appeal of the court for aid in building the court 
house from "those who had an interest in lands in the county and 
especially in the town of Worcester, which, by that town's being 
made the shire town, are greatly advanced — and to know what any 
of them will be pleased to give towards building and adorning the 
nouse," had met with some response, for Judge Chandler said : "It 
is our duty on this occasion to thankfully acknowledge the good hand 
of God's Providence upon us, who has stirred up and opened the 
hearts of sundry worthy gentlemen, some of whom live in other 
parts of the province, to be benefactors to us by assisting us in our 
infant state to erect and beautify so agreeable a house as we are in 
possession of and which exceeds so many others in the province built 
for the like service in the capaciousness, regularity and workman- 
ship thereof." The entire address was printed in the Boston 
Weekly Rehearsal, Feb. 18, 1734. The judge was very proud of the 
fact that in the space of thirty months from holding the first court, 
the building was completed. 

Within twenty years the first court house was found to be too 
small for the business of the county, and the court ordered a new 
house built, March 16, 1751, to be 36 by 40 feet. It was located on 
the site of the north wing of the present court house, north-easterly 
of the original building. The first floor was used for the offices of 
the clerk of courts, register of deeds and the probate office. In 
front of the court house were the stocks, pillory and whipping post. 

From March, 1785, to Jan. 1, 1792, the court room was used as a 
place of worship by the Second Parish. 

When it became necessary to remove this building to make way 

12 



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BANCROFT'S BIRTHPLACE, PORTRAIT, TOWER AND GRAVE 



- 



BEGINNINGS OF WORCESTER, MASSACHUSETTS 

for the third court house, it was raised, placed on wheels and, pro*, 
pelled by twenty yoke of oxen, moved to the corner of Green, Park 
and Franklin streets, where for more than fifty years until 1886 it 
was occupied as a dwelling by Joseph Trumbull and family, for 
whom Trumbull Square is named, and later by his only son George 
A. Trumbull. In this house there were 15 births, 9 marriages and 
7 deaths in the Trumbull family. After the death of Mrs. George 
A. Trumbull, the property was sold to Dr. William J. Delahanty 
and Dr. Joseph K. KeUey, who occupied it in jjart, renting part as 
tenements. The house was moved to the east later to make room 
for a brick building and again it was moved to make the street wider. 
In 1899 the owners were about to demolish the building to make way 
for a brick apartment house. In 1900 it was bought by Miss Susan 
Trumbull. "Shorn of veranda, porch, cornice and roof -rail, our 
poor old house became a melancholy spectacle." It was taken down 
carefully by Charles A. Vaughan, the contractor, and the original 
framework re-erected on the present site on Massachusetts avenue. 
The interior was constructed according to the plans of Earle & 
Fisher into a modern and very attractive residence. It is now 
owned by Louisa Trumbull Cogswell Roberts and occupied by Mar- 
cus L. Foster. On one of the original doors, a plate was placed by 
the Worcester Society of Antiquity with elaborate exercises, June 
30, 1900. In his address on this occasion, Stephen C. Earle said : 

We are assured by credible authorities that the materials, form and dimensions of 
the original have been scrupulously adhered to, though with the addition of an extension 
at the rear and a side porch as adaptations to present uses. The old materials have 
been used so tar as possible. The old-timbering of the roof may be seen in the unfin- 
ished attic with many a hand-wrought nail still visible ; and there are also the curiously- 
arched heavy beams that gave the form to the vaulted ceiling of the old court room. The 
doors, the mantels and most of the wainscot of the old court room are in the room as re- 
built. The front door also bears its old brass latch handle. 

Other interesting articles have been collected, among which are a latch from the 
Bancroft house and two from the house of Rebecca Xourse, Salem, one of the unfortu- 
nate victims of the witchcraft horrors. Many of the door-knobs are from the old Isaac 
Davis house on "Nobility Hill." The east parlor mantel is from the house of Pardon 
E. Jenks, one of the first settlers of Pawtucket; while the wainscot in this parlor and 
the mantel in the bed room above came from the Eliza Haven house in Portsmouth, built 
about 1745. The wainscot in the main hall is from the Rutland parsonage, built about 
1723 for Rev. Joseph Willard, who before his installation was killed by the Indians in 
the massacre of that year . . . Old Dutch tiles are set in two fireplaces, and a 
Franklin front from Kittery, with its original crane and hangers in a third. Over the 
fireplace in the east parlor is a plaster cast of the Trumbull arms. The two bullseyes in 
the front door came from Temple, N. H., from the homestead of Gen. James Miller, hero 
of Lundy's Lane. 

That the Court House was always two stories high and that the court room was 
in the second story, seemed to be proved by the construction of the building. Each 

13 



BEGINNINGS OF WORCESTER, MASSACHUSETTS 

corner post was a single piece 17 feet long, and the heavy floor girders of the second 
floor were framed into the main girths by mortise and tenon in a way clearly impossible 
at any other time than when the frame was originally put together. 

The inscription is as follows: "The Court Room of the Second 
Court House of "Worcester County, erected in 1751 on the site of the 
north wing of the present court house on Court Hill and occupied 
■until 1801." Benjamin Thomas Hill delivered an address entitled 
"The History of the Second Court House and the Early Bar." Mr. 
Hill said in part: 

Previous to the Revolution there were but few lawyers who resided in the county, 
most of those who practised in our courts coming from other places, traveling with the 
judges on their circuits. Among them were many men distinguished in their profession 
and in the political history of the province. 

John Read, called by James Otis "the greatest common lawyer this country ever 
saw;" Richard Dana, of Charlestown and Boston; William Brattle and Edmund Trow- 
bridge, of Cambridge; Robert Auchmuty, the elder and younger, and Benjamin Kent of 
Boston, for several years the minister in Marlborough; Governor William Shirley; 
Timothy Dwight of Northampton ; Jonathan Sewall ; John Adams ; and Caleb Strong of 
Northampton, afterwards Governor of the Commonwealth. . . . 

From 1731 to 1775 there had been but seventeen regular practitioners in the county: 
Joseph Dwight of Brookneld ; Nahum Ward of Shrewsbury; Timothy Ruggles of Hard- 
wick; Joshua Eaton Jr., Christopher Jacob Lawton of Leicester; Stephen Fessenden ; 
James Putnam; Abel Willard of Lancaster; Ezra Taylor of Southborough ; Joshua 
Atherton of Petersham; Daniel Bliss of Rutland; Joshua Upham of Brooktield ; John 
Sprague of Lancaster ; Rufus Chandler ; Daniel Oliver of Hardwick ; Nathaniel Chandler 
of Petersham; Elijah Williams of Mendon. 

During the years of the Revolution nine new attorneys had begun to practice here: 
Levi Lincoln, admitted in Hampshire, was Clerk of the Courts in 1776, Judge of Probate 
from 1777 to 1781, Attorney General of the United States under Jefferson, Lieutenant 
Governor of the Commonwealth in 1S07, and Acting Governor after the death of Gov. 
Sullivan in 1808 ; William Stearns and Daniel Bigelow, who were the publishers of the 
Spy for a time ; Nathaniel Paine, Judge of Probate for 35 years ; Nathan Tyler, Dwight 
Foster, William Caldwell, William Sever and Peter Clark. 

The Court of Sessions decided in 1793 to erect a new court house, 
and petitioned the General Court for authority to raise money for 
that purpose. But there was opposition from those who wished the 
county divided, and the authority was not given. The necessary 
measures were finally passed, however, and the cornerstone of the 
new court house laid by Isaiah Thomas and other members of the 
building committee, Sheriff William Caldwell and Hon. Salem 
Towne. Additional land was given by Isaiah Thomas and Samuel 
Chandler. William Lancaster of Boston was master workman of 
the exterior; Mr. Baxter of the interior. Mr. Thomas supervised 
the building. (I. Thomas Diary, vol. 1, p. 66). The building, fur- 
niture and equipment cost $20,000. It has since been remodeled, 
and is now part of the north wing of the present court house. For 

14 




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COURT HILL ABOUT 1864 





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BEGINNINGS OF WORCESTER, MASSACHUSETTS 

many years it was called the brick court house. The lower floor was 
used for the county offices, the second floor for the court room and 
jury rooms. It was opened Sept. 27, 1803. 

An addition to the old brick court 'house was made in 1857 and it 
was remodeled, moved back about 40 feet to its present position 
on. a line with the new stone structure, 16 feet being added to the 
front, making the old court house 66% by 48}^ feet. The former 
entrance by the south was then closed; the roof raised four feet, 
and the brick covered with a coating of mastic. The dome on the 
top, surmounted by statue of the blind goddess of liberty holding the 
scales of justice was retained, being a symbol used at that time on 
all court houses of this section. In the tower at the rear was form- 
erly a bell, which was rung at the opening of the daily sessions of 
the court. 

The present stone court house was built in 1843-44. The county 
commissioners voted in favor of building in February, 1S42, ap- 
proved the plans of Animi B. Young, architect, June, 1843 ; signed 
the contracts with Horatio N. Tower, carpenter, and David Wood- 
ward, stone mason, July 27, 1843. The total cost was $100,000. To 
make room for the building, the mansion of Isaiah Thomas was 
moved to the rear, where it now remains one of the landmarks of 
old Worcester. The new building was occupied at the fall session 
of the Supreme Court, and a dedicatory address was delivered Sept. 
30, 1845, by Chief Justice Lemuel Shaw. The material is Quincy 
granite, the style a variation from the Grecian "Tower of the 
Winds" in Athens. The building was 55 by 108 feet. The six 
granite pillars, 25 feet high, three feet in diameter, were trans- 
ported, Wall says, by rail, from Quincy to the station here and drawn 
by oxen and horses to Court Hill.* 

C. C. Baldwin in his diary, under date of Oct. 4, 1831, wrote: 
"This day is celebrated there in commemoration of the close of one 
hundred years from the incorporation of the county and organiza- 
tion of its courts. Hon. John Davis delivers the address, which was 



♦There is a tradition that the celebrated Old Grimes, who lived in Hubbardston, 
and was always causing trouble to the county officials, once made a wager that he would 
ride his horse into the court room. Starting his horse down Main street, he made for 
the Court house door and rode into the room, to the great astonishment of the Court and 
Bar. He explained to the astonished judges that this horse had become frightened and 
run away, thus saving himself from being fined for contempt of court. As his horse was 
led from the room, she kicked out her heels and left the imprint of her hoof on the door, 
which was shown for many years afterward. — Lincoln. 

15 



BEGINNINGS OF WORCESTER, MASSACHUSETTS 

two hours and a half long. Rev. Aaron Bancroft makes the first 
prayer. Rev. George Allen of Shrewsbury makes the last one. 
Rev. (Rodney A.) Miller reads the Scriptures. The Boston Cadets 
are present and perform escort duties and our little Historical 
Society is greatly honored. The Cadets visit town to pay their 
respect to Gov. Lincoln." He describes the brilliant uniforms. 
"The band of music accompanying them consists of 24 distinguished 
musicians. They perform delightfully. They play in the meeting 
house before and after prayer, and Emery Perry, leader of the 
singing in Dr. Bancroft's Society and the most distinguished sing- 
ing master in the county, sings the 'Pilgrim Hymn' written by Mrs. 
Hemans. Adjutant General William H. Sumner from Boston and 
three of the aids-de-camp of Gov. Lincoln, as also Major Gen. 
Nathan Heard of Worcester with his aids, Thomas Kinnicutt of 
Worcester and William Pratt, Esq., of Shrewsbury; all in uniform. 
They sit directly under the pulpit. The aids of the Gov. are Col. 
Josiah Quincy, son of the president of Harvard College, Pliny Mer- 
rick and Emory W^ashburn of Worcester. Gov. Lincoln is in citi- 
zen's dress. The judges of the S. J. Court are all present, who 
have adjourned their sitting to join in the festivities of the day. 

"The Worcester Light Infantry and the Rifle Corps assist the 
Cadets in the escort duties. The procession reformed on leaving 
the meeting house ; the band first, then the Cadets, then the Wor- 
cester companies, then his Excellency Gov. Lincoln with his aids, 
and Gen. Heard with his aids, the adjutant general, then the com- 
mittee of arrangements, being eight of us; then the author of the 
address and then the ignoble vulgus. In this way the procession 
returned to the tavern of Jonas Estabrook (Central Hotel) and went 
to dinner, and there we had a most glorious time. A grand enter- 
tainment is given in the evening by Gov. Lincoln." 

In 1878 a wing was added to the stone court house on the northern 
side. In 1897 the legislature (Chap. 449) provided for an addition 
to the court house to cost not over $350,000. After a competition 
the plans of Andrews, Jaques & Rantoul, architects, of Boston, were 
accepted. Prizes were awarded to the following architects and 
firms : Earle & Fisher, Fuller, Delano & Frost, Robert Allen Cook 
and Lucius W. Briggs. The contract was awarded to the Webb 
Granite & Construction Co. of Worcester for $312,887.86. The 

16 



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BEGINNINGS OF WORCESTER, MASSACHUSETTS 

legislature authorized $5,000 additional for the work. Land was 
bought of the Warren estate for $15,000. 

The old brick court house was taken down and a new wing built 
to the north of the old, with a building connecting the two, retaining 
the style of architecture of the stone court house. The lower 
floor contains the registry of deeds in the new wing and the registry 
of probate, with the offices of the judges of probate and a probate- 
court room, and the offices of the county treasurer. The quarters of 
the county commissioners are in the roar of the main entrance. The 
court roms, three large, two equity rooms, and the office of the clerk 
of courts are on the second floor. The law library is in the wing 
of the south building. There are various consulting rooms and 
other offices conveniently placed. 

The changes made in 1898 resulted in the end in the practical 
reconstruction of the stone court house, but one wall remaining 
untouched. The material is of Quincy granite, with massive gran- 
ite pillars across the front. Architecturally the building is one of 
the most imposing and attractive of the court houses of the state. 
The building was completed in 1899. The sum of $65,000 was 
authorized (Chap. 214, 1899) for equipping and furnishing the court 
house, grading and improving the grounds. Contracts for grading 
were given Thomas J. Smith, $23,989 ; Mellish & Byfield for wooden 
furniture, $13,851.21 ; Fenton Metallic Mfg. Co. for metallic furni- 
ture, $12,000; and other contracts making a total of $63,060.70. 

The county commissioners purchased the building and grounds of 
the American Antiquarian Society at the time it was vacated, and 
had the building removed and the lot graded, vastly improving the 
appearance of the court house and surroundings. 

The Common has been a public park since the first settler came 
hither, and its history begins in June, 1669, when the committee in 
charge of the settlement of the plantation of Worcester set aside 
twenty acres for a training ground near the proposed location of the 
meeting house. But the limits of the training lot were encroached 
on until but eleven or twelve acres remained in 1732, when a sur- 
vey was made. The Common then extended from what is now 
Franklin street on the south to Mechanic street on the north, and 
from Main street to Salem street and Church street. Capt. Moses 
Rice was afterward granted half an acre, fronting on Main street 
on the site of the present Walker building. John Chandler came 

< 17 



BEGINNINGS OF WORCESTER, MASSACHUSETTS 

into possession of what is now Harrington Corner, at the junction 
of Main and Front streets, and the Chandlers built a house, barn, 
store, office and other buildings there. After the Eevolution, Eph- 
raim Mower kept a tavern on this corner. In 1818 William Hovey 
built a brick building in which he kept a hotel known as the Worces- 
ter Hotel, later as the United States Hotel, removed in 1866 to Me- 
chanic street to the site of the Crompton building, to make way for 
Clark's Block. 

In 1757 Col. Chandler and his regiment assembled on the Common 
to start for the relief of Ft. William Henry. The militia drilled 
there. On the Common the original church was erected, and later 
the town hall, a gun house and hearse house. Part was used for a 
burying ground. The present Common, bounded by Main, Front, 
Salem and Franklin streets, is but five acres in extent, only a third 
of the original reservation. Formerly two roads crossed the Com- 
mon diagonally. 

The events on the Common of 1774, preceding the Eevolution, 
have been of a notable character. The minutemen drilled there, and 
Capt. Timothy Bigelow formed his company there for the march 
to Lexington, April 19, 1775, after the alarm was received. His 
monument stands near the center of the Common, dedicated April 
19, 1861. Eevolutionary soldiers are buried beside the early set- 
tlers on the Common, but all the gravestones in 1854-55 were laid 
flat over the graves and covered with earth and sod. 

The Declaration of Independence was first read in this town to the 
people assembled on the Common by Isaiah Thomas, on Saturday, 
July 13, or Sunday, July 14, 1775, and on July 22 the Independence 
of the Colonies was celebrated on the Common; the Declaration 
read again to the assemblage there; bells were rung, cannon and 
musketry fired ; and the crowd gave vent to their feelings in cheers 
and other demonstrations of joy. The king's arms were torn from 
the court house and burned. The sign of the King's Arms Tavern 
had suffered a similar fate with the acquiescence of the landlord. 

Throughout the Eevolution the Common was a center of public 
activity, and ever since it has been a place of great public gatherings 
too large for the halls. The Common was not always the beauty 
spot it is today, but the fine elms show that some forethought was 
■used by the town fathers a hundred years ago. By vote of the 
town Dec, 1869, the railroad tracks on the Common were ordered 

18 



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CIVIL WAR SOLDIERS' MONUMENT, WORCESTER 



BEGINNINGS OF WORCESTER, MASSACHUSETTS 

removed Nov. 21, 1877. A sketch of the history of the Common 
by Nathaniel Paine was published in the Worcester Magazine, June 
1901. 

The Soldiers' Monument is located on the northeasterly part of 
the Common, and meetings have been held there annually on Me- 
morial Day since it was erected. 

The fiftieth anniversary of the incorporation of the city was cel- 
ebrated by festivities lasting three days, June 20, 21 and 22, 1898, 
with postponed exercises in Mechanics Hall on June 24. The first 
day was devoted to a regatta at LakeQuinsigamond,on the shores of 
which the first settlers built their homes. Five thousand people 
attended, witnessing all kinds of boat, canoe and shell racing. The 
Worcester High School eight defeated the W'eld crew of Harvard, 
making a new lake record. Trophies were presented to the winners 
at the rooms of the Wachusett Boat Club by Mayor Dodge in the 
evening. A civic, military and trades procession took place June 
22, under the direction of Chief Marshal E. T. Raymond, assisted 
by Capt. Levi Lincoln, chief of staff. The buildings were decorated. 

The exercises in Mechanics Hall were of historic importance. Af- 
ter prayer by Rt. Rev. Monsignor Griffin, Frank P. Goulding, the 
orator of the day, was introduced by Mayor Dodge. Mr. Goulding 
was one of the most gifted advocates and public speakers of his 
generation. His address ranks among the most finished and elo- 
quent orations ever delivered on a similar occasion. The address of 
Col. William S. B. Hopkins, one of the last of the brilliant public 
speeches for which he was noted for a generation, was scholarly 
and patriotic, with characteristic bits of reasoning and philosophy, 
and with a discussion of practical municipal questions of the past 
and present. 

The Burnside Memorial Fountain, the gift of Harriet P. F. Burn- 
side, was unveiled in 1913. It is chiselled from granite, from 
designs by Daniel Chester French, the sculptor, and surmounted by 
a bronze figure entitled the Boy and the Turtle. It is located in 
Salem Square, and serves as an ornament to the city as well as a 
highly useful purpose. 

The bronze memorial statue of Hon. George F. Hoar was dedi- 
cated in June, 1908. The speakers were Mayor James Logan, Gov- 
ernor Curtis Guild, and Hon. William H. Moody. The statue is 
located at the City Hall, near the corner of Main and Front streets. 

19 

\ 



BEGINNINGS OF WORCESTER, MASSACHUSETTS 

There were 30,000 contributors to the fund in sums varying from 
one cent to over $100, and 128 societies were among the contributors. 
Charles M. Thayer initiated the movement, and was its leader from 
the beginning. 

Two suits of armor worn by pikemen in the battle of "Worcester, 
Sept. 3, 1661, were presented by the City of Worcester, England, to 
this city, November 5, 190S, at City Hall. Col. Albert Webb, V. D., 
made the presentation in behalf of the English city. It is interest- 
ing not only because this city is presumed to be named for the Eng- 
lish city, but because some of the ancestors of Worcester families 
took part in the battle and, being taken prisoners, were sent to New 
England by Cromwell. 

The John Adams Memorial Tablet at the corner of the Court 
House grounds, Lincoln Square, presented by Col. Timothy Bigelow 
Chapter, D. A. E., was dedicated May 23, 1903. It is inscribed: "In 
Front of this Tablet stood the First School House in Worcester, 
where John Adams, second President of the United States, taught 
School." 

Mrs. Louisa C. Chamberlain, widow of Dr. Wm. B. Chamberlain, 
left a bequest of $5,000 in her will, 1912, for the erection of a memo- 
rial fountain, which was located by the City Council in Washington 
Square. The memorial was designed by Andrew O'Connor, of 
Worcester, and the unveiling took place August 14, 1915. This 
artistic work consists of a bronze fisher boy on a drinking fountain 
of pink granite. The work was suggested to the donor by City En- 
gineer McClure during a consultation in which she expressed a wish 
to make a gift to the city, and he made and executed the plans for 
this useful and attractive monument. 



Note. — This narrative is abridged from "History of Worcester and its People," by 
Charles Nutt, now in press; (Lewis Hist. Pub. Co.) 




20 



Chapters in the History of Halifax, Nova Scotia 

By Arthur Wentworth Hamilton Eaton, M. A., D. C. L. 

No. xm 

Halifax Defences 



"It is most meet we arm as 'gainst the foe : 
For peace itself should not so dull a kingdom 
But that defences, musters, preparations. 
Should be maintain'd, assembled, and collected 
As were a war in expectation." 

Henry V., Act II, Sc. 4. 

"Horribly stuffed with epithets of war." 
Othello, Act i, Sc. 1. 

Let's on to Halifax! There we shall dine to-day 
With fine young warriors, fresh from foreign fields. 
Glimpse from the Hill that guards the glittering Bay 
Symbolled in forts the power that Britain wields, — 
And for Old England's rule give thanks and pray. 

ITH the King of France still ruler of the province of 
Quebec, and with Louisburg again a French fortress, 
the question of defence necessarily demanded prompt 
consideration from the founders of the new town of 
Halifax and organizers there of stable civil government for the 
Acadian province. More immediate foes, also, of the peace of the 
new community existed in the French inhabitants scattered, in some 
places thickly, throughout the peninsula, and in the Micmac In- 
dians, who for the most part commonly showed themselves in close 
sympathy with the French rather than with the English. The 
defences of Halifax, which in their later condition of strength and 
security have given the Nova Scotia capital a position of marked 
distinction among fortified towns in the British Empire, were 
therefore begun in a feeble way almost as soon as Cornwallis landed 
his settlers. On the plan of ' ' Chebucto, ' ' made by Admiral Du- 
rell shortly before the settlers came, the two sides of the entrance 
to Bedford Basin, far up the harbour, very near, indeed, the fatal 

21 




CHAPTERS IN THE HISTORY OF HALIFAX, NOVA SCOTIA 

spot where the recent calamitous explosion occurred, were marked as 
places suitable for chief fortifications, but this suggestion, for obvi- 
ous reasons, Cornwallis ignored. Instead, he more wisely fixed upon 
Sandwich Point, now Point Pleasant, much lower down the harbour, 
and upon the high lands opposite, on the Dartmouth side of the har- 
bour, now York Redoubt, and also on the little island first called 
Cornwallis Island, but later named George's Island, as the proper 
places for establishing defences. On this island he immediately 
placed a guard, landed his stores, and prepared to build a magazine 
to hold powder. Very soon after, he had block houses erected here, 
on which he mounted seven thirty-two pounder guns, then carry- 
ing a palisade completely around the works. 

One of the first things he urged on the settlers after they had 
taken possession of the lots assigned them and had begun to build 
their houses, was that they should throw up a rude barricade of logs 
and brush around the town, and although at first he found them 
unwilling to spend their time on such a work, by the promise of a 
mild wage he succeeded in making them do it. From 1750, for at 
least four or five years, the encircling defences thus built consisted 
of palisades or pickets placed upright, with several block-houses of 
logs reared at convenient distances apart. The exact course of the 
barricade was from the spot on which St. Mary's Roman Catholic 
Cathedral now stands, "to the beach south of Fairbanks 's wharf, 
and on the north, along the line of Jacob Street to the harbour." 1 
Gradually a line of block-houses came to be erected, which extended 
from the head of the North- West Arm to Bedford Basin, the pur- 
pose of these being to guard the town from the Indians who lived 
in various places in the interior. A single block-house also was 
erected at Dartmouth, where a gun of greater or less calibre was 
mounted for defending the eastern side of the harbour. In "Re- 
marks relative to return of the forces in Nova Scotia," printed in a 
volume of "Selections from the Public Documents of Nova Scotia," 
under date of March 30, 1755, we read: "New Battery has lately 
been begun — likewise not finished. It stands on a rising ground 
about two miles east, across the Harbour from Halifax. This to 
prevent shipping entering the Harbour under the Eastern shore 



'Dr. Akin's Chronicles of Halifax ("History of Halifax City"), P- 209. "These 
palisades," says Dr. Akins, "were in existence in 1753, but were removed at a very early 
period." They were not standing, he says, in 1825. 

22 



CHAPTERS IN THE HISTORY OF HALIFAX, NOVA SCOTIA 

without reach of George's Island." The battery here described 
was the well-known "Fort Clarence," and we learn that its erection 
had begun, as the extract we have given implies, some time in 1754. 
In the diary of Dr. John Thomas, a surgeon in Col. John Winslow's 
expedition for the removal of the Acadians in 1755, the statement is 
made that about two hundred and thirty of the New England troops 
under Winslow were quartered at this fort in December of that 
year. 

In 1755, Governor Lawrence had four batteries built along the 
beach — the first, the "Middle" or "Governor's" Battery, being 
where the King's Wharf is, and directly opposite the first built Gov- 
ernment House; the second, the "Five" or "Nine" Gun Battery, 
being where the "Ordnance Yard" was afterward established; the 
third being a little north of Fairbanks 's Wharf; the fourth, the 
"South" or "Grand" Battery (which is still in existence), being at 
the "Lumber Yard." These four batteries were built of stone 
and gravel, supported by cross-logs covered with earth and planted 
with grass, and had battlements in front and at the two ends, ele- 
vated about twenty or twenty-five feet above the water. According 
to the plan of Halifax made by Col. Desbarres in 1779 or 1780, and 
published in his nautical charts in 1781, 2 there was when 
he made his plan a nine-gun battery near where the Ord- 
nance Wharf now is, and a five-gun battery a little to the 
north of that, "but on an angle with the other." These forti- 
fications were for the most part removed about the year 1783, and 
the grounds appropriated to their present purposes. The Ord- 
nance Yard, then a swamp around the battery, and the King's 
Wharf, were both filled up and levelled by means of stone and rub- 
bish removed from the five-acre lots of the peninsula, which were 
beginning to be cleared about this time. 

From various sources, soon after the founding of Halifax began, 
Cornwallis received warning that the Indians in other places in the 
province and in the Island of St. John, under the direction of the 



"Joseph Frederick Wallet Desbarres (1722-1824), military engineer, aho captain in 
the 60th Regiment, made a successful expedition against the North American Indians in 
1 757. and surveyed the coast of Nova Scotia in 1763-1773. He was lieutenant-governor 
■of Cape Breton, 1784-1805, was gazetted colonel in 1798, and served as governor of Prince 
Edward Island i8o5-'i3. He published charts of the Atlantic and North American coasts. 
See Prowse's "History of Newfoundland," p. 423. See also General William Dyott's 
Diary, p. 58. 

23 



CHAPTERS IN THE HISTORY OF HALIFAX, NOVA SCOTIA 

f 

intriguing priest Le Loutre, were laying plans to attack the settle- 
ment at some time during the next winter. Before winter began, 
indeed no later than the last day of Sepetmber, 1749, the savages 
made their first attack. This, however, was not on the town itself, 
but on the scanty settlement which is now Dartmouth, on the east 
side of the harbour. In this raid the Micmacs killed four persons 
and carried off one. In the spring of 1750 they repeated their 
attack on the same settlement, setting fire to several dwellings and 
killing and scalping a much larger number than in the first raid. On 
Halifax itself there was never, so far as is recorded, any attack 
made either by Indians or by the French inhabitants ; there were, 
however, occasional murders by Indians in the outskirts of the 
town, towards Bedford Basin, of individual men who had found 
it necessary to forage in that direction for firewood. 

In the summer of 1755, Governor Lawrence sent the authorities 
in England a plan of the four batteries he had just completed, to 
which we have already referred. They were each twelve feet in 
height above high water mark, two hundred and forty feet in length, 
and sixty-five feet in breadth. The parapet raised on each was 
seven feet high, and the materials were logs and timber framed 
and filled up with stones, gravel, and soft earth. The next month 
after their completion, twenty guns were mounted on these three 
batteries. Later, but just when we do not know, the number of bat- 
teries was increased. 

In the autumn of 1757, strong appeals were made by the inhab- 
itants to the governor and council to put the town in a better state 
of defence. The majority of the persons so appealing were Mas- 
sachusetts born men, who humbly begged the authorities to let them 
know promptly whether their appeal could be granted or not. If 
it could not, they desired to take the first opportunity to remove 
with their families and effects to some neighbouring colony where 
they might be better protected. Probably on the ground of insuf- 
ficient revenue, the authorities seem to have disregarded the appeal, 
and it was not until July, 1762, that any energetic measures were 
taken materially to improve the defences of the town. In the early 
summer of 1762, news came that the French had invaded the Brit- 
ish settlements in Newfoundland, and fear was newly felt that Hal- 
ifax also might be attacked, the authorities therefore called a coun- 
cil of war to consult on better means of defence in case this should 

24 



CHAPTERS IN THE HISTORY OF HALIFAX, NOVA SCOTIA 

happen. The council met on the 10th of July and continued its 
sittings until August 17th, the result of its deliberations being a 
recommendation to the governor and council to put in repair and 
furnish with guns the batteries "on George's Island, Fort George, 
Point Pleasant, and East Battery," and to erect such works around 
the town and at the Dockyard as might be considered necessary to 
give the town full protection. As a result of this recommendation, 
some of the old works were put in repair and new ones constructed, 
but the immediate cause of alarm soon subsiding, "further expense 
was deemed unnecessary," and the matter dropped. 

In 1763, the palisaded defences of Halifax were in a state of 
decay, and the Home Government sent a Swiss engineer, who had 
been General Wolfe's quartermaster-general at Quebec, to Halifax, 
to prepare plans for permanent defences for the place. To the 
Ordnance department at Halifax the engineer submitted several 
plans, the first of which proposed making the place a walled town, 
with lines of masonry running up from the water front to the cita- 
del, with batteries at intervals on each side. The Dockyard being 
so far north of the proposed line of defence that it could not thus 
be protected, this plan, however, was given up, but another that 
was proposed was adopted, though it was not put in operation until 
thirty years later. This plan included the building of a strong 
citadel on the hill overlooking the town (which seems to have been 
then commonly known as "Signal Hill", and reconstructing and 
strengthening all the harbour forts. 3 

In his chapter on the fortifications of Halifax in his chronicles 
of the town published in the "Collections of the Nova Scotia His- 
torical Society" in 1895, Dr. Thomas B. Akins summarizes the early 
defences thus: 

"From the year 1749 to 1754 or '55, the defences of the town con- 
sisted of palisades or pickets placed upright, with block houses built 

*"At the first settlement," says Dr. Akins, "it had been found necessary to occupy 
not only every elevated position in the vicinity, but also large spaces around the town as 
at first laid out, for the purposes of defence and other military objects. After the neces- 
sity for those defences had ceased it frequently occurred that the military commanders 
would lay claim to the grounds as military property, and in this way obstacles had con- 
tinually arisen to the extension of the town, a grievance which has continued to be felt 
until the present time. Those whose duty it was to plan and lay out the town appear 
to have been guided more with a view to the construction of a military encampment than 
that of a town for the accommodation of an increasing population." Collections of the 
Nova Scotia Historical Society, Vol. 8, pp. 66, 67. 

25 



CHAPTERS IN THE HISTORY OF HALIFAX, NOVA SCOTIA 

of logs at convenient distances. This fence extended from where 
the Roman Catholic Cathedral now stands to the beach south of 
Fairbanks 's Wharf, and on the north along the line of Jacob street 
to the harbour. These palisades were in existence in 1753, but were 
removed at a very early period, a time not within the recollection 
of the oldest natives of the town living in 1825. . . . There were 
several block-houses south of the town — at Point Pleasant, Fort 
Massey, and other places. A line of block-houses was built at a 
very early period of the settlement, extending from the head of the 
North West Arm to the Basin, as a defence against the Indians. 
The foundation of the centre biock-house was still to be seen in 
1848, in the hollow below Philip Bayers 's pasture. . . . These 
block-houses were built of square timber, with loopholes for mus- 
ketry, they were of great thickness and had parapets around the 
top and a platform at the base, with a well for the use of the guard." 

As the revolution in the colonies adjoining Nova Scotia drew on, 
the Halifax authorities became once more greatly alarmed at the 
inadequacy of the town's defences. In the autumn of 1774 the 
council eagerly discussed the matter and came to the conclusion that 
the ground being too rocky for intrenchments, the only practical for- 
tifications would be temporary block-houses and fresh palisades. It 
was resolved, also, that the Dockyard should be fortified in a similar 
way, so that this inclosure might serve as a retreat for the inhab- 
itants in case the town should be attacked. Any attempt at increas- 
ing the fortifications on Citadel Hill at that moment, owing to the 
lateness of the season and the scarcity of workmen and of troops to 
garrison a fort, was considered out of the question. On George's 
Island, however, additional batteries were erected, and thither the 
chief military stores of the town were removed. Sketches of the 
town, made by a certain Colonel Hicks, about 1780, and soon after 
engraved and published in London, show fortifications then at Cita- 
del Hill, Fort Massey, Fort Needham, Point Pleasant, and George 's 
Island. 

Although the better fortifying of Citadel Hill was suspended in 
1774, about four years later such a work was undertaken. At that 
time a small redoubt with a flag staff and guardhouse stood near the 
summit of the hill, which was about eighty feet higher than it is at 
present, but the hill had no other fortification. The works then con- 
structed were ' ' an octangular tower of wood of the block-house kind, 
having a parapet and small tower on top, with port-holes for can- 

26 



CHAPTERS IN THE HISTORY OF HALIFAX, NOVA SCOTIA 

non, the whole encompassed by a ditch and ramparts of earth and 
wood, with pickets placed close together, slanting outwards. Below 
this there were several outworks of the same description, extending 
down the sides of the hill a considerable distance." 

In 1793, Sir John Wentworth did something towards repairing 
the citadel fort, but much more vigorous measures were taken by 
his Eoyal Highness Prince Edward in 1795 and 1796 to make it 
worthy of the commanding position it held. His efforts extended 
also to other forts, notably those at the mouth of the harbour, but 
from the citadel fort he swept away the old wooden fortifications, 
and cutting down the summit of the hill to its present level he rebuilt 
the earth ramparts, at each angle of which he placed five or six 
guns, deepened the moat, planted willow trees around the ramparts, 
and inclosed the whole fortification with a picket fence. Leading 
into the fort, Dr. Akins tells us, he built "covered walks and pass- 
ages." In making these important changes, with the cooperation 
of the Governor he employed besides garrison troops, the country 
militia, and for a time a considerable detachment of the Jamaica 
Maroons, who were brought to the province in 1796. 

The Halifax citadel as it is now, with its great interior wall of 
solid masonry, dates from the year 1812. The disturbance between 
Britain and the United States on account of the impressment of 
British sailors on American ships culminated in this year, creating 
the last great agitation on account of hostile military operations by 
a foreign power by which Halifax was stirred until the outbreak 
of the present great European war, started by Germany in 1914. 
In the beginning of 1812, orders were issued to put the forts of 
Halifax in better repair, among these the citadel fort, which by this 
time was in a state of some dilapidation. The commanding engi- 
neer on the station, Captain Gustavus Nicholls, accordingly made 
the Board of Ordnance an elaborate report concerning repairs 
needed, and the carrying out of the details of his plan was imme- 
diately begun. 4 



*Dr. Aikins says : "The towers on George's Island. Point Pleasant, the East Bat- 
tery, Mauger's Beach, and York Redoubt were built at the commencement of the present 
[the 19th] century. . . . The Chain Battery at Poini Pleasant was first constructed, 
it is said, by Lord Colville, in or about 1761. The present ring bolts were put down 
during the war of 1812 to 181 5. The old block house at Fort Needham and that above 
Philip Bayers's farm, on the road leading to the Basin, called the Blue Bell Road, were 
built during the American Revolution, and reconstructed' during Prince Edward's time. 
They were there in 1820, but soon after fell into decay, being composed of square timber 
only. All the other block houses had disappeared many years previous to that date," 
Akins Chronicles of Halifax, p. 212. 

27 



CHAPTERS IN THE HISTORY OF HALIFAX, NOVA SCOTIA 

Other buildings early erected as parts of the military establish- 
ment in Halifax were the North Barracks, built soon after the town 
was settled; the South Barracks, built in the time of the Duke of 
Kent; a barracks at the East Battery, erected very early, but 
rebuilt by Prince Edward in 1800 ; probably a military prison, the 
building being a dwelling house purchased for this use in 1752 ; and 
the Lumber Yard and Ordnance Yard, begun about 1784 or 1785. 
"During the Revolutionary War," says Dr. AMns, "the main guard- 
house stood on the spot now occupied by Masons' Hall. It was used 
as a military post at a very early period, as the French prisoners 
from Annapolis, etc., were lodged there." A building called the 
Military Office, this historian adds, "stood at the south corner of 
the market wharf, near where the main guard house now is. It was 
used as a military office until 1790, or perhaps later." 

In an earlier chapter we have mentioned the town residence of 
the Duke of Kent, while he lived in Halifax, a handsome dwelling 
having a portico resting on Corinthian pillars. This house stood 
on the north slope of the Citadel Hill, in rear of the then stand- 
ing North Barracks, and seems to have been erected for his Royal 
Highness' use. After the Prince left Halifax the house was taken 
by the military authorities for an army hospital, a low range of 
buildings connected with it, which were used by the Duke as stables 
and offices, making places for barrack stores and a garrison library. 

The times of greatest military activity in the century and almost 
three-quarters that the history of Halifax covers, are the periods of 
the so-called French and Indian War, between 1754 and 1760, the 
American Revolution, between 1774 and 1783, the War of 1812, be- 
tween 1812 and 1815, and the present great European War, between 
1914 and 1918. The period of the so-called French and Indian War, 
between 1754 and 1760, was a time of almost continuous agitation in 
Halifax, among both the military and civilian elements in the pop- 
ulation. The determined effort of Shirley as commander-in-chief 
in Massachusetts, pursuant to the great plan of Pitt, to break for- 
ever the power of France in America, included in its scope not only 
the destruction of Louisburg and the conquest of Quebec, but the 
capture of the only important fort in the peninsula cf Nova Sco- 
tia that remained in French hands, the little stronghold on the bor- 
der line between what the French recognized as Nova Scotia and the 

28 



CHAPTERS IN THE HISTORY OF HALIFAX, NOVA SCOTIA 

adjoining (New Brunswick) territory, which they still claimed as 
belonging to France, the fort called Beausejour. The only thing 
remaining to be accomplished in destroying the French power in 
Nova Scotia was the complete subjugation to British authority or 
else the removal from their homes and the distribution of them 
throughout other British colonies of the nearly ten thousand inhab- 
itants who were industriously tilling the soil and fishing in various 
parts of the peninsula. To capture Fort Beausejour, Shirley sum- 
moned in New England a force of two battalions, to be led respec- 
tively by Lieutenant Colonel John Winslow of Marshheld, Massa- 
chusetts, and Lieutenant-Colonel George Scott, giving the general 
command to Colonel Robert Monckton. On the 16th of June, 1755, 
this New England force captured Fort Beausejour, and in the au- 
tumn of the same year the authorities at Halifax in conjunction 
with the Government of Massachusetts forcibly removed some seven 
or eight thousand of the Nova Scotia French from their native 
homes in the province and distributed them in pitiful pauper groups 
along the Atlantic coast from Maine to Georgia. In July, 1758, 
Louisburg for the second time fell into English hands, and in Sep- 
tember, 1759, under General Wolfe, Quebec was captured, at both 
which events, as at the capture of Beausejour and the removal of the 
Acadians, universal satisfaction was felt at Halifax. 

The next event to arouse Halifax was the American Eevolution, 
and the next, after peace was declared in 1783, was the less import- 
ant but still important conflict between England and the United 
States known as the War of 1812. After this struggle had passed, 
the life of Halifax, either military or civil, had remarkably little to 
disturb it until when a full century had passed the great European 
War broke out in 1914. Of the part Halifax has been made to play 
by the military and naval authorities of the British Empire in this 
greatest of world-conflicts the history will some day be written ; it 
is much too early to write it yet. As a base for the departure of 
by far the greatest number of the troops that Canada has dis- 
patched for service on the eastern front of the war, the Nova Sco- 
tia capital will always stand conspicuous in the great war's annals 
when they come into print. 

In 1917, a war geography bulletin issued by the National Geo- 
graphic Society of Montreal described Halifax and its defences as 
follows: "The town was the first English speaking settlement 

29 



CHAPTERS IN THE HISTORY OF HALIFAX, NOVA SCOTIA 

in the midst of the French colonies of Acadia, and it speedily took 
on importance. Within five years from its founding it became the 
seat of British North American government, and Britons have long 
termed it the 'Warden of the Honour of the North.' Its harbour 
is deep and ample, and said to be sufficient to float all the navies of 
Europe. Eleven forts command its spacious waters, and up to 
1905 Halifax was a busy British military point. In that year, how- 
ever, as a mark of friendly relations with the United States, all 
British regular troops were withdrawn and the care of Halifax and 
its fortifications was committed to the government of the Dominion 
of Canada. With the outbreak of the European war, however, Hal- 
ifax was again made the military and naval headquarters for Brit- 
ish America, and many German prisoners have been interned upon 
the well-guarded islands of its harbour. Here too was the chief 
port of embarkation for the numerous contingents which Canada 
has contributed to the English armies. During the Napoleonic 
wars, Halifax was the scene of many a demonstration of English 
powers. The privateers, fitted out by enterprising Haligonians, 
frequently returned with their prizes. Distinguished French pris- 
oners made use of the enforced hospitality of the Citadel . . . 
which still caps the highest ground and is a landmark far to sea." 

The number of troops in the Halifax garrison from decade to 
decade during the century and almost three-quarters which the 
history of the town covers, has greatly varied. And just as diverse 
has been the character of the regiments permanently stationed or 
briefly located here. The earliest troops to invest the town 
were partly British regulars and partly New England militia. 
In July, 1750, the garrison of Louisburg was expected but had not 
yet arrived, there were here, however, one company of Hopson's 
29th regiment, one of Warburton's 45th, both on the regular estab- 
lishment, and also sixty men of Gorham's New England Bangers. 

In the course of the year 1782, a little before the close of the 
American Revolution, there were for longer or shorter periods no 
less than thirty-two regiment or parts of regiments in the town, 
while during the war of 1812 there were thirteen. After 1837, for 
at least thirty years, there were always two full regiments of the 
line in this garrison, and during this time, as before, the regiments 

3° 



CHAPTERS IN THE HISTORY OF HALIFAX, NOVA SCOTIA 

stationed here were often among the most distinguished in the Brit- 
ish service. 5 

In the spring of 1758, the brilliant young soldier, General Wolfe, 
visited Halifax. On the 23d of January of that year, being then 
lieutenant-colonel of the 20th, he had been commissioned brigadier- 
general in North America, with an expedition in view for the cap- 
ture again of the fortress of Louisburg. On the 8th of May, 1758, 
he reached Halifax harbour in the Princess Amelia, and until the 
28th of this month he remained here on his ship. When he stepped 
on shore from the ship on the 9th of May, writes Mr. Beccles Will- 
son, he "had a pretty exact idea of the fort and settlement, which his 
friend and comrade in arms, Cornwallis, had founded nine years 
before. ... It was perhaps in the officers' quarters in Hollis. 
street, the site of which has been marked by an Historical Society- 
tablet, that Wolfe sat down two days later and wrote a long letter to- 
his friend Sackville. 'We found,' he writes, 'Amherst's Eegi- 
ment in the harbour in fine order and healthy. Fraser's and Brig- 
adier Lawrence's battalions were here and both in good condition.' 
Although he praised the Highlanders, Wolfe does not appear to 
have been impressed by the American Rangers. 'About 500 Eang- 



*In the Year Book of St. Paul's Church, Halifax, for 1909, Ven. Archdeacon Arm- 
itage, Rector of the church, enumerates carefully the regiments that between 1750 and 
1844 have probably worshipped at St. Paul's. The list, which we reproduce here, was 
supplied Dr. Armitage by Messrs. Harry Piers, Provincial Archivist and Curator of the 
Provincial Museum, and* Air. Arthur Fenerty of H. M. Customs at Halifax, both of 
whom have given close attention to the history of the garrison. 

The regiments in garrison at Halifax in successive years are as follows: In 1750 one 
company of Hopson's 29th regiment, one company of Warbarton's 45th, part of the 40th, 
and sixty men of Gorham's New England Rangers. In 1752, Lascelles' 47th; in 1758 the 
Royal Provincial Rangers under Colonel Tarvis, the 2d and 3d battalions of the Royal 
American regiment, the 22d under Colonel Wilmot, the 28th, 45th, 47th under Colonel 
Monckton, the 2d Brigade. 15th. 35th, 40th and 63rd, under Colonel Murray; in 1768 
the 90th and 64th; in 1771 the 35th; in 1773 the 65th under Colonel Hollingsdale ; in 1774 
the Loyal American Volunteer regiment under Colonel Kingslake ; in 1776 the Royal 
Colonial regiment under Colonel Hilson ; in 1777 the 10th regiment; in 1778 McLean's 
82nd, the Cape regiment under Colonel Augustus Waldron. and the Royal Nova Scotia Vol- 
unteer regiment under Colonel Lushington, "probably the first Imperial Colonial regi- 
ment ever raised for active service"; in 1779 the Hessian regiment of Baron DeSeitz; in 
1782 the 3d and 5th battalions of the 60th or Loyal American regiment of foot, the 7th, 
17th, 22d, 23d, 33d, 37th, 38th, 40th, 42d, 43d, 54th, 57th, 63d, 64th, 74th, 82d, and 84th, 
and also detachments of the Royal British Recruits, the Royal Garrison Battalion, the 
Royal Fencible Americans, the Royal Nova Scotia Volunteers, the King's Orange regi- 
ment, the King's Rangers, the St. John's Volunteers, the Hessian Recruits, the Hesse- 
Hanoverian Grenadiers, the Hesse-Hanoverian Jagers, the Anhalt Zerbsters. the 
Waldeckers, and the Brunswickers ; in 1784 the 10th, 17th, 33d, 27th, 43d, 57th, and 54th ; 
in 1786 the 6th and 60th; in 1787 the 4th; in 1788 the King's Own, the 37th, and the 
S7th; in 1789 the 6th; in 1790 the 4th, the 20th, and the 21st; in 1794 the Royal Nova 
Scotia regiment, and the 1st battalion of the 7th under Colonel Burrows ; in 1795 the 2d bat- 

31 



CHAPTERS IN THE HISTORY OF HALIFAX, NOVA SCOTIA 

ers are come, which to appearance are little better than canaille.' 
. . . How did Wolfe spend the next fortnight of his sojourn 
in Halifax before the squadron sailed for Cape Breton? He cer- 
tainly wrote a great many letters, and he passed a great deal of time 
in examining the condition and discipline of the troops. The state 
of things that met his eye was distressing enough to a man whose 
standards were as high as Wolfe's. He wrote Sackville that he 
found some of the regiments had three or four hundred men eaten 
up with scurvy. 'There is hot an ounce of fresh beef or mutton con- 
tracted even for the sick and wounded, which besides the inhu- 
manity is both impolitic and absurd. Mr. Boscawen, indeed, has 
taken the best precautions in his power by ordering 600 head of live 
cattle for the fleet and army the moment he arrived.' Then he goes 
on to say, 'The curious part of this barbarity is that the scoundrels 
of contractors can afford the fresh meat in many places and circum- 
stances as cheap as salt. I think our stock for the siege full little, 
and none of the medicines for them arrived. Xo horses or oxen for 
the artillery, et cetera.' ". 

One of the incidents of this visit of the famous general was a 
dinner he gave at the Great Pontac, at the corner of Duke and Wa- 
ter streets, to a group of officers of the army and navy and certain 



talion of the 7th; in 1797 the Royal Fusiliers under Col. Layard, the 4th, 6th (Irish 
Brigade Division), and 7th; in 1798 the 24th, 47th, and 66th under Colonel Urquhart and 
Lieutenant-Colonel Arthur Benson, the 4th battalion of the King's Royal Veteran regi- 
ment under Colonel Ashburnham, and the 99th under Colonel Addison ; in 1800 the 26th 
Loyal Surrey Rangers under Colonel Edwards and Colonel Hollen ; in 1801 the 7th, 26th 
Loyal Surrey Rangers, Royal Nova Scotia regiment under Lieutenant-Colonel Bayard, 
and Royal Newfoundland regiment under Lieutenant-Colonel Williams; in 1802 the 
Royal Newfoundland Fencibles, the 7th Royal Fusiliers under Colonel Layard, the 29th 
under Colonel Lord F. Montagu, the 60th and the 83d under Lieutenant-Colonel Smyth ; 
in 1803 the Nova Scotia Fencibles under Colonel F. A. Weatherall ; in 1805 the 60th and 
97th; in 1807 the 101st; in 1804 the Glen Fencibles under Colonel Oates ; in 1808 the 7th, 
8th, and 23d; in 1810 the 2d battalion of the 8th and the 98th; in 1812-14 the 8th, 27th, 
3d battalion of the 20th, 60th, first battalion of the 62d, the 7th Royal Fusiliers, 64th, 89th 
under Colonel Westfield, 98th under Colonel Bazaleette, 99th under Colonel Addison, 
I02d, 10th Royal Veteran Battalion under Colonel McLaughlin, and Royal Staff Corps ; 
in 1816 the 15th and 60th under Colonel Bagnell ; in 1818 the 62d and 1st Royal Garrison 
Battalion under Colonel John Ready ; in 1819 the 7th, 24th, 26th, Royal Nova Scotia, 
Royal York Rangers, and Royal West Indian Rangers under Colonel Fortescue ; in 1821 
the 81st ; in 1823 the 74th under Colonel Hiller ; in 1824 the 96th ; in 1825 the 1st battalion 
Rifle Brigade under Colonel Lord Lenox: in 1826 the 52d Oxfordshire Light Infantry, a 
famous Waterloo regiment, the 74th of Peninsular fame; in 1829 the 34th under Colonel 
Fox and Colonel Forrest, and the Royal Staff Corps ; in 1830 the 8th ; in 1832 the Rifle 
Brigade ; in 1834 the 83d ; in 1836 the 85th ; in 1837 the 34th, and 65th ; in 1838 the 65th ; 
in 1839 the 23d Royal Welsh Fusiliers, and the 36th ; in 1841 the 30th Reserve Battalion 
Rifle Brigade under Colonel Hallett, and the 76th; in 1842 the 30th, 64th, 68th and 2d 
battalion of the 76th; in 1844 the 2d battalion of the 2d Royal Regiment, and the 74th. 
To these must be added at all times the Royal Artillery and Royal Engineers. 

32 



CHAPTERS IN THE HISTORY OF HALIFAX, NOVA SCOTIA 

leading citizens, at some time during his stay. The entertainment 
was lavish, for a copy of the bill of fare of the dinner was preserved 
in Halifax up to a recent date, and the cost of the meal, according 
to a duplicate of the inn-keeper's receipt, amounted to seventy 
pounds. On the 30th of April, 1759, Wolfe arrived at Halifax again, 
from there going very soon to Louisburg, whence in June he sailed 
for Quebec. When he came first to Halifax he was major of bri- 
gade, when he came the second time he was major-general. He 
died at Quebec, as is well known, on the 13th of September, 1759. 6 

In 1878, the army staff in Halifax was as follows : The Com- 
mander of the forces, His Excellency General Sir William 'Grady 
Haley, K. C. B., colonel of the 47th foot ; Assistant Military Secre- 
tary, Lieutenant-Colonel A. S. Quill, half pay R. C. Rifles; Aides- 
de-Camp, Captain R. H. 'Grady Haley and Brigade Major E. L. 
England, 13th Foot; Assistant Adjutant and Quartermaster Gen- 
eral, Lieutenant-Colonel W. H. Kerr; Town Major, Captain R. 
Nagle, half -pay of late Canadian Rifles; Garrison Instructor, G. 
E. Milner, 18th Foot ; Officer Commanding Royal Artillery, Colonel 
J. H. Elgee, R. A. ; Officer Commanding Royal Engineers, Colonel 
J. W. Lovell, C. B., District Commissary-General; Assistant Com- 
missary-General, J. W. Murray; Commissary-General (Ordnance), 
Assistant Commissary-General A. S. Beswick; Principal Medical 
Officer, Deputy Surgeon-General, G. A. F. Shelton, M. B. ; Chap- 
lains, Rev. R. Morrison, M. A., Presbyterian, Rev. A. J. Townend, 
B. A., Anglican, Rev. T. Moore, Roman Catholic. 

At this time, the Royal Artillery on the station comprised the 3d, 
5th and 6th Batteries ; the Royal Engineers, the 9th Company. The 
Infantry regiments were, the 20th East Devonshire, now called the 
Lancashire Fusiliers, and the 97th (Earl of Ulster's Regiment). 
The first of these, the 20th, is one of the famous regiments of the 
British army. It was raised in the time of William of Orange, by 
Sir Robert Peyton, whose command of it, however, was brief. Sir 



"Murdoch in his History of Nova Scotia (Vol. 2, p. 363) says : "Though Wolfe 
died young, he lived long in the affections of British Americans. I can well remember 
seeing his likeness (an engraving) in many of the quiet and happy homes of my native 
town of Halifax, which had been preserved among the penates of the colonial hearths 
for half a century. I can recall the engraving well: the cocked hat of antique pattern, 
the military garb, the bright young face, and the inscription 'General James Wolfe; 
aetatis 33.' I fancy this was the workmanship of a Mr. Hurd of Boston, brother of Ja- 
cob Hurd of Halifax, from whom Hurd's Lane derives the name." 

33 



CHAPTERS IN THE HISTORY OF HALIFAX, NOVA SCOTIA 

Robert was succeeded by Gustavus Hamilton, afterward Viscount 
Boyne, and under him the regiment fought at the Boyne. The regi- 
ment remained in Ireland until the outbreak of the war of the 
Spanish Succession in 1702, then it served in the Cadiz expedition, 
and at the capture of the Spanish treasure ship in Vigo Bay, after 
which it went to the West Indies, where it remained until 1705. Af- 
ter the disastrous battle of Almenza in 1707 it was sent to the 
Peninsula, where it was in active service until the peace, when it 
went to Gibraltar. There it did duty for many years, it being one of 
the regiments which defended the fortress against the Spaniards in 
the second of the three sieges during the British occupation, from 
December, 1727, until June, 1728. Later, it served under Lord 
Stair and Duke William of Cumberland in Flanders and in the 
North, fought at Dettingen, at Fonteroy, and at Culloden, and made 
the campaigns in Flanders, under Cumberland and Wade. After 
this it was at home for several years, and incidental notices of it will 
be found in the correspondence of General Wolfe, who on the 5th 
of January, 1719, was made its major, and in 1750 its lieutenant- 
colonel. In August, 1759, it won lasting fame on the historic field 
of Minden, in Germany. Tradition says that during this fray, in 
which it showed great bravery but met with severe losses, it was 
posted near a rose garden, and that its men plucked roses and deco- 
rated their hats with them. Ever since then, on the anniversaries 
of Minden, the men of the 20th have commemorated the battle by 
wearing roses in their caps. 

At the outbreak of the Seven Years War, the 20th raised a sec- 
ond battalion, and this in 1758 became the 67th. Of this new regi- 
ment, on the 21st of April, 1758, General Wolfe was given the col- 
onelcy. This regiment, also, like the old 20th, has a long record of 
distinguished service. 

In the course of years a very considerable number of British mil- 
itary officers who have had distinguished careers in various parts 
of the world have either claimed Halifax as the place of their birth, 
or belonging to other parts of Nova Scotia, in later life have had 
close relations with the capital city. Two such were General Sir 
William Fenwick Williams, Baronet, K. C. B., who in British mili- 
tary annals bears an illustrious name. General Williams, as we 
have already seen, was born at Annapolis Royal, December 21, 

34 



CHAPTERS IN THE HISTORY OF HALIFAX, NOVA SCOTIA 

1799, 7 his parents being Thomas Williams, Commissary and Ord- 
nance Storekeeper at Annapolis Royal, and a leading man in the 
county of Annapolis in civil and military affairs, and Anna Maria 
(Walker) Williams, daughter of Lieutenant Thomas Walker of the 
40th regiment, and barrack-master at Annapolis Royal. At an 
early age he was placed in the Royal Military Academy at Wool- 
wich, and entering the army rose to his captaincy in 1840. In the 
war of the Crimea he earned for himself an undying name as the 
"hero of Kars;" one of the gallant defenders of this town during 
its four months siege by Moravieff, on the 29th of September, 
1855, he gave the besiegers battle, and after a fierce conflict of eight 
hours duration, defeated a force much larger than his own on the 
heights above Kars. The town fell, however, and General Wil- 
liams was taken prisoner, first to Moscow, then to St. Petersburg. 
Very soon afterward he was created a baronet, and in 1858 was 
made commander-in-chief of the forces in British North America, 
From October 12, 1860, until January 22, 1861, he was governor- 
in-chief of the British provinces in Nortli America, and from the 
18th of October, 1867, until the spring of 1873, was lieutenant-gov- 
ernor of his native province. For part of this time he resided at 
Halifax. He died, unmarried, in London, July 26, 1883, and was 
buried at Brompton. ''Firm as a rock on duty," says one of his 
biographers, "he had the kindliest, gentlest heart that ever beat." 



'In the 9th chapter of this history, page 65, we have given the date of General Wil- 
liams's birth, and one other fact concerning this illustrious man, incorrectly. He was 
born, so it is believed, on the date we have given here, December 21, 1799, and was en- 
tered at Woolwich, but not, as we previously said, through the influence of the Duke 
of Kent. He had an aunt married to Col. William Fennck and his admission to Wool- 
wich was secured by Col. Fenwick and his wife, the correct date of his birth and this 
fact concerning his admission to Woolwich have been brought out very distinctly in a 
monograph by Mr. Justice Savary, D. C. L., (printed in pamphlet form in 1911), enti- 
tled "Ancestry of General Sir William Fenwick Williams of Kars." In our sketch of 
General Williams as a governor of Nova Scotia we also unintentionally omitted to give 
his parents' names. In making these corrections in our sketch in the 9th chapter we are 
obliged to differ from the author of the sketch of General Williams in the "Dictionary 
of National Biography." 

In making these corrections we also herewith state that in almost every instance in 
previous chapters where we have attributed statements to Mr. Justice Savary, D. C. L., 
we should have attributed them to what is commonly called the "Calnek-Savary" History 
of Annapolis County. This valuable book was written by a gentleman long since de- 
ceased, Mr. W. A. Calnek, though it was "edited and completed," as the title page tells 
us, by Mr. Justice Savary. The statement it contains, therefore, should as a rule be 
attributed not to its editor but to the original author. Mr. Justice Savary is the author of 
a "Supplement" to this History, published in 1913, and has done a great deal otherwise to 
stimulate interest in and increase knowledge of the history and traditions of Nova Sco- 
tia at large. 

35 



X G 9b 380 



CHAPTERS IN THE HISTORY OF HALIFAX, NOVA SCOTIA 

The next most illustrious name in the list of military officers 
whom Nova Scotia has produced, is that of Sir John Eardley Wil- 
mot Inglis, K. C. B., son of Bishop John and grandson of Bishop 
Charles Inglis. Sir John Inglis was born at Halifax, November 15, 
1814, for a while studied at King's College, Windsor, entered the 
army as ensign in the 32d foot, August 2, 1833, and as brevet colonel 
was in command of this regiment at Lucknow at the outbreak of the 
Indian Mutiny in 1857. Succeeding Sir Henry Lawrence in full 
command as brigadier-general in July of the same year, he bravely 
and successfully defended the residency of Lucknow, and for this 
gallant defence became commonly known as "hero of Lucknow." 
In 1857 he was appointed major-general and was given the title of 
K. C. B. He married in 1851, Hon. Julia Selina Thesiger, second 
daughter of the first Lord Chelmsford, who with her three children 
was present in the Lucknow residency throughout the defence. Sir 
John died at Homburg, Germany, September 27, 1862, and was 
buried at Homburg. Lady Inglis, who in 1892 published an inter- 
esting book called "The Siege of Lucknow, a Diary," died in Eng- 
land in February, 1904. 

Another native Haligonian who gained much distinction in the 
army was Lieutenant-General William Cochrane (William George 
Cochran), born at Halifax, April 19, 1790. General Cochrane was 
the third son and sixth child of Hon. Thomas Cochran, a merchant 
of Halifax, who came from the North of Ireland in 1761, with the 
first company brought to the province from Ireland by Alexander 
McNutt. Entering the army as ensign in 1805, he rose to be major- 
general in 1851, and lieutenant-general in 1856, his most important 
service being in the Peninsular War from 1808 to 1812. During the 
period he served in the Peninsula, he was present and took part 
with his regiment in many important engagements. On leaving the 
Peninsula he proceeded to Canada, where he was employed during 
almost two years of the war of 1812, as acting aide-de-camp to Lieu- 
tenant-General Sir George Prevost, governor general of the Brit- 
ish provinces and commander-in-chief. As lieutenant-colonel he 
co mm anded for several years the 10th regiment of foot. In July, 
1838, he retired on half pay, but he continued to fill important posi- 
tions, until his promotion to lieutenant-general in 1856, and indeed 
beyond that, until his death. He died in England, probably unmar- 
ried, September 4, 1857. General Cochrane was an uncle of Sir 

36 



CHAPTERS IN THE HISTORY OF HALIFAX, NOVA SCOTIA 

John Eardley Wilniot Inglis. He had a younger brother, Sir James 
Cochrane, Kt., who was chief- justice of Gibraltar, and a sister Isa- 
bella, married to the noted Dean Ramsay of Edinburgh, author of 
"Reminiscences of Scottish Life and Character." 

A military officer born in Halifax, who attained great distinction, 
though in a different field of activity from that presented by war, 
was Major-General John Charles Beckwith. General Beckwith's 
father, Captain John Beckwith, of the 57th regiment, was a mem- 
ber of a noted English military family, and his mother was Mary 
Halliburton, daughter of Dr. John and Susannah (Brenton) Halli- 
burton, 8 after the War of the Revolution residents of Halifax, but 
previously belonging to Newport, Rhode Island. General Beckwith 
was born at Halifax, October 2, 1789, and in 1803 obtained an en- 
signcy in the 50th regiment. The next year, however, he exchanged 
into the 95th, of which his uncle Sydney Beckwith (General Sir 
Thomas Sydney Beckwith) was lieutenant-colonel. His career in 
the army ended at the battle of Waterloo, where at the age of only 
twenty-six he lost one of his legs. Compelled by this misfortune to 
seek other than military interests, before long he resolved to do 
something towards educating and generally helping the Waldenses 
in the valleys of Piedmont. The past history of these people and 
their great need so weighed upon him that he resolved to settle 
among them and spend his whole time in their service. This he did, 
and for thirty-five years, until his death in 1862, he was a devoted 
missionary among them of education and religion. ' ' His two main 
aims were to educate the people and to arouse in them once more 
the old evangelical faith. ' ' To educate them he established no less 
than a hundred and twenty schools in the district where he had set- 
tled, all of which he continually personally inspected. In 1850 he 
married a Waldensian girl, Caroline Valle, and in all ways he iden- 
tified himself with the Waldensian people. Throughout the Italian 
valleys the one-legged general was universally known and beloved, 
and when he died his funeral was attended by thousands of the 
peasants, whose lives he had made happier by his devoted work. 
The greatness of his services was recognized by King Charles Al- 
bert of Sardinia, who in 1848 made him a knight of the order of St. 



*Married at Halifax, December 17. 1788, "Captain John Beckwith, 57th regiment, 
and Miss Polly Halliburton, eldest daughter of Hon. John Halliburton." See Murdoch's 
History of Nova Scotia, Vol. 3, p. 63. 

37 



CHAPTERS IN THE HISTORY OF HALIFAX, NOVA SCOTIA 

Maurice and St. Lazarus. He was promoted lieutenant-colonel and 
made C. B. soon after Waterloo, was promoted colonel in 1837, and 
was made major-general in 1846. He died at his home, LaTorre, on 
the 19th of July, 1862. 

One of the most conspicuous monuments in Halifax is the arch, 
surmounted by a lion, which stands just within St. Paul's Cemetery, 
on Pleasant street, directly in front of the iron entrance gates. The 
monument was reared in memory of two native Haligonians who 
fell in the CrimeanWar, Captain William Parker and Major Au- 
gustus Welsford. It was erected by the citizens of Halifax in 1860, 
its dedication being on the 16th of July of that year. The dedi- 
cation prayer was made by the Rev. John Scott, minister of 
St. Matthew's Presbyterian Church, who thanked God for the 
many mercies He had shown towards the British nation, more 
especially for the valour with which He had endowed its soldiers. A 
speech was made by the lieutenant-governor, Earl Mulgrave, " re- 
ferring in terms of high eulogium to the valour of Parker and Wels- 
ford, native heroes, of whom Nova Scotia was justly proud," and 
incidentally praising the young naval lieutenant, Provo William Par- 
ry Wallis, who commanded the Shannon when she came into the port 
with her prize the Chesapeake, to the "peaceful but perilous" 
achievements of Admiral Sir Edward Belcher in Arctic seas, the gal- 
lant defence of Kars by General Sir Fenwick Williams, and the 
prowess of Sir John Inglis at Lucknow, all these fellow heroes with 
the men to whom the monument had been erected. After this came an 
oration, delivered by the Rev. Dr. George William Hill, rector of St. 
Paul's, who was followed in a shorter, martial speech by General 
Trollop, chief commander of the troops. The sculptor of the monu- 
ment was Mr. George Laing, who, on the dais erected for the speak- 
ers, dressed in the uniform of the Chebucto Greys, as the orator 
complimented him on the noble work he had produced, "drew the 
drapery from the monument and revealed the lion on the top of the 
arch standing out in triumphant attitude against the clear blue 
sky." As a close for the exercises, a salute of thirteen guns was 
fired in slow time by the volunteer artillery. The monument is said 
to have cost two thousand five hundred pounds. 

Captain William Parker, son of Captain William Parker of the 
64th regiment, an Englishman who had retired from the army in 
Halifax and settled at Lawrencetown on the eastern side of the har- 

38 



CHAPTERS IN THE HISTORY OF HALIFAX, NOVA SCOTIA 

bour on half pay, was born at Lawrencetown, near Halifax, about 
1820, and was first educated at Horton Academy, in the county of 
King's. In 1839, his mother, who was originally Susan Green, of 
Halifax, and was then a widow, obtained an ensign's commission for 
him in the regiment in which his father had served. In February, 
1843, he became a lieutenant and exchanged to the 78th Highlanders, 
and thereafter for twelve years he served in India. In January, 
1855, he was promoted captain of the 77th, and on the 8th of Septem- 
ber of the same year at the final attack on the Redan in the Crimean 
campaign he died bravely, in the thirty-fifth year of his age. 9 

Major Augustus Welsford, whose memory is honoured with that 
of Captain Parker in the Halifax monument, was a son of Lieuten- 
ant-Colonel Welsford of the 101st regiment, and was born at Hali- 
fax, but in what year we do not know. His early education was 
obtained at King's College, Windsor, Nova Scotia, after leaving 
which he obtained an ensigncy in the 97th regiment. With this reg- 
iment he saw service in various parts of the world, in the latter part 
of 1854 being stationed in Greece. "When Colonel Lockyer was 
made a brigadier," says one of his biographers, "he was for some 
time in command of the regiment, serving thus during the last 
memorable battle before Sebastopol. In this engagement he re- 
pulsed a serious sortie of the Russians with two hundred of his men, 
and for his bravery was mentioned by Lord Raglan in official dis- 
patches." Major Welsford, also, was killed at the storming of the 
Redan on the 8th of September, 1855. Although a thorough soldier, 
he was a truly kind-hearted man. His fellow soldiers loved and re- 
vered him; "It was a bitter hour for us all," once wrote a sergeant 
who had served under him, "when the poor major's body was 
brought back to us ; had he lived he would have been crowned with 
laurel. Let us hope he has won a brighter crown now." 



'See Mrs. Lawson's "History of Dartmouth. Preston and Lawrencetown," pp. 
251, 252. The Green family to which Captain Parker's mother belonged was one of the 
best known Boston families in Halifax. 



39 




The Lottery in American History 

By Howabd 0. Rogers, Portland, Oregon. 

AN is naturally a gambler. Of all human characteristics,, 
the sporting instinct — the temptation to play the game 
of chance in the hope of winning much at the risk of lit- 
tle — is one of the strongest and most universal. We find 
abundant recognition of this human weakness and want of self-con- 
trol to avoid the evil effects of its indulgence, in the vast amount of 
present-day paternalistic legislation prohibiting gambling in every 
form. Man's inability to resist his own natural cupidity, and the 
fascination involved in the thrills of hope produced by the chance- 
element, has made it necessary for his government to step in and 
protect him against himself. 

But prior to the awakening of public conscience in comparatively 
modern times, this natural gaming instinct was not only allowed ta 
be played upon for the profit of individuals, but was exploited by 
government agencies and thus made to pay public revenue. In the- 
fiscal history of nations this human passion has played an important 
part. 

The instrumentality employed so largely to work this rich mine of 
gambling propensity was the lottery. The modern law-abiding 
American citizen knows little of the lottery except as a gambling vice 
long since banned by the law, and now universally accepted as a so- 
cial evil wisely suppressed. But it was not ever thus. 

For many centuries this device was not only tolerated by public- 
opinion, but legalized, encouraged and employed by the state itself. 
Lotteries prevailed in the old Roman times, and the emperors of that 
day followed the plan on a magnificent scale. This custom later de- 
scended to festivals given by the feudal and merchant princes of 
Europe, especially of Italy. It formed a prominent feature of the 
splendid court hospitality of Louis XIV in France. One of the first 
French lottery charters was granted in the early part of the fifteenth 
century, and was employed as a revenue measure to raise funds with 

40 



THE LOTTERY IN AMERICAN HISTORY 

which to erect a stone bridge between the Louvre and the Faubourg 
St. Germain. 

The people responded so readily that this scheme was hit upon as 
an easy method of raising money for public improvements. The insti- 
tution became popular in France and gradually assumed an import' 
ant place in government finance. The employment of the plan by 
the state and its legal subdivisions was analogous to our present- 
day scheme of selling bonds for raising funds with which to finance 
paving, bridge, public building, and other municipal projects. There 
were also numberless lotteries for the benefit of churches and other 
religious and charitable institutions ; for it became evident that vast 
numbers of people who could not be induced to contribute to charity 
for charity's sake would eagerly subscribe for lottery tickets in the 
hope of personal gain. 

During the reign of the profligate Louis XIV the French people, 
weary of the prodigious waste of public money and enormous taxes, 
rose in revolt and refused to pay the numerous and constantly in- 
creasing levies. But natural cupidity was too strong for them to re- 
sist the tempting lottery. 

The common financial basis for these French lotteries was 5-2-iths 
for expenses and benefits, and 19-24ths returned to the subscribing- 
public in the form of prizes. Calculation of chances became a fa- 
miliar science and fascinating pastime upon the part of the specu- 
lating public in those days. The various schemes were given wide 
publicity ; the purchase of chances became a habit among citizens of 
high and low degree, and the drawing days were anticipated with 
feverish interest. 

In 1776 the French government suppressed all private lotteries 
and created for itself a monopoly of the business by merging all the 
great lotteries into the Lotterie Royale. However, in 1836 this gov- 
ernment lottery was abolished as a matter of public policy, but lot- 
teries were still allowed for charities and the fine arts. It is a matter 
of historical interest that 12,000,000 lottery tickets were sold in Paris 
to raise funds with which to pay prize exhibitors and expenses of 
workingmen visitors at the great International Exposition held in 
that city. 

The lottery mania prevailed not only in France but also in every 
other European country. They still figure in the state budgets of 

4i 



THE LOTTERY IN AMERICAN HISTORY 

some of the Continental nations and in the Latin Republics of Cen- 
tral and South America. England, too, played the lottery game to 
the limit ; every conceivable opportunity was utilized to employ this 
gambling scheme for the benefit of religious, charitable and govern" 
ment projects — churches, orphans' homes, museums, schools, river 
and harbor improvements, colonization schemes, etc. 

It is curious to find the early defense of the American Colonies 
against foreign invasion helped on by the aid of the lottery. In 1748 
the leading citizens of Philadelphia — Benjamin Franklin, Edward 
Shippen and others — overcame the Quaker policy of non-resistance 
and organized a lottery to raise £3000 needed for erecting a battery 
on the Delaware. There were 2S-42 prizes held out to subscribers, 
and 7158 blanks. Tickets were sold at forty shillings, and the Com- 
mon Council took two thousand tickets to aid the cause of military 
defense. The scheme was successful in raising the necessary funds, 
and a fine battery of cannon was soon planted below the city. 

In 1759 Franklin's "Pennsylvania Gazette' ' advertised a plan of 
a lottery to raise 1200 "pieces of eight" to finish an English church 
in the city of New Brunswick. The advertisement avers that this 
drawing "is solely for the promotion of honor and religion, and is 
in imitation of many of their pious neighbors in this and adjacent 
provinces." Lotteries became so popular in Pennsylvania that the 
whole community speculated in tickets, and the objects for which the 
numerous schemes were organized were extremely various, namely : 
schools, street paving, bridges, light-houses, for a company of rang- 
ers, and the like. The first paving ever done in Philadelphia was 
from the proceeds of a lottery. 

Strange as it may seem in modern eyes, the larger number of lot- 
teries at this period were for ecclesiastical objects, such as the fol- 
lowing: £1350 for St. James Church in Lancaster; £500 to enlarge 
Trinity College at Oxford ; £450 for the Presbyterian Church at Mid- 
dleton ; 3000 pieces of eight to finish the Episcopal Church on Third 
street ; £3000 for a new Presbyterian Church in Baltimore, and a like 
sum to finish the steeple of the Second Presbyterian Church. The 
extreme popularity of lottery gambling during its heyday is evi- 
denced by the fact that during one year in Philadelphia alone, ticket 
sales amounted to the huge sum of $1,500,000 ; however, a large part 
of these sales were of foreign lottery tickets for the benefit of inter- 
nal improvements in Delaware, Maryland and Virginia — this was of 

42 



THE LOTTERY IN AMERICAN HISTORY 

course an absolute loss to the people of Philadelphia — tax for the 
benefit of improvements in other states. 

At the beginning of the eighteenth century, lotteries were every- 
where regarded as a ready and not improper means of raising funds 
for colleges, academies, churches and other public institutions. 

In 1776 the Continental Congress authorized a state lottery to 
raise money for the army in the held. The scheme was this : 100,000 
tickets were offered, the drawing to be supervised by seven leading 
citizens of Philadelphia. There were to be a half a million dollars in 
prizes, ranging from $50,000 down to $20 ; prizes over $50 to be pay- 
able in treasury bank-notes redeemable in five years, the hope being 
to realize the whole amount in ready money. 

In 1772, Harvard College, its funds running low, received special 
pei mission for a lottery scheme to erect Stoughton Hall, which priv- 
ilege was renewed in 1774. This lottery prolonged its drawings for 
ten years, producing $18,400 net. The College invested $2000 in 
tickets, and itself drew the $10,000 prize. In 1806 another lottery 
grant to Harvard produced $29,000 to aid in building Halworthy 
Hall. Yale, Dartmouth, Williams and many other famous old east- 
ern colleges were also the beneficiaries of the lottery. 

Among public buildings in America erected by the aid of the lot- 
tery, Faneuil Hall in Boston possesses most historical interest. This 
edifice was burned in 1761, during a time of much financial depres- 
sion. The Massachusetts Legislature granted permission for a lot- 
tery to raise money for its rebuilding. The second Faneuil Hall is 
the famous old building which housed so many of the important town 
meetings of the Revolution. 

The foundation of the City of Washington as the National Capital 
was associated with the lottery. In 1793, public building funds run- 
ning low, the District of Columbia Co mmi ssioners organized a lot- 
tery to raise $350,000 for the improvement of the Federal City. The 
tickets were $7 each; 50,000 tickets were provided for, 16,737 prize 
tickets and 32,263 blanks. The principal prize was "one superb hotel 
with baths, outhouses, etc., to cost $50,000;" cash prizes ran from 
$25,000 down to $10. The President fully approved the scheme. 

One of the early foreign loans, authorized by Congress soon after 
the Revolutionary War, was associated with the lottery principle : 
In 1784 John Adams, then the minister to Holland, negotiated with 
an Amsterdam bank a loan of two million guilders at four per cent 

43 



THE LOTTERY IN AMERICAN HISTORY 

interest, agreeing to distribute among subscribers, by lot, in subse- 
quent years, obligations of the United States for 690,000 guilders as 
a bonus or premium on the loan. The obligations bore interest at 
four per cent, but were payable at the option of the United States 
■within six months after their date. Bonuses, interest and bankers' 
commissions carried the amount which the United States agreed to 
pay for the immediate accommodation of 2,000,000 guilders, up to 
2,891,000 guilders. 

Mr. Adams was fearful that this enormous usury would reflect up- 
on himself, but wrote Dr. Franklin that he despaired of obtaining the 
money on any better terms — the credit of the new nation being low, 
and the loan market very stringent. However, by ciphering out the 
terms of payment, it appeared that if the government cashed the ob- 
ligations distributed by lot within six months after the drawing — 
as was done — the four per cent, added to bonuses and premiums, 
amounted to only 6% per cent annual interest. 

In 1826 the Virginia Legislature authorized a lottery for the bene- 
fit of Thomas Jefferson. That illustrious statesman, returning home 
from his high executive office in 1809 to the long-neglected estate at 
Monticello, struggled for years with adverse fortune — failing crops, 
wasteful slave-labor, low prices, depreciated currency, expensive 
hospitality and a constantly increasing debt and interest account. 
He was an ingrained optimist, believing always in better times ; and, 
while careful and scrupulous in his accounts, his big, generous na- 
ture led him to bestow many charities which his straitened income 
could not afford. More than any other man in America, he was fre- 
quented in his retirement by a throng of friends and admirers who 
found bed and board at ' i Hotel Jefferson. ' ' The great man was lit- 
erally eaten out of house and home. The guests consumed more than 
Monticello produced. Not even the careful management of his 
'grandson Kandolph could retrieve his fast-waning fortune. 

At last, Jefferson, in his eighty-third year, "an old man, broken 
with the storms of state," turned to the device of selling his lands 
by lottery — as lands were often disposed of in those days. Rich- 
mond granted permission. But before the lottery was organized or 
the lands appraised, the public became so excited over the unfortu- 
nate affairs of their venerable statesman that it was resolved to save 
his estate from alienation; a widespread and deep sympathy 

44 



THE LOTTERY IN AMERICAN HISTORY 

prompted voluntary contributions to the amount of $18,000. But the 
aged man was involved for more than $80,000, and, although these 
contributions served to cheer him in his declining years, they hind- 
ered rather than aided him; for these offerings so delayed the lot- 
tery that he died before it could be executed. Had the lottery tickets 
been sold promptly while public sympathy was fresh, it would prob- 
ably have been a success. As a result the whole scheme fell through, 
and Monticello was closed out at forced sale. Surely, the most pure- 
minded anti-gambling crusader of later years must have justified 
this particular lottery scheme, in view of the splendid old man whom 
it was intended to benefit. 

Among other great men of early American history, George Wash- 
ington was a frequent patron of public and charitable lotteries, as 
is shown by his personal diary preserved in records of the State 
Department. 

The poor, especially the servant-class, were to a wide extent the 
patrons of lotteries. Handbills were sown broadcast; street pla- 
cards in flaming, gigantic figures appealed to the imagination of the 
credulous; and the emissaries of these schemes importuned the 
passer-by on the streets. Newspaper advertising was employed, 
and the announcements were made as attractive and alluring as pos- 
sible. 

In many of the advertisements and placards a representation of 
Fortune, blindfolded and balancing herself on a wheel, caught the 
eye of the reader. One hand of the Goddess held a cornucopia from 
which a stream of coins was pouring into the hands of an improvi- 
dent young person who was reduced to a single article of clothing ; 
in the other hand, the fickle dame brandished a scroll labeled $10,000. 

Another familiar representation was the picture of a poor bedrag- 
gled fisherman in a boat ; beneath him in the water were numerous 
huge fishes bearing the figures to indicate the big money-prizes, and 
one of the largest fish was about to take the poor fellow's hook and 
thus make him rich for the rest of his days. 

One of the features of the early press was the extraordinary num- 
ber and variety of lottery schemes advertised. In New York during 
the period of 1790-91 we find the lists of drawings and prizes filling 
a half a column of fine print. 

Ticket sales were handled by brokers or "agents" who vied with 

45 



THE LOTTERY IN AMERICAN HISTORY 

each other in puffing the advantages of their particular schemes; 
their offices were all " lucky offices." 

The following quaint and tempting announcements will illus- 
trate the appeal carried in the lottery advertisements of the time : 

One issue of the "Salem Observer" in 1825 carried this advertise- 

A SPEEDY CURE FOR BROKEN FORTUNE ! To all those 
who bitterly complain of the great dearth of the "root of all evil" 
and want of confidence in these speculating times and who trembling- 
ly anticipate a long and doubtful conflict in money operations the 
coming season, the following beautiful and brilliant schemes offer 
the means of sure and immediate relief. The Grand State Lottery, 
Fourth Class Extra, with a capital prize of $10,000, a prize of $5000 
and 5 prizes of $1000 will draw THIS DAY. Tickets $3. 

For prizes in above lottery, apply to 

E. H. PAYSON, 
at Dana & Fenno's Office, Central St. 

In another newspaper of the period appeared the following choice 
suggestion : 

If you are a man struggling to get through the world or sur- 
rounded bv crosses, OR IF YOU WISH TO LAY" BY A FORTUNE 
FOR YOUR CHILDREN, go to Bish or his agents, who may make 
you independent and above the frowns of the world. Tickets for 
sale at Bish's, etc. 

Here is another suave invitation — very enticing: 

Dame Fortune presents her Respects to the Public and assures 
them that she has fixed her Residence for the Present at Corbett's 
State Lottery Office, near the Dustan St. Church, and to enable more 
families to partake of her Favors, she has ordered not only the 
tickets to be sold at the Lowest Prices but also to be divided into 
shares at the following prices, etc. 

In the "Boston Palladium" of June 9, 1807, is a typical advertise- 
ment: 

. 20,000!! 5000!! 1000!! Dollars. Who is there who would not 
give 6 dollars 75 cents for one of the above sums, or 1 dollar 75 
cents for a quarter of one of them? Chances to gain one of them 
are now selling at above prices at Kidder & Co.'s Lottery, No. 9 
Market Square. . . . Adventurers will do well to call ! ! ! 

The following is a shrewd appeal to piety and civic duty, in behalf 

46 



THE LOTTERY IN AMERICAN HISTORY 

of Lancaster Academy, at Lancaster, Massachusetts. After a state- 
ment of the plan appears this explanation : 

As the design of this lottery is for promoting Piety and Virtue 
and such liberal sciences as may qualify the young to become useful 
members of society, the Manager wishes for and expects the aid of 
the gentlemen Trustees of the academy, The Keverend Clergy and all 
persons who have a taste for encouraging the seminary at Lancas- 
ter. 

The above are illustrative of the appeal — doubly strong because 
combining cupidity, charity and civic righteousness — that supported 
and made possible the lottery scheme for so long. 

The now generally recognized evils of the lottery were slow in 
making themselves felt in many parts of the country. The fact that 
all or nearly all of the early lotteries were for public benefits, served 
to quiet the conscience of the scrupulous. The lotteryfor private gain 
was mainly of much later date in this country. The lottery for gov- 
ernment expenses, ecclesiastical purposes, educational endowments, 
public improvements and charities, was the earliest and survived the 
longest — with a few notable exceptions. 

Gradually, however, it developed abuses so flagrant as to arouse 
public reprobation and to open the eyes of all. The investor always 
stood to lose, and the management to gain. But it was not the loss 
of the investment, so much as the effect upon the mind and habits 
of the patron, that constituted the real evil. The plain results of in- 
dulgence in this tempting species of gambling were seen in thou- 
sands of eases. Unreal expectations, visionary hopes, disdain for 
the slow gains of useful labor, consuming anxiety, improvident hab- 
its, debt, peculation, concealment, bankruptcy, suicide — such were 
the oft-repeated experiences of the victims of the lottery habit. 

The poorer classes, as is always the case when speculative schemes 
are launched anywhere, were the greatest sufferers. The depriva- 
tion, want and misery, entailed upon families by this course, can not 
be measured. In 1830 a New York City grand jury reported that at 
the time fifty-two lottery drawings a year took place in that city 
alone, with ostensible prizes of $9,270,000. The amount of the peo- 
ple's money sunk in these schemes must have been enormous. This 
grand jury pronounced the effect of the lottery on morals as ' ' perni- 

47 



THE LOTTERY IN AMERICAN HISTORY 

cious, creating a spirit of gambling which is productive of vicious 
habits, idleness and ruin of credit and character." 

Gradually the evils of the lottery began to impress themselves up- 
on the public mind; the resulting general disapproval rapidly crys- 
tallized into prohibitory statutes with fines and forfeitures; then 
into criminal laws punishable by imprisonment ; and finally into con- 
stitutional prohibition in most of the then States. The period of 
1830-35 saw the lottery banned by law in practically every State in 
the Union. 

While there can be no question as to the soundness of the modern 
attitude towards the lottery, nevertheless this device did play a large 
and important part in the early government finance of this nation ; 
and no one can gainsay the real benefits it produced in the cause of 
charity, education and improved government facilities, at that time. 
While it is true that the practices of our ancestors in this connection 
do not square with our own so-called enlightened idea of good morals 
and public policy, yet it is only fair to remind ourselves that the men 
of that day did not indulge in the practices of stock-watering, mar- 
ket-speculation and the other "high finance" jobbery that we of to- 
day tolerate on every hand. 

It would hardly do to conclude an article on lotteries in this coun- 
try without briefly going into the history and activities of one of 
the largest, most powerful and most notorious private financial in- 
stitutions of its time — the Louisiana State Lottery. Many readers 
will remember something of this legally-chartered gambling octopus, 
and what it was during the days before its banishment ; how it prac- 
tically owned the State of Louisiana; how, for years, it controlled 
the legislatures, governors and other State officials of the great com- 
monwealth w T hich created it ; how it silenced the voice of the pulpit 
by lavish gifts of money to charities and hospitals ; how it quieted 
the press of the nation by huge sums devoted to newspaper advertis- 
ing ; how this great gambling institution flourished and grew fat for 
almost a quarter of a century, yearly taking millions of dollars from 
patrons in every corner of the Union. The story of this Company is 
an interesting feature of our country's political and financial his- 
tory. Here it is : 

The State of Louisiana was the last refuge of the lottery as a le- 
galized system. The State Constitutions of 1845 and 1857 prohibited 

48 



THE LOTTERY IN AMERICAN HISTORY 

lotteries ; but early in the post-war period, when the carpet-baggers 
from the North and their newly enfranchised negro constituents 
were running the State, a new Constitution was enacted. The State's 
finances were in a deplorable condition. Delegates to the conven- 
tion, yielding to a general desire to open the door for revenue to the 
impoverished treasuries of the State and city of New Orleans, de- 
clared, in the constitution then enacted: "The Legislature shall have 
power to license the selling of lottery tickets and the keeping of 
gambling houses, lottery licenses not to be less than $10,000 a year." 

Under this grant, the formidable and lucrative corporation, the 
Louisiana State Lottery Company, was chartered on August 11, 
1869 ; and it was declared unlawful to sell any other lottery tickets 
because "many millions of dollars have been withdrawn from and 
lost to this State by the sale of Havana, Kentucky, Madrid, and oth- 
er lottery tickets, thereby impoverishing our people." 

This extensive monopoly, through prohibition of lotteries in other 
States, inured to the enormous benefit of the Company. Shrewdly 
managed, it drew to its support very influential backing, circulated 
its attractive advertising broadcast throughout the country, estab- 
lished agents to operate openly where they could and secretly where 
they could not; and, after getting firmly established, became the 
source of unknown wealth to its managers. 

In return for this valuable privilege to exploit the gambling in- 
stinct of a State and Nation, the Company paid the paltry sum of 
$40,000 a year to the State of Louisiana. One clause of the charter 
exempted the Company from State and municipal taxation. Its cap- 
ital stock was originally $1,000,000. In a short time its wealth en- 
abled it to build up a powerful political machine ; it drew to itself the 
support of the banks and influential men of the State. 

After enjoying about ten years of this lucrative favor, the State 
Legislature passed an act repealing the grant, and prohibiting it 
from drawing or selling lottery tickets after March 31, 1879. Here 
was a dilemma. But the Company was easily equal to the emer- 
gency. A constitutional convention was about to meet to revise the 
supreme law of the State. The Company saw its opportunity and 
went to work on the delegates, with the natural result that when that 
body met a clear majority of its members were converted to the ad- 
vantages of a lottery system. Into the new constitution there was in- 

49 



THE LOTTERY IN AMERICAN HISTORY 

serted a clause empowering the Legislature to grant lottery charters 
at $40,000 a year for the benefit of the Charity Hospital of New Or- 
leans, and it specifically recognized the Louisiana State Lottery's 
grant as a binding contract upon the State for the period named — 
twenty-five years from the date of its issue in 1869. But the exclu- 
sive feature of the Company's franchise was abrogated, and after 
the expiration of this grant no further lottery licenses were to be 
issued. 

And so the Company went gaily on its way again. It was at this 
time that John A. Morris, of New York, came into active control of 
the Company; and thereafter his shrewd, aggressive management 
guided the destinies of the corporation into more extended and prof- 
itable fields. The business was organized in a farsighted way, tak- 
ing every precaution to fortify itself against law and popular preju- 
dice. Generals Early and Beauregard, two famous and much- 
trusted Confederate war veterans, were retained to superintend the 
drawings and lend their names to the scheme as a guaranty of fair- 
ness and respectability. Each lottery ticket, on its back, bore their 
joint signed voucher that each drawing would be attended and sup- 
ervised by them and that the same would be conducted in absolute 
fairness. 

The corporation advertised extensively in all the leading newspa- 
pers in the United States, paying several times the ordinary rate. 
It even established newspapers of its own. In every great city of 
the country it retained the ablest lawyers to avert every possible 
form of danger. Morris controlled the State of Louisiana. Money 
was spent lavishly on popular charities, public enterprises and gifts. 
His money even found its way into churches and other religious or- 
ganizations. Vast sugar-works were financed by the lottery owners 
to create the impression that they were substantial business men 
anxious to foster the State's chief industry. 

In 1877, when Louisiana was struggling to throw off the last of the 
carpet-baggers, the Company saw its chance to curry public favor, 
and put up the money to help oust the carpet-bag Governor Packard. 
In 1879, when the Company's charter was up for renewal, public 
sentiment was naturally more than cordial to this apparently public- 
spirited organization. The low-lying river counties of the State 
were always having trouble with their levees erected to protect the 

50 



THE LOTTERY IN AMERICAN HISTORY 

lowlands from inundation during times of high water. When the 
question of rechartering again came up in 1890, the Lottery Com- 
pany spent $150,000 in repairing levee leaks; it also sent generous 
relief to the overflowed sections that year. This "public spirit" was 
of course to influence the people, and through them their representa- 
tives in the Legislature, to support the rechartering of the Company. 
The following year, when there was no election, the people asked 
the corporation for relief upon a similar occasion, but no help came. 

It was through such insidious influences as the above that made 
the Company so strong in the State — so difficult for its antagonists 
to get anywhere with their propaganda against it. Then, too, it had 
the negro support almost to a man ; it had the big New Orleans banks 
and their far-reaching influence ; it had the support of all the corrupt 
politicians whom it retained on its pay-roll. Its inexhaustible treas- 
ury was used to buy support on every hand, or to destroy those who 
were not purchasable. 

The practice of the Company was to hold monthly drawings, for 
which tickets were sold all over the country. Of these monthly draw- 
ings ten were "ordinary," and two each year were "grand extraor- 
dinary." Tickets for the ordinary drawings were sold at two dol- 
lars each, and one hundred thousand chances were sold each month, 
the prizes running from $100 up to hundreds of thousands, the capi- 
tal prize. For the "Grand Extraordinary Drawings," held twice a 
year, chances sold for $10 each, and the prizes were doubled. Tick- 
ets were sold in fractional parts, the purchasers of which pro-rated 
in the prize. 

But a small part of the Company's regular monthly business came 
from the city of New Orleans ; local sales were variously estimated 
at from 7 to 18 per cent of the total. The balance came through the 
mails from all over the country. An idea of the immense volume of 
this mail may be gained from the fact that about one-third of all the 
mail received at the New Orleans post office was lottery mail, aver- 
aging from $20,000 to $30,000 in daily remittances. 

Of course the public never knew how much the Company's net 
profits amounted to; but it was said that the Lottery netted from 
$5,000,000 to $13,000,000 yearly during its heyday. Half of the net 
profits, after deducting enormous expenses including princely sal- 
aries of high officers, donations to charities, advertising, and cost of 

5i 



THE LOTTERY IN AMERICAN HISTORY 

maintaininng the friendliness of the press, political retainers, etc., — 
half of the net profits went to the trustees, and the other half to the 
stockholders as dividends. Common stock of the Lottery was quoted 
regularly on the New Orleans Exchange. In 1889 the stockholders 
received $3,400,000 in dividends, which must have been only one-half 
of the Lottery's net profits. In 1887 stock earned 110 per cent; in 
1888, 120 per cent ; in 1889, 170 per cent ; and in 1890, 125 per cent. 

The monthly drawings were held with great pomp and circum- 
stance in the Charles Theatre at New Orleans, on the second Tues- 
day in each month. These drawings were big and well-attended at- 
tractions in the city's social life. Two wheels were placed on the 
stage ; the large one was about six feet in diameter, with glass sides, 
and a rim two feet wide in which there was a trap-door a foot square. 
The monthly one hundred thousand tickets were slipped into small 
rubber or gutta percha tubes, one inch long by one and a quarter in 
width. The other wheel, much smaller, contained the slips repre- 
senting the face value of the prizes. 

The dignified and venerable Generals Beauregard and Early pre- 
sided, for which small service once a month they were reputed to 
have received $10,000 a year each. When all was ready the wheels 
were revolved until the little tubes were thoroughly mixed. Beaure- 
gard had charge of the big wheel and Early the small one. Then 
some person blindfolded, usually a small boy. reached into each 
wheel and drew out one ticket from the big wheel, and one prize 
from the small one; the two were then placed together and an- 
nounced to the spectators, eagerly waiting to hear the result. 

In addition to the monthly drawings, there were daily drawings 
in the city of New Orleans. All over the city were small policy shops 
run by agents of the Company, where tickets might be purchased at 
a price as low as twenty-five cents and as high as $500. Each day 
at four o'clock these drawings took place. According to New Or- 
leans police reports, there were one hundred and eight policy shops 
in October, 1891. The average daily receipts for each was $60. It 
was estimated that the profits of the city shops were enough to pay 
the entire operating expense of the Company. These shops were 
open one hundred and thirteen days a year. 

Under the terms of its charter the Company's grant would expire 
on January 1, 1894. It was the general understanding that the Leg- 

52 



THE LOTTERY IN AMERICAN HISTORY 

islature would be asked to renew this charter, and on this subject 
considerable difference of opinion prevailed. Throughout the na- 
tion there was a growing sentiment against this great corporation, 
and its arrogant, law-defying practices ; for the sale of lottery tick- 
ets was illegal almost everywhere. It was frequently character- 
ized as "The National Disgrace," "The Modern Slavery"; and 
Louisiana was spoken of as "A Blot on the Map of the Country." 
Reflecting this sentiment, there was a large and growing class of 
citizens within the State who were radically opposed to any legisla- 
tion in favor of the Lottery, believing that the State, by supporting 
the thing, had already incurred enough odium on the part of the rest 
of the world. On the other hand, there was a class who thought that 
the only escape from financial difficulties and the burdens then be- 
setting the State was by accepting the revenue the Lottery would 

pay. 

Early in the year, preceding the legislative session of 1890, the 
anti-lottery people, knowing the great influence wielded by the Com- 
pany, began a persistent and vigorous campaign against it. Anti- 
lottery societies were formed, many public meetings held, and a 
systematic canvass made. John A. Morris, in behalf of his Com- 
pany, then issued a circular letter offering the State $500,000 for a 
25-year renewal; later he increased the offer to $1,000,000. A few 
days later, Governor Nicholls, in his message to the Legislature, 
came out boldly against the Company and announced that he would 
veto any legislation recognizing it. 

However, Morris went to the Legislature with a large and influ- 
ential lobby, and, in spite of all the antis could do to stop him, in- 
duced that public body to pass a resolution submitting to a popular 
vote of the people a constitutional amendment authorizing this com- 
pany to operate a lottery for a period of twenty-five years at $1,250,- 
000 a year, to be used in support of levee work, the public schools, 
pensions for Confederate soldiers, charities, and a drainage system 
in New Orleans. This offer on the part of Morris shows how valu- 
able the privilege was to him and his Company — a favor for which 
he had been paying a trifling $40,000. Moreover, the tempting na- 
ture of the offer and the manner in which the money was to be spent 
on public projects, made it doubtful whether the antis could muster 
the votes to reject it. 

53 



THE LOTTERY IN AMERICAN HISTORY 

But the Governor made good his threat, and promptly vetoed the 
proposition. The Company thereupon went back to the Legislature 
and asked it to pass the proposition over the executive veto. The 
House accommodated him by a two-thirds vote and a few votes to 
spare. But Morris could not quite muster the necessary two-thirds 
in the Senate. So he then turned loose his legal department, went 
into the courts, and mandamused the Secretary of State to advertise 
the proposed amendment, taking the technical stand that, inasmuch 
as the constitution made no reference to any executive veto in that 
part regulating the method of amendment, the governor's action 
was nugatory. The lower court held against him, but Morris went 
up to the Supreme Court and got the lower court reversed. The 
Secretary of State was ordered to proceed with the advertisement 
and submission of the proposed amendment. The Company had 
once more demonstrated its power to defy the reformers in the 
State of Louisiana. 

But in the meantime "Uncle Sam" had taken a hand in the game : 
Postmaster General "Wanamaker had issued an order denying the 
Lottery the use of the mails. This was a death-blow to Morris and 
his gang — unless the order could be nullified in the courts. So the 
Company's attorneys again got busy and hastened before the United 
States Supreme Court to challenge the Post Office Department's con- 
stitutional right to spoil their game. But this tribunal could see 
nothing unconstitutional about the order, and so held; so the jig 
was up — almost. One of the big New Orleans banks very kindly 
consented to receive the Lottery's mail, and this was done for a 
while. Furthermore this subterfuge was entirely legal, so the courts 
said in a subsequent action to stop it. Also the express companies 
came to the rescue for a time. But subsequent federal legislation 
closed up these loopholes ; and the greatest legalized gambling in- 
stitution in the history of the world was at last and forever banished 
from the United States. 



54 



Goodwin and Allied Families 

Goodwin Arms — Or two lions passant guardant sable on a canton of the last three 
"bezants. 

Crest — A demi-lion rampant guardian sable holding in the paws a bezant. 



i0 



i^p^HE name of Goodwin was derived from the ancient per- 

0§fo\ sonal name Godwin, meaning good friend, common in 

iiJlfn Northern Europe and in England as early as the fifth 

mm 



%M century. Its use as a surname dates from the adoption 
of surnames in England. A Robert Goodwin lived in 
Norwich in 1238. Ozias Goodwin was the immigrant ancestor, and 
was born in England in 1596. Elder William Goodwin, his brother, 
-and he came to this country about the same time, both settling in 
Hartford, Connecticut. 

I. Anson Goodwin, sixth in descent from Ozias Goodwin, was born 
in Ashfield, Massachusetts, August 20, 1781, and died there Decem- 
ber 23, 1871. His interest was towards the medical profession. He 
made surgeons' splints and manufactured essences and extracts, 
"which he sold in the surrounding territory. He married, in 1803, 
Temperance Rogers, born October 9, 1780, died January 11, 1868 
Their children were eleven in number. 

II. George Clinton Goodwin, third child of Anson and Temper- 
ance (Rogers) Goodwin, was born at Ashfield, October 13, 1807, and 
■died at Charlestown, Massachusetts, May 12, 1869. He became 
associated with his father in the manufacture of extracts and com- 
pounds, at the old homestead. From there he removed first to 
Lowell, where he continued the business, and about 1839 he estab- 
lished the firm of George C. Goodwin & Company, on Union street, 
Boston. Later he moved to Marshall street, and thence to Han- 
over street into still larger quarters. The firm became well and 
favorably known, and grew into one of the largest wholesale drug 
■concerns in the United States. 

Mr. Goodwin was a prominent and generous member and sup- 
porter of the First Baptist Church of Charlestown. He was super- 
intendent of its Sunday school for many years, and also of the Bap- 
tist Sunday school at Lexington, where he resided for a time. He 
was a man of unusual intellectual attainments, combined with good 
judgment, ability and business sagacity. His good penmanship and 
gift of expression were often mentioned by his friends and business 
associates. 

55 



GOODWIN AND ALLIED FAMILIES 

He married (first) April 2, 1833, Jane Pearson, of Haverhill, Mas- 
sachusetts, born December 10, 1811, died October 13, 1855, at Lex- 
ington. They had seven children. He married (second) July 15, 
1857, Harriet Elizabeth Bradbury, principal of Charlestown Fe- 
male Seminary at that time. She was born March 16, 1827, at 
Chesterville, Maine, daughter of Benjamin B. and Elizabeth Lowell 
Bradbury. She died in Boston, June 1, 1893. 

III. Charles Clinton Goodwin, son of George Clinton Goodwin,, 
was born at Methuen, Massachusetts, February 1, 1839. When 
very young his father moved to Charlestown and afterwards to 
Lexington, in both of which places he received his education, gradu- 
ating from the Lexington High School, and entering his father's 
employ at the age of eighteen years. He inherited many of his 
father's fine qualities, and applied himself closely to the task of 
learning the business in every detail. He began as errand boy and 
worked upwards in the various departments until he was admitted 
to partnership, becoming the head of the firm when his father died, 
May 12, 1869. Under his leadership and management the firm grew 
to large proportions. In January, 1900, the business was incorpo- 
rated, at the time of consolidation with Cutler Brothers and West & 
Jenny, two other prominent drug manufacturing concerns of Bos- 
ton, under the name of the Eastern Drug Company. Mr. Goodwin 
became the president of this company, with Mr. Charles Cutler as 
vice-president, who at Mr. Goodwin's death succeeded him as the 
head of the company. 

Mr. Goodwin was prominently identified with a number of import- 
ant interests. He was vice-president of the National Druggists As- 
sociation. In 1871 he was made a Mason in the Simon W. Robinson 
Lodge of Lexington, and was its treasurer for many years. He was 
afterwards a member of Hiram Lodge. He was exalted in Menot- 
omy Chapter, Royal Arch Masons, at Arlington, March 30, 1866. 
He was a member of the DeMolay Commandery, Knights Templar,. 
of Boston, and in 1869 he joined the Ancient and Honorable Artil- 
lery Company of Boston. He was a member of the Lexington 
Historical Society, and was a Republican in politics. Mr. Goodwin 
married, October 15, 1862, Alice Dodge Phelps, born October 18, 
1838, daughter of William Dane and Lusanna Tucker Bryant Phelps,. 
of Lexington. Children: 1. George Clinton, born November 24, 
1863, unmarried; residence Tacoma, Washington. 2. Grace Elise, 
born September 21, 1870 ; married, September 5, 1894, Edward Por- 
ter Merriam, of Lexington. Children: Robert Clinton Merriam,. 
born January 3, 1896, and Gordon Phelps Merriam, born Julv 29, 
1899. 3. Alice Phelps- born October 20, 1875; graduate of Smith 
College, and Berlin (Germany) University; graduate nurse from 
Boston Homoeopathic Hospital; superintendent of nurses at Medi- 

56 



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GOODWIN AND ALLIED FAMILIES 

cal Mission on Hull street, Boston; for two seasons superintendent 
of nurses on Boston Floating Hospital. Married, September 24, 1908, 
Dr. J. Walter Schirmer, of West Roxbury. Children: Louise 
Schirmer, born Julv 20, 1910, and John Goodwin Schirmer, born 
December 30, 1914. 

For many years Mr. Goodwin's summer home was at Magnolia, a 
small fishing hamlet named Kettle Cove; he first went there in 
1864, and it became one of the most popular summer colonies during 
his lifetime. He died at Sunny Slope, his Lexington home, Novem- 
ber 27, 1905. He felt a patriotic pride in having this home near 
the rock on his grounds where Samuel Adams exclaimed to John 
Hancock, "What a glorious morning for America," as they stood 
there together and heard the first firing of the British on the village 
green in the early dawn of April 19, 1775. These words are on the 
town seal of Lexington, and a tablet placed on the spot by Mr. Good- 
win commemorates this historic event. The following tribute to his 
character is from his pastor, friend and neighbor, the Rev. Charles 
F. Carter, pastor of the Hancock Congregational Church of Lexing- 
ton, Massachusetts: 

Charles Clinton Goodwin had characteristics and traits that were few, simple and 
sincere. The one most marked was his spirit of good cheer, and his kindly feeling 
towards all. He never meant to strike the depressing note. He liked the life in the 
major key, and he wanted plenty of good voices in the chorus, each one bearing a part, 
and also each one enjoying it. Thus he spread the spirit of good comradeship, and men 
were glad of his presence. If a merry heart doeth good, his was not lacking in tonic, 
quality, and worth. Nor was this merely a superficial trait. There was real heart back 
of it, and the vigor of his hand grasp that lasted to the very' end was a symbol of the 
human kindliness that was genuine wherever it found expression. He loved his Church, 
in which he so regularly worshipped, the people, the building, and the deep purpose for 
which it stands. He was active in raising the funds when the Church was finished in 
1893. Earnestly devoted to the cause of its music, he served on that committee, and he 
gave himself in the one distinctive form of service that was so native and congenial to 
him, with a loyalty and devotion and faithfulness. From the age of eighteen years 
he began to sing in the old First Baptist Church at Chariestown, of which his father had 
been such a zealous member, and in 1886, when the Hancock church was organized, he 
began his long years of service with the society in the choir. Seldom missing a service, 
and a long and notable record of forty-seven years as a tenor without compensation 
shows with what devotion his refined nature was made to shed its rays. He belonged 
to the famous Boylston Club, Arion Quartette, and others. He was especially fond of 
the orchestra and was himself a devotee of the clarionet. Many hours of enjoyment were 
his with this instrument. What his fidelity meant, only those can appreciate who knew 
how steadfast and unflagging it was, and often it has held things together when other- 
wise they might have fallen apart. Without reference So this trait his life would not be 
rightly estimated. If his place was there at a given hour, there at that given time he 
was to be found. The responsibilities he accepted and the engagements that he made 
were kept with religious fidelity. This was the reason why men could rely not only on 
the sincerity of his purpose, but also on the precision with which it could be carried out. 
He had a few old-fashioned virtures and this was one of them, that has helped to make 
his name honored for his fair dealing and reliability. He was not for success at any 
price. He valued the human relation too much for that, while the success he had never 
in the least estranged him from his fellowmen, but all of every rank recognized in him 
the spirit of a true friend. Thus as we think of him, we have borne in upon us anew the 
unique value of a good man. He has had his own place, and he has filled it well. We 
have been richer for his presence; we shall be evermore richer in the friendship we 
cherish and the memory we prize. 

57 



GOODWIN AND ALLIED FAMILIES 
(The Phelps Line.) 

Various are the versions of the origin, history, genealogy, coat- 
of-arms and manner of spelling of the name of Phelps. One his- 
torian asserts that Phelps is an abbreviation of "Phyllppes." an 
ancient Staffordshire English family, and that the superfluous let- 
ters in the latter name were dropped during the reign of Edward 
the Sixth. From high and reliable authority we learn that this 
ancient and honorable family's name was originally " Welf," whose 
earliest traces date back to the eleventh century, or thereabouts, 
that they were originally from the North of Italy, that they were 
early transplanted to Germany, there assuming the name of 
"Guelphs," and that they removed thence to old England, in the 
sixteenth century, there writing and spelling their name as at pres- 
ent, " Phelps." 

Arms — Per pale, or and argent, a wolf salient azure, between eight crosses, crosslet 
fitchee gules. 

Crest — A wolf's head erased azure, collared or, thereon, a martlett sable. 
Motto — Qui transtulit sustinet. (He who transplanted, still sustains). 

About ten years after the "Mayflower" landed her first install- 
ment of one hundred and one persons on Plymouth Rock, in New 
England, the "Mary and John," another British ship, after a com- 
fortable passage of ten weeks, disembarked another installment of 
one hundred and forty passengers, May 30, 1630, at Boston, Mas- 
sachusetts, among whom it is believed were William Phelps, his wife 
and four sons, namely: William, Samuel, Nathaniel and Joseph, 
and George Phelps, William's brother, the first Phelps pioneers, all 
of whom came, it is said, from the borough town of Exeter, in the 
beautiful county of Devonshire, England. The name is spelt vari- 
ously Phelps, Phelips, Phileps, Philps, Phelups, Philips, Felps, 
Filps, Fellips, and Welfs. Many other Phelps families also emi- 
grated to America, as can be ascertained from the Colonial records 
of Massachusetts Bay. 

7. Henry Phelps, of London, England, was a passenger in the ship 
"Hercules," which arrived in this country in 1634. He settled in 
Salem, Massachusetts, and his wife's name was Anna Fresler. 

II. John Phelps, son of Henry and Anna (Fresler) Phelps, was 
born in Salem, but settled in Reading, Massachusetts, where he died 
in 1685. 

III. Henry Phelps, son of John Phelps, was born in 1673, and 
passed away in Reading in 1722. 

IV. Henry Phelps, son of Henry Phelps, was born in 1720. 

58 



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GOODWIN AND ALLIED FAMILIES 

V. Captain Henry Phelps, son of Henry Phelps, was born in 1745, 
and died in 1786. He was united in marriage with Betsey Herrick, 
of Beverly, Massachusetts. In October, 1786, Captain Phelps was 
lost at sea. When all hope of being saved had been given up, he 
wrote a letter to his wife, describing the terrible situation, and, 
sealing it in a bottle, cast it forth upon the waters. It was picked 
up by a Boston vessel, and forwarded to his wife, who, from the 
contents, learned the sad fate of her husband. 

VI. Dr. Henry Phelps, son of Captain Henry and Betsey (Her- 
rick) Phelps, was born in Salem, Massachusetts, in 1766, and passed 
away February 15, 1852, at the age of eighty-six years. He gradu- 
ated from Harvard College in 1788, and in 1795 married (first) 
Mary Forbes Coffin, who died in 1820. This union was blessed with 
ten children. In 1821 Dr. Phelps married (second) Mrs. Mary 
Elliott, who died in 1825 at the age of forty-two years. In 1826 Dr. 
Phelps married (third) Mrs. Mary Foster, who died in 1817. 

Dr. Phelps early in life chose the profession of medicine, and after 
studying with Dr. Plummer, of Salem, was established by him as a 
physician and apothecary in Gloucester, Massachusetts, in 1790. 
He acquired some practice as a doctor, but soon abandoned that 
branch of the business. Before the establishment of a post office in 
the town of Gloucester, the people received their letters by a mes- 
senger, who was sent twice a week to Beverly to secure them. A 
post office was established soon after the adoption of the Consti- 
tution, and was at first, and for several years, kept in the shop of the 
postmaster, Henry Phelps, who was postmaster for many years, and 
principal acting magistrate in the town, being often employed as a 
scrivener. Dr. Phelps continued to keep this shop until he reached 
the age of eighty years, when, becoming dependent upon filial sup- 
port, he resided with a daughter. 

VII. Captain William Dane Phelps, son of Dr. Henry and Mary 
Forbes (Coffin) Phelps, was born February 14, 1802, at Gloucester, 
Massachusetts. He inherited a love for the sea from several of his 
ancestors, who had been mariners, and ran away from a boarding 
school, where he had been sent by his parents to prepare for college, 
embarking as a cabin boy on board a vessel sailing from Boston, 
and working his way through the different grades to that of master. 
He made many voyages to Europe and the Levant, around Cape 
Horn and the Cape of Good Hope, in command of some of the finest 
ships of the times. He was wrecked when a boy at the Cape of 
Good Hope, and also when captain at the entrance of Plymouth 
Harbor, in the winter of 1836, which was one of the most distressing 
shipwrecks known for many years on our coast. In one of his early 
voyages, when a boy, he was left with seven others on a desert 

59 



GOODWIN AND ALLIED FAMILIES 

island, in the Indian ocean, to procure a cargo of sea elephant oil 
and fur seal skins. The captain promised to return for them in 
nine months, but did not appear for twenty-eight months, when he 
hoped to collect his oil and furs without any men to pay off. But 
although they had lived Robinson Crusoe lives, replete with dangers 
and hardships, they were all alive, with a full cargo ready for him. 
He made several trading voyages, generally of three years' dura- 
tion, to California, in the days when San Francisco was called 
Yerba Buena, and consisted of only three houses where the famous 
city now stands. With two of his boats and a part of his crew he 
explored the river Sacramento, displaying the Star and Stripes for 
the first time upon its waters. He commanded the ship "Alert," 
(which has been made famous in connection with the book entitled 
"Two Years Before the Mast," by Richard H. Dana, Jr.), the fol- 
lowing year after Mr. Dana returned in it from California as a pas- 
senger. 

In 1849 he was in California, at the time when gold was dis- 
covered, and on his return soon after he brought some of the first 
gold specimens to Boston, with reliable information about the mines. 
For his last voyage he went on a trip around the world, after which 
he retired in 1857, passing the remainder of his life in his pleasant 
Lexington home. He was well known for his dry wit and humor, 
and his family and friends spent many happy hours as he related 
to them his entertaining and strange experiences in many parts of 
the world. He was a ready writer and was the author of a book 
entitled "Fore and Aft, or Leaves from the Life of an Old Sailor," 
under the nom de plume of "W T ebfoot." He died August 15, 1875, 
at Magnolia, the summer home of Charles C. Goodwin, within a few 
miles of Gloucester, the place of his birth. 

1 Lusanna Tucker Bryant Phelps, wife of William Dane Phelps, 
was bom in East Lexington, July 11, 1804. She attended the Young 
Ladies' Seminary at Ipswich, under the instruction of Mary Grant 
and Mary Lyon, afterwards becoming a very successful teacher. 
She married Captain Phelps in 1834. She accompanied him on one 
voyage up the Mediterranean sea, but the most of her life was spent 
in Lexington. Her memory of places and people was remarkably 
clear and exact, and she often entertained her friends with narrat- 
ing her experiences. Both she and her husband were members of 
the Baptist church, and were actively engaged in promoting benevo- 
lent work at home and abroad. She died August 23, 1885. Chil- 
dren: 1. Lusanna Tucker, born November 18, 1836, died April 30, 
1872. 2. Alice Dodge, born October 18, 1838; married Charles C. 
Goodwin, October 15, 1862. 3. Edwin Buckingham, born April 14, 
1845, died September 4, 1849. 

6o 



GOODWIN AND ALLIED FAMILIES 

(The Coffin Line.) 

Arms — Azure, semee of crosses crosslet or, two batons in saltire encircled with 
laurel branches gold between three plates. 

Crest — On the stern of a ship or, a pigeon, wings endorsed argent, in the beak a 
sprig of laurel vert. 

Motto — Extant recti factis praemia. (The rewards of good deeds endure). 

Peter Coffin was the son of Tristram Coffin, of Newbury, where 
the family early settled. He came to Gloucester, Massachusetts, in 
1688, and occupied the large tract of land, of about five hundred 
acres, between Annisquan and Chebacco rivers, that his father had 
purchased the same year of Jonathan Willoughby, of London, Eng- 
land. How long he remained there is uncertain. 

Peter Coffin, the grandson of Peter Coffin, took possession of 
his grandfather's property about the year of 1747, and resided there 
until his removal to the harbor. Soon after his arrival in Gloucester 
he began to take a part in public affairs, and continued upwards of 
forty years a prominent and useful citizen. In the earliest stages 
of the Eevolution he embraced the Colonial cause with enthusiastic 
ardor, and ceased not to devote all his energies to the public good 
until independence was declared. As his farm was at an inconvenient 
distance from the village for an actor in the stirring events of the 
time, he took a house in town about the commencement of the war, 
and resided there until his death, which occurred February 14, 
1796, at the age of seventy-two years. 

The high estimate placed upon his services by his townsmen is 
sufficiently attested by his repeated election to offices of trust and 
responsibility. He served from 1753 to 1777, with the exception 
of two years, on the Board of Selectmen. In 1774 he was first 
chosen representative to the General Court, and filled this office 
several times between that period and the last year of his service, 
1792. He also served as one of the Senators from Essex county, 
Massachusetts. He was the principal acting magistrate in Glou- 
cester, Massachusetts, for many years. 

Peter Coffin was united in marriage with Miss Mary Currier, of 
Amesbury, Massachusetts, and they were the parents of ten chil- 
dren, of whom three were sons, namely : Peter, William and Tris- 
tram. Peter graduated at Harvard College in 1769, and com- 
menced studying law with Judge Sargent at Haverhill, Massachu- 
setts, but conceiving a dislike for the profession, he abandoned his 
studies, and took up his abode as a shopkeeper in his native town of 
Gloucester. He died at the age of seventy-two years, on August 
4, 1821. He was united in marriage with Miss Mary Parkman 
(Polly), a daughter of the Rev. Eli Forbes, further mentioned. She 
died in 1795, at the age of forty years. Mary Forbes Coffin, the 
daughter of Peter and Polly (Forbes) Coffin, became the wife o/ 

6i 



GOODWIN AND ALLIED FAMILIES 

Dr. Henry Phelps, through whom has been traced the relationship 
between the Phelps, Forbes and Coffin families. Two of Peter 
Coffin's sons, Charles and Eli, were lost at sea. 

(The Forbes Line.) 

Arms — Azure, a cross pattee between three bears' heads couped argent, muzzled 
gules. 

Crest — A cross pattee argent. 

Motto — Salus per Christum. (Salvation through Christ). 

The Forbes and Phelps families trace their relationship through 
the marriage of Henry Phelps, of Gloucester, with Mary Forbes 
Coffin, whose mother, Mary Parkman Forbes, wife of Peter Coffin, 
was the daughter of Kev. Eli Forbes. 

Rev. Eli Forbes was born in 1726, at Westborough, Massachu- 
setts. He entered Harvard College in 1744. In July of the fol- 
lowing year he was demanded as a soldier, and cheerfully should- 
ered his musket, marching more than a hundred miles to oppose the 
French and Indians. He was released by the interposition of his 
friends, and returned to his studies, graduating in 1751. He was 
ordained minister of the Second Parish in Brookfield, June 3, 1752. 
During 1759, he was in the service of the Province, from March 31 
to November 15, as chaplain in a regiment under Colonel Timothy 
Ruggles, ministering often on the same day at different stations 
from three to five miles apart. At the close of the campaign he, 
in company with another chaplain, had four hundred invalids com- 
mitted to their charge to march with them to Albany, and to serve 
both as chaplains and officers. For this service, which he repre- 
sented to the General Court as tedious and expensive, he received 
an allowance. 

In 1762, Rev. Forbes went as a missionary to the Oneidas, one of 
the six nations of Indians, and planted the first Christian church at 
Onaguagie. Having established in this place a school for children, 
and another for adults, Rev. Forbes returned, bringing with him 
four Indian children, whom he sent back again in a few years, after 
providing them with such knowledge as would be useful to them. He 
continued at Brookfield until March, 1776. His settlement at Glou- 
cester, Massachusetts, took place at a time when a deep gloom 
overspread the town, owing to the inhabitants being cut off from 
their ordinary means of livelihood, and reduced to the necessity 
of enlisting in the army, or engaging in the precarious employment 
of privateering. The church members were divided, many refusing 
to attend services. During all this contention, Rev. Forbes was 
silent and inactive, which was the right position to take. The wise 
pastor was more solicitious to maintain the peace and harmony of 
society than to gather to the parish coffers a few grudgingly paid 
dollars. The only means which he tried to win his congregation 

62 



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GOODWIN AND ALLIED FAMILIES 

back to the church was a constant manifestation of kindness and 
regard, the memory of which has long outlived that of the ill feel- 
ing engendered by the occasion that called them forth. The 
remainder of Rev. Forbes' ministry was passed in the quiet dis- 
charge of the ordinary duties of his office, which he continued to 
perform until far advanced in life. In 1804 the health of the vener- 
able pastor began to fail, and on December 15, of that year, at the 
age of seventy-eight years, his long and useful life was brought to a 
close. A short time before his death the degree of Doctor of Di- 
vinity was conferred upon him by Harvard College. 

As a preacher, Rev. Forbes possessed respectable talents, and his 
pulpit performances commanded the attention and approbation of 
his congregation. He had a sufficient command of language to 
enable him to write with readiness and to speak with fluency, and 
many of his sermons were so well received at the time of delivery 
as to be desired in a printed form. In stature he was slightly 
above the medium size, and, in manners and address, gentlemanly 
and engaging. His countenance bespoke the pure and amiable 
qualities of his mind, and ever beamed with such unbounded good 
nature that he was eagerly welcomed in every social circle. In his 
intercourse with his parishioners, he suffered no irksome restraint 
to be felt in his presence, but on all proper occasions always strove 
to excite childhood to laughter, youth to mirth, and mature age to 
cheerfulness. 

The political sentiments of Rev. Forbes were strongly conserva- 
tive, and they led him to denounce with unmeasured force and hor- 
ror the successive revolutions in France, as destructive of all the 
best institutions of society, and opposed to the highest good of the 
human race. For many years he annually preached a political 
sermon, in which his views of the exciting events of the times were 
freely and fearlessly stated. 

Rev. Forbes was married four times, his first wife being Miss 
Lucy Parkman, a daughter of Rev. Ebenezer Parkman, of West- 
borough, Massachusetts. She died January 16, 1776. Rev. Forbes 
was united in marriage (second) with Mrs. Lucy Sanders, the widow 
of the Hon. Thomas Sanders. In 1780, Rev. Forbes married 
(third) the widow of Captain Thomas Parsons, of Newbury, Mas- 
sachusetts, who died in Boston in 1792. The fourth and last wife 
of Rev. Forbes was Mrs. Lucy Baldwin, of Brookfield, a sister of his 
first wife. Eli Forbes had two children, a son and a daughter. 
The son, Eli Forbes, was a captain in the army in 1798. After leav- 
ing the army he went to Baltimore, Maryland, where he became a 
teacher of a school, and where he passed away. The daughter r 
Polly Forbes, became the wife of Peter Coffin, in 1773, and died 
May 18, 1795, at the age of forty. It was one of her daughters, 
Mary Forbes Coffin, who became the wife of Dr. Henry Phelps. 

63 



GOODWIN AND ALLIED FAMILIES 

(The Bryant Line.) 

Arms — Azure, on a cross or a cinquefoil between four lozenges gules. 
Crest — A flag azure, charged with a saltire argent. 

The surname Bryant is traced to Sir Guy de Bryant, who lived in 
the time of Edward the Third, and whose descendants had their 
seat in the castle of Hereford in the marches of Wales. 

I. Abraham Bryant was the immigrant ancestor of the Bryant 
family of Reading, Stoneham and vicinity, in the State of Massa- 
chusetts. He was doubtless born in England, in 1647. His home 
was in Beading, now known as Wakefield, Massachusetts, on the 
south side of Elm street, west of the place of Joseph Hartshorn. 
He was united in marriage (first) with Mary Kendall, of Woburn, 
Massachusetts, in 1664, who was the daughter of Thomas Kendall, 
of Woburn. She died March 8, 1688, at the age of forty years. 
The children of Abraham and Mary (Kendall) Bryant were born at 
Reading, Massachusetts, and were as follows : Mary, who became 
the wife of John Weston; Rebecca, who died in 1670; Abraham; 
Thomas ; Anna ; William ; Kendall, born in 1680, died in 1710, was 
united in marriage with Elizabeth Swain ; Abigail, and Tabitha. 

III. Jeremiah Bryant, the third in descent from Abraham Bryant, 
the immigrant ancestor, was born in 1714, and was united in mar- 
riage with Ruth Thompson, of W T oburn, Massachusetts. She was a 
connection of Count Rumford. 

IV. Josiah Bryant, the fourth in descent from Abraham Bryant, 
was born in South Reading, Massachusetts, in October, 1748. He 
married, July 28, 1775, Lydia Green, and they became the parents of 
six children: Josiah Bryant, born June 20, 1778; Ebenezer Bry- 
ant, born July 15, 17S1 ; Lydia Bryant, born August 6, 1783 ; Eliza- 
beth Bryant, born August 5, 1785 ; Ruth Bryant, born January 14, 
1790, and Sophia Bryant, born April 27, 1797. 

V. Josiah Bryant, the second, and the eldest son of Josiah and 
Lydia (Green) Bryant, was born June 20, 1778, and died in 1835. 
He married Sally Withington, the daughter of Edward and Eunice 
(Tucker) Withington. Josiah and Sally (Withington) Bryant 
were the parents of four children, as follows: 1. Lusanna Tucker 
Bryant, born July 11, 1804, who became the wife of Captain Wil- 
liam D. Phelps, in 1834. She died in August, 1885. 2. Cynthia 
Bryant, born October 7, 1806, who became the wife of Benjamin 
Shurtleff, Junior, in 1830. 3. Sally Bryant, born July 13, 1809, who 
became the wife of Charles Ellms, in 1830. 4. Albert Bryant, was 
born February 16, 1814, and was united in marriage with Elizabeth 
Wellington. In 1841 he married (second) Nancy W. Wellington. 

64 



* 



GOODWIN AND ALLIED FAMILIES 

(The Green Line.) 

Arms — Argent, on a fess azure between three pellets, each charged with a lion's 
head erased of the first, a griffin passant between two escallops or. 

Crest — A woodpecker picking a staff couped, raguled, and erect, all proper. 

The Bryant and Green families trace their relationship through 
the marriage of Josiah Bryant, of the fourth generation from Abra- 
ham Bryant, the immigrant, with Lydia Green, a daughter of Cap- 
tain Thomas and Lydia (Swain) Green. Captain Thomas Green 
was of the fifth generation in descent from Thomas Green, the immi- 
grant ancestor of the Green family in America. 

I. Thomas Green, the immigrant, was born in England about the 
year 1600, according to a deposition that he made in 1662. Thomas 
Green, probably his son, came to America and settled in Massa- 
chusetts at the age of fifteen, in the ship "Planter," which sailed 
from England on April 2, 1635. The same name and age appear 
also in the passenger list of the ship "Hopewell," which sailed the 
following day, and are believed to represent Thomas Green, Junior. 
Preceding the list of passengers in the "Planter" is a certificate 
which states that Thomas Green came from St. Albans, Hertford- 
shire. It seems likely that Thomas Green, Senior, came to the New 
England Colonies at the same time, or a little earlier, and settled 
at Lynn and Ipswich, Massachusetts. He was residing at Lady 
Moody's farm in Lynn about 1646. He removed to Maiden, Mas- 
sachusetts, about 1650, and was living there October 28, 1651, when 
his wife Elizabeth and daughter Elizabeth signed a petition to the 
General Court. He had a farm of sixty-three acres in the northern 
part of Maiden, Massachusetts. He was one of the leading citi- 
zens, serving repeatedly on the grand jury in 1658, and as select- 
man of Maiden. The first wife of Thomas Green, with whom he 
was united in marriage in England, became the mother of all his 
children. She died in 1658. 

II. Samuel Green, the son of Thomas Green, the immigrant, was 
born March, 1645. He married Mary Cook, who died in 1715. He 
settled in Maiden, Massachusetts, and was called "senior" in the 
records. In October of 1670, he purchased with his brother William 
one-half of his father's farm, and from that time occupied the old 
"Mansion House," buying the other half of the homestead from his 
brother in 1684. He died October 31, 1724, at the age of seventy- 
nine years. 

HI. Thomas Green, the son of Samuel Green, and the third in 
descent from Thomas Green, the immigrant, was born in Maiden, 
Massachusetts, about 1669. He married, in 1698, Hannah Vinton, a 
daughter of John and Hannah (Green) Vinton. Thomas Green, the 
third, was a farmer in Maiden and had a fair estate. He died 

6 5 



GOODWIN AND ALLIED FAMILIES 

August 24, 1725. A large cider mill was part of his real estate, 
which was valued at live thousand dollars. 

IV. Thomas Green, the fourth in descent, and the son of Thomas 
and Hannah (Vinton) Green, was born in Maiden, Massachusetts, 
December 9, 1702. He married Mary Green, a daughter of Deacon 
Daniel Green, of Stoneham, Massachusetts. Thomas Green settled 
in Reading, Massachusetts, as early as 1727, and probably imme- 
diately after his marriage. He died in 1753. He owned a large 
tract of land in Holden, Massachusetts, which he bequeathed to his 
sons. 

V. Captain Thomas Green, the fifth in descent from Thomas 
Green, the immigrant, and the son of Thomas and Mary Green, was 
born in 1731. He died in 1810. He married Lydia Swain, a daugh- 
ter of Jeremiah and Sarah Swain. It is thought that Captain Green 
may have been a Revolutionary soldier from Reading, Massachu- 
setts. Captain Thomas and Lydia (Swain) Green were the parents 
of Lydia Green, who became the wife of Josiah Bryant. 

(The Withington Line.) 

Arms — Gules, a fess chequy or and azure. 

Crest — A lion's head erased. 

Motto — Sapere aude. (Dare to be wise). 

The Withington and Bryant families trace their relationship 
through the marriage of Josiah Bryant, the fifth in descent from 
Abraham Bryant, the immigrant, with Sally Withington, daughter 
of Edward and Eunice (Tucker) Withington. Edward Withington 
was the sixth generation in descent from Henry Withington, the 
immigrant ancestor of the Withington family. The genealogy of 
the Withington family is a most interesting one. 

I. Elder Henry Withington, the immigrant, was born in England 
in 1558. He settled in Dorchester, Massachusetts, where he became 
prominent in religious affairs. There is a tablet to his memory, 
which contains the f ollowing : ' ' Elder Withington was a man that 
excelled in wisdom, meekness and goodness." 

II. Richard Withington, the son of Elder Henry Withington, was 
born in England in 1618, and came with his father to America. He 
was united in marriage with Elizabeth Eliot, a niece of John Eliot, 
the noted "Apostle to the Indians." She was born at Nasing, Eng- 
land, in 1627, and died in 1714, at the age of eighty-seven years. 
Richard Withington took the freeman's oath in 1640, and was 
ordained a deacon in 1669. He became a member of the Ancient 
and Honorable Artillery Company in 1646. 

66 



r 



GOODWIN AND ALLIED FAMILIES 

III. John Withington, the son of Richard and Elizabeth (Eliot) 
Withington, was born July 1, 1649, and died in 1690. He leaned 
towards military life, and became captain of a Dorchester (Massa- 
chusetts) Company in Phipps' mad expedition to Canada in 1690. 
He never returned from this dangerous journey. One account says 
that he and most of his company were supposed to have been lost 
at sea. 

IV. Samuel Withington, the fourth in descent from Elder Henry 
Withington, was born in 168-4, and died in 1726. He married Abi- 
gail Pierce. 

V. Samuel Withington, the fifth in descent, and the son of Samuel 
and Abigail (Pierce) Withington, was born in 1720, and died in 
1781. He married, November 6, 1746, Jane Helton, a daughter of 
Edward and Mary (Paul) Kelton. In 1910 their house was still 
standing on Brent street in Dorchester, the second house from Wash- 
ington street on the right. This house was built in 1716. 

VI. Edicard Withington, the sixth in descent from Elder Henry 
Withington, and the son of Samuel and Jane (Kelton) Withington, 
was born in 1755, and died in 1826. He married Eunice Tucker, 
daughter of Samuel and Elizabeth (Heywood) Tucker. Edward 
Withington and his wife Eunice (Tucker) Withington lived in Dor- 
chester, Massachusetts, during the latter part of their lives, but had 
homes in other places. Their last built house is still standing, a 
cottage, which was built in 1800, on Centre street, in Dorchester. 
The children of Edward and Eunice (Tucker) Withington were as 
follows : 1. Sally Withington, born March 24, 1778, and became the 
wife of Josiah Bryant in 1803. 2. Eunice Withington, born April 
14, 1781, and became the wife of Samuel Howe. 3. Betsey Tucker 
Withington, born May 4, 1783, and became the wif e of Aaron Nixon. 
4. Alpheus Moore Withington, born August 14, 17S5. 5. Edward 
Withington, Junior, born December 29, 1787. 6. Jane Withington, 
born May 3, 1790, and became the wife of Jacob Howe. 7. Samuel 
Withington, born April 6, 1793. 8. Lucy Withington, born October 
11, 1795, and married John Mears. 9. Hannah Withington, born 
November 24, 1797 ; became the wife of Parker H. Pierce. 10. Al- 
bert Withington, born March 17, 1800. 

MAJOR J. WALTER SCHIRMER 

Major J. Walter Schirmer was born at Roxbury, Massachusetts, 
November 7, 1875. He attended the public schools of Boston, and 
Roxbury High School. He also attended the Boston University 
Medical School, and graduated, receiving the degree of M. D. in 
1908. He was interne at the Massachusetts Homoeopathic Hos- 

67 



GOODWIN AND ALLIED FAMILIES 

pital. In 1908-09 he took special courses at the University of Vi- 
enna. He practiced medicine at Needham, Massachusetts; was ^ 
visiting Orthopedic Surgeon at the Massachusetts Homoeopathic 
Hospital, and Lecturer on Hygiene and Sanitation at Boston Uni- 
versity, School of Medicine. 

In December, 1917, he was commissioned captain in the Medical 
Reserve Corps, and ordered into active service in January, 1918, at 
Camp Devens, Aver, Massachusetts. He was chief of the Ortho- 
pedic Department at Base Hospital, Camp Devens. He received 
his commission as major in September, 1918. 

He married, September 24, 1908, Alice Phelps Goodwin, born Oc- 
tober 20, 1875; graduate of Smith College and Berlin (Germany) 

University; graduate nurse from Boston Homoeopathic Hospital; * 

superintendent of nurses at Medical Mission on Hull street, Boston ; 
for two seasons superintendent of nurses on Boston Floating Hos- 
pital. Children : 1. Louise Schirmer, born July 20, 1910. 2. John 
Goodwin Schirmer, born December 30, 1914. 

LIEUTENANT ROBERT CLINTON MERRIAM 

Lieutenant Robert Clinton Merriam was born at Lexington, Mas- 
sachusetts, January 3, 1896, the oldest son of Edward Porter and 
Grace (Goodwin) Merriam. He attended Lexington private and 
public schools, and graduated from the Noble and Greenough School, 
Boston, in 1915. 

He trained at the Officers' Training Camp, Plattsburg, New York, 
two summers. He was a student at Harvard two years, in the class 
of 1919, leaving college to enter the service. He was second lieu- 
tenant of the 301st Field Artillery, Battery A, at Camp Devens, in 
1917 and 1918. In July, 1918, he went to France in the 76th Reg- 
iment. 

LIEUTENANT GORDON PHELPS MERRIAM 

Lieutenant Gordon Phelps Merriam was born July 29, 1899, at 
Lexington, Massachusetts, the second son of Edward Porter and 
Grace (Goodwin) Merriam. He attended private and public schools, 
and graduated from the Noble and Greenough School, Boston, in 
1917. 

In July, 1917, he went to France, in the Norton-Harjes Division, 
and drove an ambulance for five months. He returned to America, 
and in November of the same year served at Halifax, Nova Scotia, 
after the disaster, with the Boston Red Cross. He entered Dart- 
mouth College at mid-year, January, 1918. He trained at the Of- 
ficers' Training Camp, Plattsburg, New York, in the summer of that 
year, going from there to Camp Hancock, Georgia, for training in 
maehine gun work. In September, 1918, he received, his commission 
as second lieutenant. 

68 




Hill and Allied Families 

Arms — Sable a fess argent between three leopards passant or, spotted sable. The 
fess is charged with three escallops gules. Supporters: Dexter a leopard gules, spotted 
or, ducally collared or. Sinister, a stag, azure, attired gules. 

Crest — A stag's head and neck azure, attired gules, on a wreath, over a ducal 
coronet. 

Motto — Per Deum ct fcrrum obtinui. 

ILLIAM HILL, the progenitor in America of that branch 
of the Hill family from which the late Dr. Seth Hill, one 
of the most prominent and successful men in the med- 
ical profession in the entire county of Fairfield, Con- 
necticut, is descended, came to America in the ship 
""William and Francis," arriving in Boston Harbor on June 5, 
1632. He remained for a time at Dorchester, Massachusetts, but 
after a time removed to Windsor, on the Connecticut river, where 
he bought land and set out on orchard. Some time later, however, 
he moved to Fairfield, and here he remained for the rest of his 
life, becoming a man of public importance and prominence in the 
life of the community. He was deputy and representative in 1639, 
1640 and 1644. Before coming to Fairfield he had been admitted a 
freeman of Massachusetts, November 5, 1633, and a selectman of 
Dorchester, in 1636. He was also granted land at Dorchester on 
November 2, 1635. In Windsor, in 1639, he was appointed by the 
General Court to examine the arms and ammunition of the towns 
in the colony ; he was auditor of accounts ; and deputy to the Gen- 
eral Court from 1639 to 1641, and again re-elected in 1644. After 
his removal to Fairfield, as has already been stated, he held public 
office, as assistant senator and collector of customs. In the division 
of lands he and his son William were given lots between Paul's Neck 
and Robert Turney's house lot, on the northeast side of Dorchester 
street and the Newton square. From the fact that in the town rec- 
ords for 1649 his wife, Sarah, is called a widow, it is concluded that 
he died in that year. His will is dated September 9, 1649, and was 
proved May 15, 1650. It is to be found in a very ancient volume of 
the records of the "Particular Court for Fairfield County." His 
children were : 1. Sarah. 2. William. 3. Joseph. 4. Ignatius. 5. 
James. 6. Elizabeth. 

II. William (2) Hill, son of William (1) and Sarah Hill, was born 
in England, and came with his father to Dorchester, Massachusetts, 
and afterwards to Windsor, Connecticut, where he was granted 
lands. He was one of the most prominent of the citizens of the 

69 



HILL AND ALLIED FAMILIES 

town. He was town recorder in 1650, acting in that capacity for 
several years, receiving town papers of value from Roger Ludlow, 
when the latter left Fairfield, in 1654. Mention is made in early 
colonial records of his having received a portion of his father's 
estate from his father-in-law, Mr. Greenleaf, his mother's second 
husband. (The term stepfather was not then in use). On Feb- 
ruary 13, 1670, he was granted the Lewis lot on the northwest corner 
of Newton square. His death occurred on December 19, 1684. He 
married, at Fairfield, Elizabeth Jones, daughter of Rev. John 
Jones, of that place. Their children were: 1. William, mentioned 
below. 2. Eliphalet, whose wife was Esther, died in 1695. 3. Jo- 
seph, died in 1696. 4. John, married Jane , and died in 1727. 

5. James. 6. Sarah, married Richard Widdon. 

III. William (3) Hill, son of William (2) and Elizabeth (Jones) 
Hill, was prominent publicly all his life, and died in 1728. He mar- 
ried Abigail, daughter of David Osborn, of Eastchester, on Octo- 
ber 7, 1691. Their children, born at Fairfield, were : 1. Abigail, 
born January 8, 1694. 2. Joseph, mentioned below. 3. William, 
baptized May 14, 1699, died young. 4. William, baptized June 12, 
1702. 5. David, born April 7, 1706. 6. Catherine, born January 
2, 1717. 

IV. Deacon Joseph Hill, son of William (3) and Abigail (Osborn) 
Hill, was born at Fairfield, Connecticut, April 1, 1697. He married 
Abigail Dimon, on March 30, 1731. Their children were : 1. Abi- 
gail, born March 21, 1732 ; married David Gould, lived in Fairfield, 
and died at an advanced age. 2. Sarah, born August 21, 1733 ; mar- 
ried William Wakeman; lived and died in Fairfield. 3. David, 
born April 22, 1737. 4. Ebenezer, mentioned below. 5. Jabez, born 
June 17, 1744; settled in Weston, Connecticut; was captain of a 
company in the Third Regiment of Light Horse, and major in May, 
1777; he served in the Danbury Alarm in 1777; married Sarah, 
daughter of Colonel John Read, of Redding, Connecticut. 6. Moses, 
born Jannary 11, 1748, died October 3, 1777. 

V. Ebenezer Hill, son of Deacon Joseph and Abigail (Dimon) 
Hill, was born February 26, 1742. He was a captain in the Revolu- 
tionary War from the beginning to the end, and was distinguished 
for his bravery. He married Mabel Sherwood, on January 17, 1765. 
She was born December 8, 1745, and died October 20, 1820. Eben- 
ezer Hill lived in Fairfield for fifty-six years, and was a member of 
the Congregational church. His children were: 1. David, born 
July 7, 1766, died December 24, 1848. 2. Ebenezer, born February 
20, 1768, died May 5, 1842. 3. Seth, mentioned below. 4. Dimon, 
born in October, 1771, died December 8, 1793. 5. Joseph, born May 

70 






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^ 



HILL AND ALLIED FAMILIES 

3, 1774, died April 19, 1816. 6. Mabel, born in September, 1776, died 
July 8, 1779. 7. Eleanor, born August 29, 1778, died July 22, 1779. 
8. Jabez, born June 13, 1780, died Aus^ist 2, 1807. 9. Esther, born 
November 26, 1785, died August 27, 1804. 

VI. Seth Mill, son of Ebenezer and Mabel (Sherwood) Hill, 
was born December 22, 1769. He settled in Weston, where he mar- 
ried, and lived the remainder of his life. He died in Weston at the 
age of fifty-five years. His children were: 1. Polly, born March 
5, 1795, died December 30, 1824. 2. Joseph, born February 19, 
1797, died August 20, 1832, of cholera. 3. Wakeman, mentioned 
oelow. 4. Edward, born November 10, 1814, died November 15, 
1875. 

VII. Wakeman Hill, second son of Seth Hill, was born November 
23, 1804, died August 16, 1881. He settled in Easton, Connecticut, 
where he married Eunice Lyon, born 1806, died March 11, 1870, 
daughter of William and Elinor (Bradley) Lyon, of that town. He 
was highly respected and honored among his townsmen, and was 
noted for his strict integrity. Children : 1. William Bradley, born 
August 10, 1828, died October 10, 1876. 2. Joseph Wakeman. born 
June 20, 1832, died November 6, 1864. 3. Seth, mentioned below. 4. 
Lloyd, born February 6, 1841 r died May 30, 1884. 5. Helen Mar- 
shall, born January 23, 1844, married, September 11, 1861, Fred- 
erick Riley Scribner. 

VIII. Dr. Seth Hill, son of W T akeman and Eunice (Lyon) Hill, 
-was born in Easton, Connecticut, on July 16, 1836, died October 25, 
1912. The impression left on the community by the death of a pub- 
lic man is calculated, perhaps coldly, in direct proportion to his 
value and usefulness in it. But when the man whom death has 
taken from the community has deeply graven his image and char- 
acter on the minds of the people, through altruistic, unselfish ser- 
vice, of lifetime duration, the grief, which otherwise is little more 
than formal custom, becomes real and manifest. Not only was Dr. 
Seth Hill an eminent and skilled physician, but in and out of his 
professional capacity he was "the friend of all the world," practic- 
ing the great ideal of the medical profession, the great leveller, ser- 
vice of humanity. Dr. Hill was a gentleman of the old school, 
serene of nature, courteous, generous, finding no favor or service 
too great to perform for the friend, enemy or stranger, suffering 
or in need. 

Dr. Hill received his early education in the elementary schools 
of Easton, the town where he was born. He later attended the 
Easton Academy preparatory to entering college. After being 
.graduated from that institution, he entered the Medical School of 

7i 



HILL AND ALLIED FAMILIES 

Yale University. Here his work was of an unusually fine quality, 
and lie was graduated with honors, with the class of 1866, the vale- 
dictorian. He received the degree of Doctor of Medicine, and imme- 
diately started to establish a practice for himself in Bridgeport, 
Connecticut. He remained here but a short time, however, remov- 
ing next to Bethlehem, and from there to Stepney, where he finally 
established himself in practice. The value of Dr. Hill's services 
were such that his reputation was country -wide. He became a leader 
in his profession, and his practice grew to be one of the largest of 
the region of Stepney, Easton, Trumbull and the surrounding coun- 
try. He came to be looked up to not only by the people, but by 
other medical men of the vicinity, a man to be sought for aid and 
advice, a silent, cool well of skill and constructive ability, to be 
trusted in the extreme. 

Dr. Hill married (first) Phebe M. Dayton, of Towanda, Pennsyl- 
vania, who died August 29, 1870. He married (second) on June 19, 
1872, Mary Frances Nichols, of Tashua, Trumbull, Connecticut, the 
daughter of William and Mary Melissa (Mallett) Nichols. The 
parents of Mrs. Hill, who survives Dr. Hill, were both members of 
families well known and long established in Connecticut. 

In addition to his extremely active career in the medical profes- 
sion, Dr. Hill was keenly interested in the political issues of his day 
and took an active part in political aff airs, becoming the local leader 
of the Eepublican party in his vicinity. He was a member of the 
county school board, and as such brought a number of much needed 
reforms. In the year 1880 he was elected to the Connecticut State 
Legislature. Dr. Hill was on the staff of the Bridgeport Hospital ;, 
president of the State Medical Society ; a member of the American 
Medical Society; and in 1884 president of the Fairfield County 
Medical Society. In 1901 Dr. Hill became one of the trustees of the 
Staples Free School of Easton, and did much valuable work in this 
ofl&ce. 

Dr. Hill died on February 5, 1912, and was buried at Easton, Con- 
necticut. 

(The Nichols Line.) 

Arms — Gules two bars ermine, in chief three suns or. 

Crest — Out of a ducal coronet or, a demi-lion rampant, argent 

Motto — Esse quam videri. 

The Nichols family is a very famous one in the State of Connecti- 
cut, and has furnished in the two and one-half centuries since its 
founding men who have been prominent in nearly every phase of 
public life in the State, and whose names are familiar in its history. 
The family was established in the year 1639 on what was then known 
as "Nichol's Farms," in the town of Trumbull, Fairfield county, 
Connecticut. The land on which the settlement was made embraced 

72 



HILL AND ALLIED FAMILIES 

10,000 acres of land given the progenitor of the Nichols family by 
Colonial grant. 

Mrs. Seth Hill, of Stepney, Connecticut, is a descendant of this 
famous familv. She is the daughter of William and Mary M. (Mal- 
lett) Nichols* (See Mallett VI). 

William Nichols was born in Trumbull, Connecticut, on November 
30, 1811, the son of Captain John Nichols. As was almost hered- 
itary in the family, he became one of the prominent men of the 
town. He was a well known figure in the Democratic politics of 
Trumbull, and though not an office seeker in any sense of the word 
held many public trusts in the town. He was a devoted member of 
the Protestant Episcopal Christ Church of Trumbull, in which he 
held practically all the offices open to laymen. He was always 
actively interested in the work of the parish and was its treasurer 
for many years. William Nichols died at about the age of seventy- 
five years. He married (first) April 19, 1846, Mary Melissa Mal- 
let, daughter of Aaron and Eunice (Beach) Mallett. She died on 
February 27, 1852, at the age of thirty-three years. He married 
(second) Emeline A. Blakeman, who died on February 13, 1916. 
The child of the first marriage was Mary Frances Nichols, men- 
tioned below. 

Mary Frances Nichols, daughter of William and Mary Melissa 
(Mallett) Nichols, was born in Tashua, Trumbull, Connecticut, on 
November 5, 1847. She married on June 19, 1872, Seth Hill, M. D., 
of Tashua, Trumbull. (See Hill). Mrs. Hill is now a resident of 
Tashua, Trumbull, Connecticut. 

(The Mallett Line.) 
Mallett Arms — Gules, a fesse ermine, between six oval buckles or. 

The name Mallett is an ancient and honorable one, of French ori- 
gin. The majority of the people bearing the name in the Atlantic 
and New England sections of the United States trace their ancestry 
to John Mallett, a French Huguenot, who fled from France after the 
revocation of the Edict of Nantes by Louis XIV, in 1680. 

Previous to the religious persecution of the Huguenots by the 
Catholics in France, David Mallett, father of the progenitor of the 
family in America, was a man of some prominence in France during 
the reign of Louis XIV, and held a position of high rank in the 
army, in which five of his sons also served. From very early times the 
family of Mallet has been very well known in France, Switzerland 
and England, and its members have held high positions in the official 
life of the communities in which they have resided. Both in France 
and in Switzerland many of the name have been distinguished in lit- 
erature, the professions, as well as in the army and the navy. Rep- 
resentatives of the family are very scattered, but all trace their 

73 



HILL AND ALLIED FAMILIES 

ancestry to the Norman tribe or family of Mallets, or Malets, who 
invaded France from Scandinavia early in the eighth century, be- 
tween the years 700 and 750 A. D. According to a letter written 
from Southampton, England, in September, 1682, General the Baron 
de Mallet Molesworth traces the origin of the name Mallet or Malet 
to a peculiar and distinguishing weapon carried by the tribe and 
used very effectively in combat, ''a long hammer, with a point at 
the other end" — a mallet with one side pointed, which was perhaps 
a forerunner of a type of battle-axe used later. Today in France 
members of this family, descendants of the ancient tribe, are to be 
' found nearly everywhere. 

The Mallett family was first established in England during the 
time of the Norman Conquest, when William the Conqueror came 
to England with his army of Norman nobles and soldiers. After the 
battle of Hastings and the installation of the feudal system of land 
tenure, England was exclusively in the hands of the Norman con- 
querors. In 1069, one of William's followers, William Mallet, was 
second in command of the castle of York, according to Hume. Wil- 
liam Mallet was killed, with three thousand men, in the assault upon 
the castle of the Danes. Robert de Mallet, one of the Norman nobles 
in England, is cited as among those nobles who influenced Robert, 
Duke of Normandy, to attempt to seize the English throne from his 
brother, Henry I. That the Mallets then in England were large 
and powerful landholders is certain, from the fact that there is men- 
tion made in early records of "the great estates of Robert Mallet," 
which were confiscated and later bestowed upon Stephen, after- 
wards King of England. 

The principal branch of the family in France is the Malet de 
Graville line. In the year 1530, one of the chiefs of this family, 
Jacques Mallet, a Huguenot, of Rouen, was compelled to leave 
France on account of persecution of those who adhered to the Prot- 
estant belief. He settled in Switzerland, where Protestantism then 
flourished under the rule of Calvin. In 1752, one of his descendants, 
Paul Henri Mallet, was called to a professorship of belles-lettres 
in the city of Copenhagen. Members of the family are still to be 
found in Geneva. 

After the revocation of the Edict of Nantes, persecution of the 
Huguenots became more terrible than before, due not only to the 
fear of the growing strength of Protestantism on the part of those 
high in civil and religious authority, but also to the poisoning of the 
ignorant public mind by the church and State, which were both in 
the hands of unscrupulous Catholics. After 1680 thousands of 
Huguenot families left France, some going to England, and some to 
Switzerland and America. Very early in that period, a colony of 
Huguenots of about one hundred and fifty families settled in New 
Oxford, Massachusetts; and in the early records of the towns of 

74 



HILL AND ALLIED FAMILIES 

Charlestown, Massachusetts; of Warren, Maine; and of Rhode 
Island, there is frequent reference to the name Mallett. 

7. David Mallett, hereinbefore mentioned, fled from France in 
1687, after the death by torture on the wheel of his brother and 
brother-in-law. He took refuge in England and there established 
himself as a physician in Yorkshire. He had five sons, one of whom 
went to Germany. His third son, John, was the progenitor of the 
family in America. 

//. John Mallett, son of David Mallett, was born in France, went 
to England in 1687 with his father, and a brother who also became 
a physician in Yorkshire. After the death of his father in England 
in 1691, John Mallett returned to France, secured some money and 
sailed with his wife and children, in a company of Huguenots bound 
for South Carolina. His vessel landed at Santee; two other shipa 
which made the same voyage discharged their passengers at Beau- 
fort. His wife and children died ; and he later returned to Europe, 
going to his brother in Germany, where for two years he served in 
the army. He again set sail for America, coming by way of New 
York to Santee. He filially located in the Huguenot town of New 
Rochelle, New York, about 1695. There are contradictory opinions 
as to the status and occupation of John Mallett, the immigrant 
ancestor. One is that he was a man of wealth, and succeeded in 
bringing some of his property with him to America. The other is 
that he was a ship carpenter, and that he escaped from France, 
probably Lyons, with only his broad-axe and his Bible. A further 
version of the second theory tells of his being secreted in a car- 
penter's chest by his young wife and thus carried on board ship, 
and that his Bible was hidden in a block of wood shaped like a foot- 
stool. The former theory is substantiated by the position of John 
Mallett in America and his various extensive land purchases, which 
would seem to indicate that he was a man of means. There is no 
proof of that latter theory. The branch of the family herein dealt 
with uphold the former. According to a letter written by General 
Peter Mallet, of 'Wilmington and Fayetteville, North Carolina, a 
grandson of John Mallett, John Mallett purchased lands on the 
Santee river, in South Carolina, and settled his nephew Peter, who 
came to America on the first voyage, there ; he also bought land in 
Boston, Massachusetts, and settled his brother in that place. For 
himself he bought land at New Bochelle, New York, but soon 
changed it for other land at Fairfield, Connecticut, where he was 
residing as early as 1710. He married, in 1695, Johanna Lyon, 
born in France in 1663, and died at the age of one hundred and one 
years, September 16, 1764. She was a woman of great physical 
strength and endurance. Her will is dated March 18, 1763, and 

75 



HILL AND ALLIED FAMILIES 

bequeaths to her sons John and David. On the west side of Division 
street (or Mutton lane), now known as Park avenue in Bridgeport, 
but at that time the dividing line between Bridgeport and Fairfield, 
and even earlier the line between Stratford and Fairfield, 
there stood until 1893 a plain frame dwelling, known for many years 
as the Mallett homestead. This house originally stood on a tract 
of land of forty acres, originally the property of John Mallett, as is 
evidenced in several deeds and in the land records of the towns of 
Fairfield and Stratford. This land is now occupied by many of the 
fine residences and by a portion of the Park at Seaside, Bridgeport. 
The farm, bounded on the north by the highway, south by the Sound, 
east and west by the lands of Timothy Wheeler and Isaac Hall, was 
deeded to John Mallett 's sons on March 20, 1710, by Lewis Lyon, a 
merchant of Milford, Connecticut, and brother of Johanna Lyon, 
wife of John Mallett. The deed was given to David, John and 
Lewis Mallett, in consideration of two hundred pounds paid to Lewis 
Lyon by their father, John Mallett; it contained also the proviso 
that Jane (or Johanna Mallett) their mother, "shall have the full 
use of ye above said farm and 'building' during her natural life." 
On September 10, 1736, Lewis Mallett, of Milford, leased the home- 
stead to his father and mother, John and Jane Mallett, in consider- 
ation of one bushel of apples yearly, also a quit-claim of same date. 
In addition to this property just mentioned John Mallett bought of 
Agur Tomlinson, on May 5, 1710, thirty-two acres of land at Taw- 
tashua Hill, for thirty-two pounds. In 1739 and 1740, deeds are 
recorded showing gifts from John Mallett to his sons David and 
John of two hundred and thirty acres of land at Tashua, and a gift 
to his daughter, Johanna Angevine, of land in Stratford, which is 
thought to have been situated on the north side of the King's High- 
way, (now North avenue), near its intersection with Park avenue. 
These lands at Tashua are still in possession of the descendants of 
John Mallett in the direct line, mostly, however, in the line of David 
Mallett, the oldest son mentioned below. John Mallett died on 
September 23, 1745, and is buried beside his wife in the old Strat- 
field Cemetery. The inventory of his estate amounted to £2,039. 
He had disposed of the greater portion of his landed property before 
his death. The children of John and Johanna (Lyon) Mallett, all 
born in Stratfield, Connecticut, were : 1. David, mentioned below. 
2. Captain John, Jr., born October 16, 1703 ; married Sarah, daugh- 
ter of Samuel French ; died December 5, 1742. 3. Lewis, born Au- 
gust 14, 1706; married Eunice, daughter of Ezekiel Newton; died 
September 7, 1790. 4. Johanna, born March 10, 1710; married 
Zachariah Angevine. 5. Peter, born March 31, 1712 ; married Mary 
Booth(?); died January 10, 1760. 

111. David (2) Mallett, son of John and Johanna (Lyon) Mallett, 

76 



HILL AND ALLIED FAMILIES 

was born in Stratfield, Connecticut, on January 10, 1701, and resi- 
ded at Tashua, Connecticut, where he was an extensive landholder. 
He died there August 22, 1777. He married Esther Angevine, a 
Frenchwoman, of New Rochelle, where she was born in 1711. She 
died on January 16, 1787, at Tashua. David Mallett's will is dated 
March 15, 1775, and mentioned his wife, his daughter Esther Wheel- 
er, and his three sons, John, David, and Joseph, but does not men- 
tion his daughter, Hannah Porter. His children were: 1. John, 
born October 28, 1731 ; married Rebecca Porter, September 25, 
1753; died May 25, 1784. 2. Hannah, born September 10, 1733; 
married Seth Porter, December 27, 1750. 3. David, Jr., mentioned 
below. 4. Joseph, born March 25, 1740 ; married, February 4, 1768, 
Mrs. Jerusha Middlebrook; died September 15, 1818. 5. Esther, 
born January 1, 1745; married (first) November 26, 1761, John 
Wheeler; married (second) David Summers; died May 9, 1818. 

IV. David (3) Mallett, son of David (2) and Esther (Angevine) 
Mallett, was born November 15, 1735, at Tashua, Connecticut, and 
after a lifelong residence in that place died there on July 16, 1822. He 
married (first) Rhoda French, the daughter of Gamakill French, 
born in 1740, and died March 5, 1777. He married (second) Bethia 
Bennett, daughter of Gideon Bennett, born in 1749, and died Novem- 
ber 14, 1788. He married (third) Polly Youngs, who was born in 
1747, and died March 13, 1835. 

David Mallett Jr. kept an inn at The Old Landlord House, north 
of Chubb brook on Tashua street. His family were sometimes 
called the Nepucket Mallets, according to Anna S. Mallett in her 
genealogy of the Mallett family. This was in allusion to a story 
connecting him with the Indians. An Indian squaw lived on the 
west side of Tashua street, between Chubb brook and the place now 
owned by George A. Mallett's heirs. Upon one occasion, .before 
going to "The Salts," as the shore of Long Island Sound was then 
called, she turned her spotted pig, "Nepucket," into the woods 
nearby to feed upon the nuts while she was away. Her absence 
was so prolonged that David Mallett, thinking that she must be 
dead, caught and killed the pig. Sometime afterward the squaw 
returned and brought, suit against him for the pig, "Nepucket," of 
whom there remained only a piece of pork. The children of David 
Mallett, Jr. were: 1. Philo, baptized May 22, 1762; married Eu- 
nice Wheeler, July 6, 1780; resided in Canajoharie, New York, 
where he died April 2, 1820. 2. Benjamin, baptized December 18, 
1763 ; married Olive French, January 6, 1785 ; died November 6, 
1798. 3. Hannah, baptized June 28, 1761 ; married Isaac Edwards, 
February 3, 1777 ; died before 1848 in Waterville, New York, where 
she resided. 4. Zachariah, married, May 18, 1790, Abigail Osborne ; 
resided in Paris, Oneida county, New York. 5. Aaron, mentioned 

77 



HILL AND ALLIED FAMILIES 

below. 6. Ehoda, born May 12, 1765 ; married Sanf ord, and re 

moved to Illinois, where she died before 1848. 7. Bethia, baptized 
September 30, 1781; married (first) in 1801, Jonathan Xichols; 
married (second) James Hall. 8. Huldah, baptized January 19, 
17S3; married, in 1S07, Amos Hawley Wheeler; died February 23, 
1834. 9. David, baptized August 15, 1784; died unmarried, June 
3, 1848. 10. Charity, born September 20, 1788; married, Decem- 
ber 25, 1811, Stephen Beach, son of Neherniah Beach; died Febru- 
ary 8, 1835. 

V. Aaron Mallett, son of David (3) Mallett, was baptized June 30, 
1771. He was a resident of Tashua all his life and died there on De- 
cember 31, 1855. He married, February 24, 1805, Eunice Beach. 
She was born July 1, 1873, and died in Tashua, November 27, 1860. 
Their children were : 1. Mary Eliza, born July 3, 1806, died June 
3, 1817. 2. George Albert, born Januarv 24, 1808; married, De- 
cember 24, 1833, Charity Xichols ; died March 19, 1893. 3. David 
Beach, born June 14, 1S10, died unmarried, September 13, 1846. 4. 
Stephen Summers, born May 1, 1812; married Flora M. Sherman, 
daughter of Nathaniel Sherman, May 17, 1843. 5. Ehoda Clarissa, 
born August 16, 1814; married, December 24, 1849, Ebenezer T. 
Sanf ord. 6. Aaron Benjamin, born December 11, 1816; married 
(first) November 1, 1843, Jane Elizabeth Hawley, who died May 
25, 1851; married (second) December 22, 1851, Lydia A. Sherman, 
who died April 24, 1884. 7. Mary Melissa, mentioned below. 8. 
William Alanson, born May 25, 1821; married (first) September 28, 
1851, Sarah Augusta Wakeley, who died January 23, 1S61 ; married 
(second) June 18, 1862, Hannah Elizabeth Walker. 9. Parthenia 
Eliza, born April 27, 1824; married, May 11, 1864, William W. 
Wheeler. 

VI. Mary Melissa Mallett, daughter of Aaron and Eunice (Beach) 
Mallett, was born in Tashua, Connecticut, March 8, 1819, and died 
there February 27, 1852. She married, April 19, 1846, William 
Nichols, son of Captain John Nichols, of Trumbull, Connecticut, who 
was born November 30, 1811, and died January 10, 1887. Their chil- 
dren were: 1. Mary Frances Nichols, born November 5, 1S47; mar- 
ried, June 19, 1872, Seth Hill, M. D., of Tashua. 2. Child, unnamed, 
who was born and died on February 27, 1852. (For further reference 
see Hill Family). 

The part of the Mallett family in the wars of our country is an hon- 
able and distinguished one. They gave their sons and their money 
freely. Descendants in the direct and collateral lines of the pro- 
genitor, David Mallett, who served in the Revolutionary W x ar, were : 
Captain Lewis Mallett, Corporal Lewis Mallett, Private Miles Mal- 
lett, Private John Mallett, General Peter Mallett, Corporal Philip 

78 



HILL AND ALLIED FAMILIES 

Mallett, Commissary Daniel Mallett, Corporal John P. Mallett, Da- 
vid Baldwin and Lewis Balden (died in a prison ship). Against 
this array of staunch supporters of the cause of Independence are 
placed the names of Matthew Mallett and Stephen Mallett, Tories, 
the former of whom lost his life in the English army ; Stephen Mal- 
lett had his property confiscated "because he had joined the enemy 
of the United States." 

During the War of 1S12, William Mallett served under Comman- 
der Philip Walker at Bridgeport in 1814; David Mallett, under 
Commander Walker, from September 30, to October 3; under Com- 
mander Charles Parks, Jesse Mallett, from July 12 to September 
17. Isaac Mallett enlisted in 1812 from Catharine, New York, be- 
came ill and died in the service near Buffalo. The following is the 
role of members of the family who served in the Union army in the 
Civil War: In Company G, Fiftieth Engineers, New York: Ser- 
geant Svlvester T. Malette, Ephraim Malette, Henry Wisner Ma- 
lette, William Smith Malette, John Fiddler Malette ; Huson W. Ma- 
lette, died in prison at Salisbury, North Carolina; George Able 
Mallette, Connecticut Volunteers ; William Averill, Myron Couch, 
Joel Guild, Charles Bacon, all killed ; Eli Plumb Beardsley, Fiftieth 
Eegiment, New York Volunteers; Eli Plumb Burton; Rollin Stiles 
Burton, died June 30, 1863 ; Jerome M. Esney, died September 12 r 
1862. In the Confederate army : Third Regiment, North Carolina, 
Colonel Peter Mallett, A. Fridge Mallett; Forty-first Eegiment, 
North Carolina, Lieutenant-Colonel Edward Mallett, Adjutant Rich- 
ardson Mallett; First Regiment, North Carolina, Cecil Mallett, 
John W. Mallett. Third Regiment, Lieutenant C. P. Mallett ; Sur- 
geon Du Ponceau Jones, died; Edward Jones, Edward Jones Ec- 
cles, George D. Hooper, Charles M. Hooper. 

A journal of about one hundred and eighty pages, written by Da- 
vid Mallett, the founder of the family, and John Mallett, his son, and 
the immigrant ancestor, was destroyed during the Revolution, but 
was reproduced in some measure from memory by a descendant, 
General Peter Mallett, who was familiar with its pages. The fol- 
lowing excerpts which have bearing on the above mentioned journal 
and the early history of the family have been taken from a letter of 
General Peter Mallett, which explains the loss of the journal, and 
reconstructs the family history: 

In 1769-70, an Irish gentleman, Mr. Bennis, stayed with me, who read the French 
language better than English, as he received his education in that country. It so hap- 
pened that he got a sight of the French books given me by my grandmother, among them 
a great deal of the laws, trials, disputes. &c, and often the name of my grandfather men- 
tioned. Mr. Bennis enquired of me if I knew the history of my forefathers. I told him 
not, but my grandmother had given me what she called a journal, written by my great- 
grandfather. I told Bennis of what my good grandmother had given me, but I was 
never taught to write or read French, although I could speak no other language, but had 
now almost forgot to speak it; upon which Bennis undertook to translate it into Eng- 
lish. If I recollect right, there were 180 pages or more, written in a large book, and 

79 



HILL AND ALLIED FAMILIES 

neatly in the style, and often the custom with the General and Field officers in the army. 
This book and the English of it, I had laid up carefully at Cross Creek, now Fayette- 
ville, until 1781, when a Colonel Fannen and his troop of horse came there and took the 
town, broke open the trunks and this, with other books and papers, was destroyed, which, 
of course, deprives me of giving you a full account; but as 1 went over the translation 
of Bennis frequently, and have still in remembrance the substance of what related to 
my two grandfathers, the rirst part of which was written by the hand of the elder, 
(whose name was David), the latter part by his son John, my grandfather. 

My great-grandfather, and his family, lived in Rochelle, France. He had consider- 
able command there, either in the army,- of civil department, in Louis the 14th time. 
This is clear — because in his book were copies of several letters from Le Tellier, who 
was, it seems, a judge appointed by the King, probably for the purpose only to try the 
Calvanists. Bennis read me of a proclamation, directed to David Mallett, Commissary 
of the 4th Division. Le Tellier writes at the bottom of this proclamation, a note in very 
respectful terms, inviting my great-grandfather to recant, and draw his followers over; 
advises by no means to suffer his family, or those who relied on him, to go near these 
Preachers, then about, not to depend too much on a Mr. Colbrit, tells him his son the 
Marquis of Louvois shall meet him at some private place, &c. However, it seems that 
my great-grandfather would not listen to him ; that he, and his five sons led many 
thousands. 

At last the King's troops turned out, took Rochelle, put to death all before them — 
indeed the cruelties committed among women and children, by the soldiers, is beyond 
expression. My great-grandfather, with his sons, and such of the family as were 
spared, made a good retreat into the country, where they made a stand for some time. 

In 1686 there were four hundred officers broken on the wheel, among them my 
grandfather's brother, brother-in-law, and their wives and children, either burned, or 
put to death other ways, for signing some text to a Rev'd Protestant. My great-grand- 
father and grandfather, with many thousands, forced their way to some shipping, and 
landed in England in 1687. From every appearance they brought with them a great 
deal of money and many servants. In 1691 my great-grandfather died ; his age I do not 
recollect. My grandfather returned to France privately, got away his wife, two chil- 
dren and some money, and two ships, which had either been concealed for him or given 
in payment for some property. These ships came to England. There my grandfather 
takes in a number of passengers of his own country, and with three other ships sailed 
for S. Carolina. Three of the ships arrived off Santee, two, to the south. . . . 







80 




Post=Hiller Families 

Arms — Argent, on a fesse gules, a lion passant between two roundels of the first, 
between three arches with columns of the second. 

Crest — A demi-lion proper, tongued gules, resting his sinister paw on an arch with 
columns, gules. 

Motto — In mea spes omnis. 

F the several pioneer settlers hearing: this surname, none 
was more prominent in the early annals of our country 
than the founder of the Long Island family of Post. 
Richard Post, the founder, came into the colonies at 
their foundation; there is authoritative substantiation 
for the belief that Abraham Post, the ancestor of the well-known 
New York Posts, was his brother or a very near kinsman ; both ably 
and notably achieved prominence and influence in their New World 
homes and left to their posterity a heritage fruitful of courage, 
character and rectitude. The Post name is traceable back to remote 
antiquity with its origin in Germany or Holland, its representatives 
early removing from Holland to England. The olden records ren- 
der the surname both with and without various prefixes. 

(The Family in Europe.) 

Herren Van Post is mentioned, as early as A. D. 980, as having 
taken an active part in the attack made upon Nettelberg, Germany. 
Adolph Post was a member of the Reichstag of Minden in A. D. 
1030, and Ludwig and Heinrich Post were witnesses to a deed in 
A. D. 1275. Herman Post had lands granted to him in A. D. 1399. 
He was an uncle of Heinrich Post, and both were progenitors of 
prominent families. 

Goosen Post (or Van Der Post), a descendant of Heinrich Post, 
held an honorable position as a citizen of Arnheim, Gilderland, 
Netherlands, in A. D. 1376. He married Janitje, daughter of Peter 
and Jane (Rapelje) Van Zul, and they had issue: Peter Post, of 
whom forward; George Post. 

Peter Post (or Van Der Post), in A. D. 1399 owned land in or near 
Elsfot; he appears to have married Annetje, daughter of George 
and Elsi (Meyers) Suydam, of Sivolle. 

Peter Arnold Van Der Post, probably great-great-grandson of 
Peter Van der Post and Annetje (Suydam) Van der Post, was born 
about 1515; married, September 15, 1539, Marragridje Bogert, 

8i 



POST-HILLER 

daughter of Jan Bogert. Issue : 1. Jan Van der Post, born about 
1540, lived in Oudenarde. 2. Panwel Van der Post, of -whom for- 
ward. 3. Sarah Van der Post, born about 1546. 

Panivel Van Der Post, born about 1544, son of Peter Arnold Van 
der Post and Marragridje (Bogert) Van der Post, was an iron 
founder in Oudenarde, and settled in Kent, England. Married, 
February 7, 1571, Sarah Van Gelder, daughter of Abraham Van 
Gelder. Issue : 1. Abraham Van der Post, born about 1572. 2. 
Sarah Van der Post, born about 1574; married Isaac Clerk, of 
Maidstone, Kent, England, 1607. 3. Susannah Van der Post, born 
about 1576. 4. Jan Van der Post, born about 1578. 5. Arthur Van 
der Post, of whom forward. 

Arthur Post (Van Der Post), third son of Panwel Van der Post 
and Sarah (Van Gelder) Van der Post, was born in Oudenarde, 
and baptized August 26, 1580. In a deed dated June 19, 1644, "be- 
ing of greal age," he gives to his cousin Richard Van Mulhen 
£10, and to his second son Stephen and his wife Margaret all his 
lands and tenements in Eastling "formerly in the possession of my 
eldest son Richard, being now in New England or some parts beyond 
the seas." His youngest son, Panwel, received all his wearing 
apparel. Married, February 2, 1614, in Maidstone, Kent, England, 
Bennet Lambe, daughter of Richard Lambe. Issue : 1. Richard 
Post, of whom forward. 2. Stephen Post, born November 27, 1618. 
3. Panwel Post, born September 3, 1619. 

(The Family in America.) 

J. Richard Post, eldest son of Arthur Post and Bennet (Lambe) 
Post, was born in Maidstone, Kent, England, February 4, 1617. He 
is found in Lynn, Massachusetts Bay Colony, in 1640, and in South- 
ampton (the first English town founded on Long Island, then in the 
Hartford colony), land being granted him in that town in May, 
1643, as a home lot. Soon after, an addition of land was made to 
that which he already possessed. He was chosen sergeant of the 
town's trainband in 1651. Later, he was elected constable, an office 
of much influence at that period. He was made lieutenant, and it 
was by that title that he was most generally known. The fact that 
he was owner of a £150 right of commonage, or a full share, shows 
that he was a man of means and had much real estate. In 1681, 
he gave lands to his son John, and in 1687 he made an additional 
gift of lands to John, and also bestowed land upon his son Joseph. 
Finally, as old age approached, he gave to his son-in-law, Benjamin 
Foster, and his wife Martha, his house and home lot and also a tract 
of land at a place called Littleworth, stipulating that they were 
to take care of and support him and his wife for the remainder of 
their lives. In 1676, he was one of the patentees of Southampton 

82 



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who were named in the patent granted by Governor Andros. His 
homestead, which he gave to his son-in-law, was in modern times 
the home lot of Captain Charles Howell. It was in the center of the 
village, on the east side of Main street, and after a lapse of more 
than two hundred years, became the property of Henry H. Post, a 
descendant of the lieutenant, and the buildings erected upon it are 
called the Post Block. The land at Littleworth continued in the 
possession of the descendants of Benjamin Foster until recent times, 
the last owner of the name being Captain Seldon Foster. Married 
Dorothy Johnson. Issue: 1. Martha Post; married Benjamin 
Foster. 2. Thomas Post. 3. Joseph Post, died November 10, 1721, 
aged seventy -two years. 4. John Post, of whom forward. 

II. John Post, third son of Richard Post and Dorothy (Johnson) 
Post, was born in Southampton, Long Island, about 1616. By inher- 
itance, or by gift from his father and by purchase, he became a large 
land owner and was among the most prominent citizens of his com- 
munity. The homestead of John Post was on the east side of Main 
street at the "North End," and included all the land between the 
Commercial Hotel and the homestead of the late Lewis Jagger. His 
house stood a little north of the house of John F. Fairview and 
relics of it were found in excavations in late years. The homestead 
which John Post received from his father he left to his son Jere- 
miah. It was left by Jeremiah to his son Joseph, and by him in 
turn to his son Samuel, who had an only daughter, Elizabeth, who 
married Albert Reeves. Thence, it descended to their daughter, 
Elizabeth, who married Lemuel Wick, and she left it to her cousin 
Harriet, wife of Captain Jetur R. Rogers. The large lot on which 
the "Water Works stands also comprised a part of the estate. The 
N f ollowing is an abstract of his will : 

"In the name of God, Amen. I. John Post, of the town of Southampton in the 
East Riding of Yorkshire, I leave to my son John Post my house and home and all my 
land adjoining and my close at the head of the creek and a £50 Right of Commonage. 
I leave to my son Jeremiah the house and home lot of my father, that he hath given me, 
and the close that was my father's between the mill path and the Cob pound path. To my 
son Richard I leave all my close at the Long Springs, and one acre of land lying by it 
and a £50 right to land at Meox. I leave to my three sons, my £150 Right on Hog Neck 
and all my lands west of Canoe Place and my land in the Great Plains. I leave to my 
five daughters, Sarah, Dorothy, Martha, Mary and Deborah, £5 each when married." 

This will, dated December 9, 1687, was proved at the Court of 
Sessions, March 21, 1688, and shows that he died before his father. 
He makes his wife Mary executrix, and his sons were to live with her 
until they were of age. 

All the families of the name on the east end of Long Island and 
numerous branches in Pennsylvania and elsewhere are descended 
from Captain John Post, son of John, son of Lieutenant Richard 
Post. They have always held a prominent and respected position 

83 



POST-HILLER 

in the communities where they lived. In country neighborhoods 
" everybody knows everybody," and down to the latest generation 
it has been a saying in Southampton, the original home of the fam- 
ily: "There never was a Post that wasn't honest." 

Jeremiah and Richard Post (sons of John Post) removed to 
Hempstead, in Queens county; the former left no issue, and the 
branch of the family concerning which this sketch is written is 
descended from Richard Post, the younger brother. Both of these 
joined the Religious Society of Friends. 

John Post died before March 21, 1688. Married Mary . 

Issue : 1. Jeremiah Post, left no issue. Resided in Hempstead. 2. 
Richard Post, of whom below. 3. Captain John Post, born 1679; 

died March 3, 1711 ; married Mary . Issue : John, Joseph 

and Isaac Post. Resided in Southampton. 4. Sarah Post. 5. Dor- 
othy Post. 6. Martha Post. 7. Mary Post. 8. Deborah Post. 

III. Richard Post, son of John and Mary Post, was born about 
1668, in Southampton, and removed to Hempstead. He was a mem- 
ber of the Society of Friends. Married, about 1688, Phebe . 

Issue: 1. Richard Post, of whom below. 2. Joseph Post, born 
about 1691; married, 1739, "out of meeting." 3. John Post, born 
about 1693; married, 1740, Phebe, daughter of John and Abigail 
Willis; no male issue. 4. Phebe Post, born about 1693; married, 
1747, Joshua Powell. 

IV. Richard Post, son of Richard and Phebe Post, was born about 
1689. He was for many years the surveyor of highways for the 
town of Hempstead, and many of the most important roads were 
laid out by him. Married, first, in 1732, Mary, daughter of Henry 
and Phebe (Powell) Willis. Married, second, Elizabeth, daughter 
of William and Hannah (Powell) Willis. Issue (by first wife) : 1. 
Henry Post, of whom forward. 2. Richard Post, born May 17, 1735 ; 
married, August 31, 1757, Hannah Bedle, born August 28, 1734. 
3. Mary Post, born December 6, 1737. 4. jotham Post, born April 
14, 1740 ; died January 25, 1817 ; married, April 20, 1763, Winifred 
Wright ; she was born 1745, died 1811. Issue : Dr. Weight Post ; 
Joel Post, owner of Claremont, Riverside, New York. 5. James Post, 
died young. Issue (by second wife) : 6. Stephen Post. 

V. Henry Post, son of Richard Post and Mary (Willis) Post, was 
born in Hempstead, August 1, 1733. On May 15, 1758, his father, 
Richard Post, sold to him "a messuage or house and lot at the cor- 
ner of the highways, one leading from Wheatly down by John 
Willis house, and the other leading from Wheatly down by William 
Titus house. Bounded south by Thomas Cannons land and east, 
north, and west by highways. ' ' Married Mary Titus, daughter of 
Edmund Titus, and their descendants are the New York branch. 

84 



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POST-HILLER 

Issue: 1. Edmund Post, of whom below. 2. Samuel Post, mar- 
ried Jane Titus. Issue : i. Samuel Post, Jr., married Mary Upton ; 
issue: I. Mary Jane Post, married Henry Willets; issue: William 
Henry Willets, Charles Willets, of Glen Cove. ii. Amelia Post. 3. 
Daniel Post, married Rosetta Titus. Issue : i. William Post, mar- 
ried Esther Lawrence, ii. Mary Post, married Elwood Valentine. 
iii. Edward Post, married Elizabeth Post. Resided at White- 
stone, Long Island, where he led the life of a gentleman 
farmer; died December, 1870. 4. Lydia Post, died unmarried. 
5. Henry Post, born June 11, 1774, died January 30, 1847. He 
was one of the governors of the New York Hospital, and a 
partner in house of Grinnell, Minturn & Co. Married Mary 
Minturn, a descendant of the revolutionary general, Nathanael 
Greene. They were known as the Minturn-Posts. Issue : i. Mary 
Post. ii. Lydia Post. iii. Minturn Post, M. D., one of the gover- 
nors of the New York Hospital ; married Mary King ; four children. 
iv. Cornelia Post, married Rowland Mitchell ; had issue, v. Sarah 
Post. vi. Catharine Post, married Clayton Newbold ; issue : Hen- 
ry Newbold, Emlen Newbold. 6. Sarah Post, born about 1779 ; mar- 
ried John Titus, Jr. Issue : i. Maria Titus, married Stephen Willets. 
ii. Henry Titus, married Jane Conklin. iii. Lydia Titus, married Rob- 
ert Willets. iv. Robert Titus, v. William P. Titus, married Ann 
H. Conklin. vi. Elizabeth Titus, married Jacob Conklin. 7. Isaac 
Post, born about 1782; married, first, Hannah Kirby; married, 
second, Amy Kirby. Issue (by first wife) : i. Mary Post. ii. Ed- 
mund Post. Issue (by second wife) : iii. Jacob Post, died in 1917. 
iv. Joseph Post, died in 1916, married, 1854, Mary Jane Ashley; 
issue : I. Alice Ida Post, born February 7, 1855, married, June 30, 
1876, Frank Tabor; issue: Alice Post Tabor, born April 7, 1879; 
Leslie Tabor. II. Hattie Louise Post, born February 14, 1857, mar- 
ried, April 27, 1875, Thomas Pollay; issue: Hattie Elizabeth Pollay, 
born January 8, 1876 ; John Ashley Pollav, born November 26, 1880, 
died July 14, 1892. III. Jacob Kirby Post, born February 7, 1867 ; 
IV. Amy Post, born 1869 ; V. Wallace Edward Post, born February 
9,' 1871; VI. Mary Post, born March 11, 1878; VII. Ethel Post, 
born April 12, 1881. v. Willett Post, died in 1917 ; married Jose- 
phine Wheeler; issue: I. Ruden Post. 8. James Post, born June 
3, 1785, died September 8, 1870 ; married, November 23, 1811, Phebe 
"Willis, who died March 3, 1883. Issue: i. Elizabeth Post, born 
March 14, 1813, killed by lightning, June 26, 1858. ii. Sarah Post, 
born July 29, 1815, died unmarried, April 25, 1879. iii. Charles 
Post, born May 30, 1818, married Maria Amelia Townsend. Issue : 
I. Emily Post, married W T illiam M. Vallentine ; issue : Charles P. Val- 
lentine, married Annie Lawrie, and had two children; Helen Val- 
lentine, married Marshall, iv. Rachel Post, born September 

25, 1820, died unmarried, December 2, 1908. v. Mary W. Post, born 

85 



POST-HILLER 

June 26, 1823, died April 28, 1851 ; married, April 28, 1841, Elias 
Lewis; no issue, vi. Caroline Post, born June 26, 1826, died Jan- 
uary 12, 1882; married, October 26, 1817, Daniel Underbill. Is- 
sue: I. Samuel J. Underbill, married Emma Albertson, and had 
issue: Daniel Underbill; Richard Underbill, died young; Helen 
Underhill, married, October, 1916, L. Hollingsworth Wood; Henry 
Underhill, married Helen Wallower. Issue: Henry Willets Un- 
derbill; Catherine Underhill; Samuel J. Underbill. II. James 
Underbill, died young, vii. Esther L. Post, born October 11, 1S29 ; 
married, March 14, 1867, Solomon S. Jackson ; issue : Caroline 
Jackson, married Henry Hicks ; issue : Esther Hicks, Edwin Hicks, 
William Hicks, viii. Catharine Post, born January 19, 1833 ; mar- 
ried, September 25, 1883, Daniel Underhill, no issue. 

VI. Edmund Post, son of Henry and Mary (Titus) Post, 
was born March 27, 1762. Died June 6, 1830. Married, March 
5, 1788, Catherine, daughter of Joseph and Hannah Willets. Issue : 

1. Lydia Post, married Isaac, son of Stephen and Pbebe Rushmore. 
Issue: i. Stephen Rusbmore, married Mathilda, daughter of John 
and Sarah Powell. Issue : I. Edward Rusbmore, M. D., married 
Clara, daughter of Dr. Riley, of Baltimore ; issue : Ellen Riley Rush- 
more, Stephen Rusbmore, Alice Rushmore, William Rushmore, Ed- 
ward Bayard Rusbmore. II. J. Howard Rushmore, married Julia, 
daughter of David Barker; issue: Isaac Rushmore, David Rush- 
more, Edmund Rushmore. ii. Edmund Rushmore, died unmarried. 

2. Phebe Post, married Henry Willis. Issue : i. Samuel Willis. 
ii. Edmund Willis, married, first, Julia Lawton; second, Sarah L. 
Kirby Hallowell, widow of Geofrey Hallowell. iii. Catherine Wil- 
lis, iv. Isaac Willis, married Mary H. Seaman; issue: Henry Wil- 
lis, Robert Willis. 3. Edmund Post, Jr., born October 5, 1792, died 
July 2, 1832 ; married November 22, 1815, Mary Rushmore. Issue : 
i. Henry Post, married Elizabeth Wood: issue: Stephen W. Post; 
John W. Post, married Phebe Hicks, and had issue : Herbert Post, 
Arthur Post, Bessie Post; Martha Post; Edmund Post; Charles 
Post, died young ; William Post, deceased ; Mary M. Post. ii. Robert 
Post, married Betsey Haviland ; issue : Edmund Post, Pbebe Anna 
Post, Isaac Post. iii. Lydia Post, died unmarried, iv. Edmund 
Post, married Lydia Titus; two children, died young, v. Stephen 
R. Post, married, January 18, 1866, Caroline B. Morgan. Issue: 
I. Helen Buckley Post, born January 1, 1867, married Arthur L. 
Frothingham. II. Henry M. Post, born October 12, 1873. III. 
Charles Morgan Post, born September 16, 1875. IV. Morgan Buck- 
ley Post, born September 7, 1879, married Agnes Margaret Morgan, 
May 5, 1906, died November, 1912 ; issue : Agnes Morgan Post, born 
March 20, 1907; Helen Buckley Post, born October 19, 1908. 4. 
Isaac Post. 5. Joseph Post, of whom forward. 

86 




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POST-HILLER 

VII. Joseph Post, son of Edmund Post and Catherine (Willets) 
Post, was born November 30, 1S03. He became a venerable and 
much esteemed member of the Society of Friends, was a pioneer 
abolitionist, and a warmly attached friend and steadfast co-worker 
of William Lloyd Garrison, Wendell Phillips, Isaac T. Hopper, 
Lucretia Mott, and others. With his beloved wife he was among the 
earliest to welcome the movement for the equal enfranchisement of 
women, was a devoted friend of peace, of temperance, of social 
purity, and an equal standard of morality for both men and women. 
As of Whittier's "Quaker of the Olden Time," so of him it may 
fittingly be said: 

How calm and firm and true. 
Unspotted by its wrongs and crime, 

He walked the dark earth through, 
The lust of power, the love oi gain, 

The thousand lures of sin 
Around him, had no power to stain 

The purity within. 

Died January 17, 1888, in Westbury, Long Island, aged eighty-five 
years. Married, September, 1828, Mary W. Robbins; she was born 
November 25, 1806, died November 21, 1892. Issue : 1. Elizabeth R. 
Post, married, first, in 1866, Edward Post : married, second, Jediah 
Prendegast Hiller; no issue; she resides at Old Westbury, Long 
Island. 2. Catherine Post, married, in 1865, Samuel Willis. Issue : 
i. Mary W. Willis, died March 11, 1916; married John Augustus 
Albertson ; issue : I. Ethel M. Albertson, married, October 29, 1913, 
Arthur Post. Issue : Richard Post, born January, 1914. II. Augus- 
tus Raymond Albertson, married, September 8, 1914, Harriet Cad- 
walader. Issue : John Augustus Albertson, born September, 1915. 
ii. Phebe P. Willis. 

Jediah Prendegast Hiller, son of Richard Hiller and Hannah 
(Garfield) Hiller, grandson of Jonathan and Johanna (Briggs) Hil- 
ler, great-grandson of Nathan and Abigail (Wing) Hiller, and great- 
great-grandson of Benjamin and Priscilla (Irish) Hiller, of Dart- 
mouth, Rhode Island, was born in Jamestown, Chautauqua county, 
New York, March 15, 1826. He was brought up on his father's farm 
at Jamestown, and in addition to assisting his father in cultivating 
the farm he engaged in mercantile business and for several years 
also prosecuted a profitable lumber business in Jamestown. He 
removed to Roslyn, Long Island, about 1880, where he became asso- 
ciated with William Willets in the purchase and sale of live stock, 
bringing to their yards cattle which were readily sold to the Long 
Island farmers for fattening, or for the production of milk and but- 
ter. In 1885 he removed to a fine farm at Old Westbury, which had 
been presented to his wife by her father, Joseph Post, in the well- 
known settlement of thrifty farmers. In Old Westbury he found 

87 



POST-HILLER 

congenial friends and neighbors, and his life of industry, fair deal- 
ing and conscientious fellowship won for him the love and esteem of 
all with whom he associated either in a social or business way. He 
proved himself a helpful, generous and sympathetic friend, and his 
experience in the business world rendered his advice, which he gave 
readily to all who consulted with him, valuable and appreciated. His 
concern in the civic welfare of the town and county was alert and 
continuous, and he supported all measures calculated to benefit the 
people of the community, and was at the same time a pronounced 
enemy to all measures that were questionable in their effects on the 
morality of the neighborhood in which he lived. He was a Demo- 
crat in national politics, but not a pronounced partisan. He lived 
to celebrate the anniversary of his seventy-third birthday, and his 
death on June 28, 1S99, was a sad bereavement in his home, his town 
and county, and wherever he was equally well known. 

He married, October 10, 1884, Elizabeth R. Post, daughter of Jo- 
seph and Mary W. (Bobbins) Post. [See Post]. 




88 



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Prof. Theodore Barrows Stowell 

Arms — Gules, a cross masculy argent. 

Crest — A dove, wings expanded argent, holding in the beak an olive branch proper. 



mm 



!H^ HERE is no more vital factor in community life than that 
of public education. The training of the youthful mind 
in the formulative stage along those lines which will 
prove most beneficial to it in later life is a task which 
to the community is a large and life-size problem. The 
more progressive the community, the greater the care and attention 
given to education. The more intelligent and capable the men into 
whose hands the direction of education is -given, the greater the 
value to themselves and the world are the recipients of the train- 
ing. It is admitted that a sound education is the best basis on which 
to begin a career in any walk of life. This fact is especially true in 
the business world. The sending of a youth into the battle of life 
equipped poorly or without the tools necessary for combat is no less 
criminal than the sending of an ocean liner on a voyage unequipped 
with life-savers sufficient for its passengers. The element of chance 
that the ship will sink is no less great than that the man will fail. 
The improvement in the quality of business education and prelim- 
inary training has increased a hundred fold within the past few dec- 
ades, due to an awakening on the part of the people to the absolute 
necessity of a good foundation on which to begin a career, and due 
also in a large degree to the demand for specially trained experts. 
Specialization along one particular line of effort has characterized 
the industrial world for a considerable period, and has been the 
cause of the existence of schools wherein men can be especially 
trained for work. In every city throughout the entire country are 
to be found schools devoted solely to education along sound busi- 
ness lines, and at the head of these schools are to be found educators 
of the highest order, men of keen business perceptions, the highest 
intellectual ability, able students of the times and the demands of the 
times in the world of commerce, finance, the industries, etc. It is 
becoming more and more impossible for the unskilled and untrained 
worker to find a place in the business world, which now demands the 
trained and efficient specialist in one line of work. The business 
schools and special schools of the country are fulfilling a well defined 
need in preparing those who come to them to better cope with the 
existing industrial conditions. The higher grade of these schools 
are of the greatest importance in the fields to which they minister, 

89 



PROF. THEODORE BARROWS STOWELL 

and the men who direct and manage them are of a recognized and 
high status in the ranks of educator. 

The late Professor Theodore Barrows Stowell, well-known educa- 
tor, and principal of the Bryant and Stratton Business College, of 
Providence, Rhode Island, was one of the most prominent educa- 
tors in the field of business of the past few decades. His prom- 
inence in Providence, however, extended beyond this field, for he 
was a well-known figure in the public life of the city and also in its 
club and social life. 

Professor Stowell was a native of the State of Connecticut, and a 
member of the prominent old Sowell family of New England. Immi- 
grants of the name were among the earliest in the New World, and 
their names are found on the early Colonial register of most of the 
colonies of New England. Professor Stowell was a descendant of 
the Connecticut branch of the family, and was the son of Stephen 
Sumner and Cornelia Williams (Stebens) Stowell, old and highly 
respected residents of the town of Mansfield Center, Tolland county, 
Connecticut, where he was born on July 8, 1847. Stephen Sumner 
Stowell was the owner of large property holdings in Mansfield Cen- 
ter, and a farmer on a large scale there. Here young Stowell grew 
up amid the healthful surroundings of the country life. He early 
evinced a strong taste for study, and was unusually proficient in his 
school training. He found a deep interest in literature, but with all 
his scholarly inclinations had in his nature the thrift and practical 
ability of the true New Englander, a keen business sense. Both 
of these elements were strong in his nature, and his life-work proved 
to be a harmonious combination of the two. He received the ele- 
mentary portion of his education at the Woodstock Academy, in the 
town of Woodstock, Connecticut. His was a nature which never 
ceased to strive after learning, and though he completed his formal 
schooling early in life, he continued an eager scholar to the time of 
his death. After his graduation from the Woodstock Academy, he 
entered the Connecticut State Normal School at New Britain, Con- 
nectciut, with the intention of preparing himself for the profession 
of teaching. The Connecticut State Normal College, at that time 
the best institution of its kind in New England, offered an excep- 
tional course in the line which he intended to pursue for his life's 
work. Upon completing a course there, during which he showed 
himself to be a student of more than ordinary ability, Professor 
Stowell went to Bridgeport, Connecticut. Here he became a teacher 
in the Toilsome Hill District. His ability in handling pupils of a 
school soon brought him to the notice of educational authorities in 
the city, and he came to have the reputation of being unusually 
qualified in the teaching profession. He gradually assumed a place 
of greater importance in the ranks of the educators of prominence 
in the city. In 1870 he received an offer from the Bristol Ferry 

90 






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PROF. THEODORE BARROWS STOWELL 

School of Portsmouth, Rhode Island. This offered him greater 
opportunities for advancement and he accepted it, remaining at the 
above mentioned institution for two years. 

The demand for an institution which would offer an adequate 
course for preparation for the business world was gradually increas- 
ing and assuming the proportions of a necessity in Rhode Island, 
and more especially in the city of Providence, and in 1S63 the Bry- 
ant and Stratton Business College was established in Providence 
by H. B. Bryant and H. D. Stratton of that city. The college filled 
a well-felt need in the community, and was successful from the very 
beginning, gradually increasing its teaching staff and broadening 
the scope of its curriculum. This period of gradual development 
covered nine years. In 1S72 Professor Stowell received an offer 
from the Bryant and Stratton Business College to become a member 
of its staff of teachers, and in this year he began his connection 
which continued until the time of his death, a period of forty-four 
years. For six years Professor Stowell remained one of the teach- 
ing staff of the institution, and in 1878 was chosen its president, 
which office he filled until 1916. Under the direction and manage- 
ment of Professor Stowell, the school was brought to a higher stand- 
ard of efficiency than any other of its kind in the city of Providence 
and assumed a very high status among the schools of its kind in the 
country. With the gradual change in business conditions during 
the several decades in which he was at the head of this institution, 
he added to its curriculum many different branches of work for 
which a demand had heretofore not existed, but which the develop- 
ment of industrial, commercial, and financial organizations now 
made necessary. The unwillingness on the part of the employers 
to accept unskilled and untrained workers and to spend time and 
money in the process of fitting them for their places in their estab- 
lishments, and the gradually increasing demand for specialized labor 
and technically trained workmen, brought to the school a vast num- 
ber of pupils. 

As has already been stated, Professor Stowell was a man of keen 
business instinct, thoroughly well acquainted with the happenings 
in the business world, and able to perceive the change of conditions 
which later proved the cause of financial success for the institution. 
From the very beginning of his connection with it, it prospered 
financially. In 1878 he bought out the interests of Mr. Bryant and 
Mr. Stratton and became sole owner of the college which still con- 
tinued to be known, however, as the Bryant and Stratton Business 
College. Six months before his death, Professor Stowell 's health 
began to fail, and during the term of 1915 and 1916 he was able only 
occasionally to leave his home and attend the school. It was then 
that negotiations were entered into with the Rhode Island Com- 
mercial School for the consolidation of the former institution with 

9i 



PROF. THEODORE BARROWS STOWELL 

the Bryant & Stratton Business College. Negotiations were com- 
pleted in the latter part of April, 1916, and the two became one. 
Professor Stowell was chosen the president emeritus of the col- 
lege but he held this honorary title for only one month. 

The position which he occupied in the educational circles in the 
city of Providence was the highest. He was recognized by Brown 
University in the month of June, 1915, when he received the honor- 
ary degree of Master of Arts. In addition to his interests in the 
world of education and literature, Professor Stowell was also a 
well known figure in public life in the city of Providence. He was 
for several years a member of the Providence Chamber of Com- 
merce, and in this capacity brought about many needed reforms. He 
was also prominent in many societies and clubs, among which were 
the Barnard Club, the Eastern Commercial Teachers Association, 
the Congregational Club of Rhode Island, the Town Criers and the 
Rhode Island Rotary Club. His religious affiliations were with the 
Congregational church and both he and Mrs. Stowell attended the 
Beneficent Congregational Church of Providence. 

On January 1, 1871, Theodore Barrows Stowell was married to 
Florence A. Taylor, a daughter of Charles L. and Ruth E. (Dailey) 
Taylor, of Plymouth, Connecticut. Mrs. Stowell survives her hus- 
band and resides at No. 13 Pallas street, Providence, Rhode Island. 

(The Taylor Line.) 

Arms — Ermine on a chief dancettee sable a ducal coronet or, between two escallops 
argent 

Crtst — A demi-lion rampant sable holding between the paws a ducal coronet or. 

The Taylor family of the State of Connecticut, of which Mrs. 
Stowell is a member, is one of the oldest and most distinguished in 
that region, and ranks among its members, in present and former 
generations, men who have brought honor on the family name in the 
field of public affairs, in the professions and in business life. The 
family was established in America in the early part of the seven- 
teenth century. 

Taylor is an English surname of the occupative class, and sig- 
nifies "the taylor," a cutter-out of clothes, a maker of clothes. The 
medieval English form of the world is tailor or taylor; the old 
French form, tailleur, a cutter, and it is from this latter form that 
the English took its origin. The trade-name now uses the English 
form tailor, while the surname is universally spelled Taylor and 
Tayler. The name enjoyed a great popularity during the earlier 
centuries following the adoption of surnames throughout England, 
and is found often in the early rolls, the Hundred Rolls of 1273 hav- 
ing fifteen different spellings of the name. In England to-day Tay- 
lor is the fourth commonest patronymic, preceded only by Smith, 
Jones and Williams. 

92 • 



PROF. THEODORE BARROWS STOWELL 

Charles L. Taylor was born in Warren, Connecticut, the scion of an 
old and well-known family of that place. Left an orphan by the 
death of both his parents in his early childhood, he was thrown abso- 
lutely on his own resources, and in early youth left Warren and 
went to Plymouth, Connecticut. Here he served a term of appren- 
ticeship as a mechanic, shortly qualifying as an expert mechanic. 
He became superintendent of one of the largest lock factories at 
Plymouth, Connecticut. He possessed mechanical and inventive 
genius in a large degree, and rendered services of a nature which 
made him one of the most valued men in his line of work in the 
establishment. Charles L. Taylor died at the early age of forty-one 
years. He married Ruth E. Dailey, of Connecticut. They were the 
parents of two children : 1. Florence A., mentioned below. 2. Lil- 
lian, who married Ferdinand Lotus, of Bristol, Connecticut, and 
died aged fifty-one. 

Florence A. Taylor, daughter of Charles L. and Ruth E. (Dailey) 
Taylor, married, January 1, 1871, Theodore Barrows Stowell, of 
Providence, Rhode Island. 




93 



Dr. Hall Jackson 

By Russell Leigh Jackson, Portland, Maine 



ESRSP! ^ ^ a ^ scc ^ on °^ Portsmouth once known by the quaint 
Is Illy old appellation of "Strawberry Bank," now known as 
1 ■> the parish of North Portsmouth, nestled by the roadside 

along the picturesque Point Christian shore, stands an 
ancient weather-beaten farmhouse. Its architecture is 



ss feSS gi 



clearly indicative of the early colonial period, that era immediately 
preceding the eighteenth century, and like all houses of this early 
type it has become the Mecca for hundreds of tourists passing 
through the ancient village. It is not unlike the quaint old Salem 
houses made famous by Hawthorne, as one stands at a distance and 
scans the weather-beaten and moss-grown exterior. Close at hand, 
between the most verdant banks, flows the Piscataqua river on its 
way to the Narrows, beyond which are the famed Isles of Shoals, or 
Smith's Isles, as they were once and much more appropriately 
called. At the rear side of the old house runs Northwest street, a 
beautiful country lane, bordered by growing wild shrubs, and 
skirted at intervals by thick growth. It is from this thoroughfare 
that the best view may be obtained. 

For two centuries and a half, for it was built in 1664, the house 
has stood like a ghost of the past, sheltering within, generation after 
generation of a family which has achieved prominence in the his- 
tory of the State. Its steep sloping roof, reaching within a very 
few feet of the ground and so resembling the old Currier house on 
High street in Newburyport, is always an admired feature of its 
architecture. Its small, many-paned windows and stout oaken doors 
lend an appearance of antiquity which is characteristic of the excel- 
lent taste of our early colonial period. 

So stands, as it has stood these many years, the ancient Jackson 
house, the home of John Jackson, the immigrant, and of the suc- 
ceeding generations of the prominent and respected family of that 
name. At his death it was inherited by his son, Clement Jackson, 
who married Sarah Hall, and they became the parents of the well 
known Dr. Clement Jackson. Here also was born, November 11th, 
1739, to Dr. Clement Jackson, during the reign of King George II, 
the celebrated New Hampshire surgeon, Dr. Hall Jackson. At the 
time of his birth, the older Jackson, his father, was one of the most 
prominent physicians of the village, and doubtless the talents which 

94 



DR. HALL JACKSON 

were so eminently displayed in the son's career were inherited in a 
large sense from him. 

Mrs. Jackson, the mother, was born of an old New Hampshire 
family, a daughter of Deacon Thomas Leavitt, of Hampton, and his 
wife, Elizabeth Atkinson, of Newburyport, a descendant of the 
well known Theodore Atkinson, of Boston. From his paternal 
family, Hall Jackson inherited the blood of the "Waldrons and the 
Halls of New Hampshire, his name having been given him by his 
paternal grandmother, a daughter of Sergeant Joseph Hall, of 
Greenland, and his wife, Elizabeth Smith, a native of England. 
Thus, Hall Jackson came into the world endowed with the best blood 
of two States and an heritage of which anyone may be justly proud. 

A short time before his marriage to Miss Leavitt, Dr. Clement 
Jackson removed to Hampton, where he commenced the practice of 
medicine. In this village the doctor's two older children were born. 
Shortly afterwards the family returned to the old homestead in 
Portsmouth. Here in old "Strawberry Bank" the boy attended the 
village school where he obtained the first rudiments of his education. 
Later he entered the office of his father and began the study of med- 
icine. Born with the natural instincts of this profession, he made- 
remarkable progress, and when he was still but a boy he went to- 
London, then the acknowledged centre of the medical world, and fin- 
ished his education by attending a series of lectures in the public 
hospitals of the metropolis. His stay in London was of the greatest 
benefit to him, as it enabled him to meet and converse with the great- 
est medical men of that period. In this way, through personal 
observation and experience, he attained a better knowledge of medi- 
cine and surgery than he would have had he spent four years in 
study at Harvard or Yale. 

After remaining in London a year, Dr. Hall Jackson returned to 
Portsmouth, where he opened an apothecary shop, and established 
himself as a physician and surgeon. In the latter science he rapidly 
gained prominence, and his labors soon became so great that he 
was obliged to discontinue the apothecary business and devote him- 
self to his profession. 

He remained in Portsmouth two years, after which he removed to 
Hampton, where he established himself on his grandfather Leavitt 's 
old farm. Dr. Jackson always regarded Hampton with a feeling of 
deep interest, and we may believe that the townspeople looked upon 
the young surgeon, the son of Sarah Leavitt, a daughter of Hamp- 
ton, with a feeling of pride. The old Leavitt homestead was a 
great colonial farmhouse, surrounded by historic associations, and 
which had sheltered four generations of the family. His residence 
in the delightful old village lasted only a few years, but, as was 
afterwards said, they were among the happiest of his life. He 

95 



DR. HALL JACKSON 

shortly returned to Portsmouth, and devoted himself to the prac- 
tice of surgery almost exclusively. 

From this period on, his progress in the medical world was 
marked, and it was about this time that he first attained any real 
prominence outside of Portsmouth and Hampton, for in 1764 he 
was summoned to Boston to perform the duties of inoculation for a 
people devastated by a terrible small-pox scourge. Although he 
had at this time barely reached his twenty-fifth year, his reputation 
had become so great and far-reaching that he was classed among the 
best medical men of New England. He remained in the stricken 
town until the pestilence had finally subsided, a period of about 
three months. His skill in treating this disease became very great, 
and returning to Portsmouth he opened a small-pox hospital, to- 
gether with Drs. Ammi R. Cutter, Joshua Brackett, and John 
Jackson, a cousin, all of Portsmouth, the same being located on 
Henzell's Island. His persistent and untiring energies in attend- 
ing small-pox patients weakened his condition and placed him in a 
state of susceptibility to the disease which he contracted during the 
latter part of the year 1773, being at that time confined in the Es- 
sex Hospital. 

On December 1st, 1765, an important event occurred in the life 
of Dr. Hall Jackson, for he was married to the wealthy Mrs. Went- 
worth, widow of Lieut. Daniel Wentworth, of the Royal Navy, and 
a daughter of Captain Samuel Dalling, of Portsmouth. The young 
Mrs. Jackson had been reared in the best society, and when a young 
girl still in her teens she had married a scion of the Wentworth 
family, her husband being a grandson of the Hon. John Wentworth, 
Lieutenant-Governor of New Hampshire. Such an alliance between 
the Wentworths and the Dallings, both of the oldest families of the 
colony, quickly brought the young bride into prominence, and when 
after a few years she was left a widow, her charms, graciousness 
and beauty made her the object of attraction to the whole country- 
side. 

About a year after his marriage, the doctor's only son, Theodore 
Jackson, was born. He did not live to attain manhood, being cut 
down in the flower of his youth, at the age of eighteen. The only 
other child of Doctor Jackson was a daughter, Mary Elizabeth, born 
in 1769, and who subsequently became the wife of Dr. Joshua Gee 
Symmes, of Andover. Mrs. Symmes, who enjoyed the rather 
unique distinction of being the granddaughter, the daughter, the 
■wife and niece of physicians, died a widow in November, 1808, at 
the early age of thirty-nine years. Thus "the Surgeon of New 
Hampshire" failed to leave any direct descendants, although his 
name has been borne by at least four collateral descendants, and his 
mother's name honored by as many more direct descendants. 

The approaching storm of the Revolution, strengthened by the 

96 



DR. HALL JACKSON 

reports of the Boston Massacre and the memorable Tea Party, was 
of vast importance to the Jackson family, for with it loomed up 
many differences between the doctor and his closest friends. The 
Wentworths, with whom he had always been on the most intimate 
of terms, were decidedly loyal to the Crown, and were among those 
proscribed by the New Hampshire Legislature. Worse than this, 
however, was the great difficulty which the crisis brought into his 
immediate family; for his brother-in-law, Dr. Stephen Little, the 
husband of his youngest sister Sarah, and a man whom the medical 
fraternity of that period admired and respected, following the exam- 
ple set by the governor, cast in his lot with the Mother Country. 

Dr. Little was at that time a man of thirty years, a native of 
Newbury, Massachusetts, his birthplace being the historic old fam- 
ily homestead on Turkey Hill, and he a member of one of the oldest 
and wealthiest families of the colony. His attachment to the Jack- 
son family had always been very strong, and his marriage to Miss 
Jackson hastened his recognition in the medical world. At the 
opening of the Revolution he was known as one of the best phy- 
sicians in the town. As might naturally be expected. Dr. Little's 
decision was received with great sorrow not only by his own fam- 
ily but by the townspeople to whom he had endeared himself during 
his ten years' residence in Portsmouth; but after his proscription 
in 1778, his position became so uncomfortable that when Governor 
Wentworth; his brother-in-law, John Fisher; Andrew Pepperell 
Sparhawk, and others, embarked for England, he gladly became one 
of the party. On his arrival in the Mother Country he was tendered 
a commission as surgeon in the Royal Navy, in grateful recognition 
of his fealty to the Crown. His death occurred in London on July 
11th, 1800, far from the spot of his birth, and separated by the 
decree of the Legislature from the society of his family and friends. 

So far as is known, Dr. Little never returned to the place of his 
birth or to Portsmouth, but the descendants of "The Tory Doc- 
tor" still cherish to this day the tradition of his secret visit to the 
Isles of Shoals some years before his death and of his wife's visit 
to that famous spot to see her outcast husband, at that time one of 
the most trusted and honored of the King's naval officers. Whether 
this story is true or not, it cannot be said, but it is such a pleasing 
and romantic legend of the days gone by that it is worth perpet- 
uating. 

The excitement caused by the news of the first bloodshed of the 
Revolution had hardly subsided when the patriotic citizens of Ports- 
mouth prepared to raise a military force to oppose the King's 
troops, should they be likely to enact again such an occurrence as 
that at Concord bridge. Five days after that memorable skirmish 
which marks the actual commencement of war beteween England 
and her American colonies, Dr. Jackson, imbued with the noble 

97 



DR. HALL JACKSON 

spirit of independence and a feeling of patriotism which has ever 
been a noticeable trait in the family, wrote to Col. Jeremiah Lee, 
temporary commander of the colonial forces, offering his services in 
raising a company of minute-men. The letter, which portrays in 
an excellent manner the doctor's pleasing style, reads as follows: 

Portsmouth, New Hampshire, April 24th, 1775. 
To Colonel Jerem h Lee: 

Dear Sir: — Although this is no time for ceremony or compliments, yet so great 
is the pleasure I feel on your escape from the hands of violent and wicked men that I 
cannot help congratulating you. May God Almighty continue to be your safety and 
defence. 

Could it be thought advisable for us to leave the seaports. I should long before this 
have been with you at the head of a company as good as ever twanged a bow. Inferior 
in military discipline to none, they are anxious and eager to be with you. 

You well know that the art military has been my hobby horse for a long time 
past. I have vanity enough to think that the recommendation of an immediate perusal 
of the enclosed volume to the officers in the United army will not be thought imperti- 
nent at this time, considering the nature of our country; considering the natural genius 
of our men, no piece could be better adapted to our circumstances. 

Our men are natural partisans. Witness the Rogers, Starkes and Shepherd, etc., 
etc. Did they not in the last war take the very sentries from off the walls of our ene- 
mies Fortresses in the heart of their Country? I cannot help thinking that some Horse 
might be employed to great advantage if our adversaries should ever venture abroad 
again. I have published some pieces on this subject in our papers, but the New 
Hampshire Gazette can hardly be called a proper channel to convey one's ideas to the 
publick. Might not some of the principal parts of the Partisan be given in manu- 
script to some of our Officers, Dear Sir, I hope you will not construe this my humble 
opinion into impertinent dictation. We are all embarked in one cause, and from the 
ideas of all (though some may be simple) some things of consequences may be col- 
lected. With humble submission to the better judgment of every one, I conclude. 

Your most obedient, most obliged humble servant. 

H. Jackson. 

P. S. I have been in my sulky more than once to pay you a visit but my friends 
have prevented me. When opportunity offers remember me to Mrs. Lee and family. 

As I apprehend there is not many books in the country, you will make what use of 
this you think proper, so that I may have it again hereafter. Yours, 

To Colonel Jeremiah Lee. H. J. 

One of the greatest honors which ever came to Dr. Jackson was 
the summons he received to attend the wounded at the battle of 
Bunker Hill. Accordingly, on June 19th, two days after the con- 
flict, he journeyed to Cambridge for that purpose. The people of 
Boston, whom he had visited eleven years before during the small- 
pox scourge, had not forgotten him, and everywhere he was received 
with the greatest manifestations of pleasure and respect. He 
remained in the vicinity of Boston and Cambridge throughout the 
summer, administering to the wounded. The American Archives, 
under date of November 13th, 1775, show the recommendation of 
Governor Hunking "Wentworth to the New Hampshire Congress to 
remunerate Dr. Hall Jackson for his services at Cambridge. 

During the autumn of the same year, the doctor recruited a com- 
pany of artillery, having received orders to that effect from General 
Sullivan, the doctor's offertory letter to Colonel Lee (previously 
given) having been made public to the war council. The company 

98 



DR. HALL JACKSON 

was mustered in on October 27th for the short term of fifteen days, 
which expired on the eleventh of the following month. The body 
was well supplied with munitions, one of the best in New Hamp- 
shire, and from the following letter of Doctor Jackson to the Fourth 
Provincial Congress concerning the disposal of arms and munition- 
stores, it is evident that they were for the large part received 
through the personal bequest and influence of the doctor: 

Portsmouth, Nov. 8th, 1775. 
To the Fourth Provincial Congress. 

Gent: — By order of General Sullivan I raised a Company of Artillery consisting 
of 42 men, officers included, their particular duty was to take care and Exercise the 
Brass Field Ordinance, and in case of attack to move with said Artillery from place to 
place as they shall be ordered; the term enlistment was 15 days which will be expired 
the nth instant. 

The Pieces and utensils are of great value and I have in my possession the fol- 
lowing valuable and important stores: 60 pounds of Flannel cartage with Canasters of 
Lead shott, each cannaster contains 48 musket Balls ; 40 rounds paper cartridges ; 24 
single canisters charged each 48 balls ; 6 dozen trimmed wooden wadds ; 1 dozen Port 
fuses; 24 Tent tubes charged with quick match and Composition. 

Many of the stores I received by a special request from the Laboratory at Cambridge 
and are too much importance to be left without proper persons to take the care of them. 

I beg to know whether some few of the company may not be retained in the ser- 
vice for the said purpose & whether I shall keep the stores in my hands until further 
orders, 

I am with great respect, your hum 1 serv 1 

Hall Jackson. 

Further stores: 1 doz. of tubes uncharged; 3 doz. round 2% iron round shot; 3 
port-fire stocks ; 3 small bundles slow fire match. 

The muster roll of the artillery company of which Dr. Jackson 
was in command (consisting of forty-two men, Lieuts, Yeaton, Dear- 
ing and Marden) may be found on page 23 of volume XVII of the 
State Papers of New Hampshire. 

Dr. Jackson gave lavishly of his means, in fact, embarrassing 
himself and family for the cause of American liberty. Such was the 
true patriotism of many an American of those days. We have for 
example but to read what history says of Nathaniel Tracy and the 
Hon. Tristram Dalton, two wealthy Newburyport merchants who 
were reduced to poverty for the sake of American liberty, and there 
are hundreds of others who suffered the same calamity. 

In the autumn of 1776, five matross companies under the command 
of Colonel Pierce Long were organized and stationed for the defence 
of Piscataqua Harbor. Dr. Jackson was honored with an appoint- 
ment as surgeon of this regiment, which remained in Portsmouth 
until November 23d of the same year, when it was ordered by Gen. 
Artemas Ward to reinforce the army at Fort Ticonderoga. The 
execution of this command gave this regiment the signal honor of 
being among those which under the famous Ethan Allen captured 
the stronghold of Northern New York. 

On November 14th, 1775, the Provincial Congress of New Hamp- 
shire voted its thanks to Dr. Hall Jackson, and further voted that 

99 



DR. HALL JACKSON 

he receive a commission from this Congress as chief surgeon of the 
New Hampshire troops in the Continental army. 

Throughout the six years of warfare with England, Dr. Jackson 
played a most important part as chief surgeon of the New Hamp- 
shire troops. He was given entire charge of the welfare of the 
army, and was for the most part of each year in constant attendance 
on the troops. 

As previously mentioned, he was much embarrassed by the fail- 
ure of the New Hampshire Congress to make him remuneration, for, 
as he states in the following letter, he gave up his practice, which 
was the source of his income, and which always averaged between 
three hundred and fifty and four hundred pounds a year, and had 
devoted himself constantly to the performance of his duties. It was 
some time after his appointment as surgeon before he was able to 
secure a commission as such. 

The following letter has not been identified, but it was doubtless 
written to some person in authority, perhaps to some member of the 
New Hampshire Congress: 

Portsmouth, Oct. 27, 1775. 
D R Sir: — You are well acquainted how suddenly I left my business to assist in 
the army and the difficulty it is to regain Our Business when once got into other 
hands. I would have willingly returned home in ten days, but both officers and sur- 
geons would not hear to it and I have vanity enough to think I have been of some ser- 
vice to the Faculty as well as to the soldiers in general. My not having any Commis- 
sion of authority from our Congress has prevented my drawing any pay or provision 
as yet, tho' I have paid Mr. Bishop 12 s. per week myself and 7 s. per week for my horse 
and indeed, sir, to tell you the truth I am quite exhausted — no money and drove with 
my Family out of town. I have a letter from John Langdon he sais I shall be hon- 
orably provided for, but must get from our Congress a Commission and allowance for 
past services. Your kind attention to the merits will lay me under an obligation that I 
cannot easily repay. y r most humble serv 1 

Hall Jacksow. 

As stated Doctor Jackson received his commission from the Pro- 
vincial Congress on November 14th following. At one time during 
the war he was nominated chief surgeon of the entire Continental 
army, and such a recommendation was sent to Gen. Washington, 
the commander-in-chief, but he was not confirmed in this position. 
There is small doubt but that he would have made a most excellent 
officer in that capacity, as his services in Boston in 1764 and again 
at Bunker Hill reflected his personality throughout the colonies. 

Following the surrender of the British forces at Yorktown, Dr. 
Jackson relinquished his duties as surgeon of the New Hampshire 
troops, and set about to pick up the threads of his practice, which 
had become snarled and tangled during his service in the army. 
He found little difficulty in this, however, and in a comparatively 
short time had fully regained his former practice. 

In politics Dr. Jackson was a Federalist, and was a close personal 
friend of Jacob and James Sheafe, both prominent men of Ports- 
mouth, but decidedly unpopular with the new party which broke 

100 



DR. HALL JACKSON 

away from the Federalists and appropriated the cognomen of "Re- 
publican." He might easily have had a successful political career, 
but politics were not interesting to a man who had so diligently fol- 
lowed the science of medicine. His attitude toward the Jay treaty 
of 1793 made him somewhat unpopular, and he was the object of 
severe criticism during the excitement which followed. In that 
year, John Jay, Ambassador to the Court of St. James, signed a 
treaty with the English nation, which was clearly to the advantage 
of England but hardly so to the United States. The administration 
was severely criticised for allowing such a treaty to be made, and 
Jay was publicly burned in effigy in nearly every town and city in 
New England. There was such a turmoil in Portsmouth, caused by 
the opponents of the administration, or Republicans, who said that 
the country had been sold, that considerable damage was done to 
property. Dr. Jackson being a Federalist, and consequently ap- 
proving of anything that the administration sanctioned, became the 
object of the howling mob, and his mansion on the corner of Court 
and Washington streets was attacked, several panes of glass broken 
by stones, and members of his family and servants barely escaped 
injury. When the news of the treaty arrived, Dr. Jackson was in 
Rye on a visit, and, as Brewster in his "Rambles" says, "being 
convinced that a poorer town could not then be found in the country 
— as utterly different in wealth and prosperity from what it is now 
as black is from white, listened to the story of the country having 
been sold for British gold, which by the way included the informa- 
tion that Rye had been sold along with it, and in his characteristic 
wit, replied as follows: 

"If Rye to Great Britain was really sold, 
As we by some great men are seriously told, 

Great Britain, not Rye, was ill-treated ; 
For if in fulfilling the known maxim of trade, 
Any gold for such a poor purchase was paid, 

Great Britain was confoundedly cheated." 

Naturally, the doctor's popularity suffered in Rye. 

In December, 1784, Dr. Jackson lost his only son, Theodore, a 
young man of eighteen years, exceedingly well liked by the people of 
Portsmouth. From this shock the doctor never fully recovered. 
Not quite four years later, his father, Dr. Clement Jackson, passed 
away at the advanced age of eighty-three. Although never so prom- 
inent as his son, Dr. Clement Jackson was an excellent physician, 
well liked and popular. He was born in the town on the 24th of 
March, 1705, the second son of Clement and Sarah (Hall) Jackson. 
His only surviving brother was the Rev. Joseph Jackson, of Brook- 
line, a prominent and learned divine. 

Dr. Hall Jackson was an agreeable companion, a refined and cul- 
tured gentleman of the old school, possessing many of those rare 

IOI 



DR. HALL JACKSON 

and spritely talents which we do not observe today. He was a 
member of several societies, which found their entertainment 
greatly enlivened by his presence, among them the Masonic order, 
in which he was eminent. He was an early member of old St. John's 
Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons, the second oldest in New 
England, and in 1790 was elected grand master of the Grand Lodge 
of New Hampshire, being the first to hold that position. In 1793, 
Harvard College conferred upon him the degree of Doctor of Medi- 
cine, in 1783, ten years before, he had been elected an honorary 
member of the Massachusetts Medical Society, in recognition of his 
great service in the advancement of medical science. 

Dr. Hall Jackson died on the 2Sth of September, 1797, following a 
short illness which was the result of an accident. He was about 
to respond to a patient's call when his sulky upset, throwing him 
heavily to the ground and fracturing several ribs. The ensuing 
fever terminted his life. Adam's "Annals of Portsmouth" pays 
the following tribute to him: 

"As a physician, he was skilful; as a surgeon, eminent No operation of import- 
ance was performed for many miles round without consulting him, and seldom with- 
out his aid. He had great experience in the small-pox ; and many hospitals, which were 
established for inoculating with that disease, were committed to his care ; and he was 
remarkably successful in conducting his patients safely through the disease. In the 
obstetric art he obtained high reputation, and was frequently applied to for advice 
and assistance in difficult cases by persons who did not generally employ him. He fre- 
quently performed the operation of couching, and always with success." 

His gravestone in the old North Cemetery, Portsmouth, New 
Hampshire, bears the following inscription: 

In memory of 
Hall Jackson, Esquire, M. D., 
Who departed this life 
On the 28th of Sept. 1797 
AEtat 58. 
To heal disease, to calm the widow's sigh, 
And wipe the tear from poverty's swollen eye; 
Was thine, but ah, that skill on others shown, 
Tho' life to them, could not preserve thy own ; 
Yet still thou liv'st in many a grateful breast, 
And works like thine enthrone thee with the blest. 

His widow, Molly Dalling Jackson, died on the 30th of March, 
1805, aged sixty-two years, followed three years later by her daugh- 
ter, Mrs. Mary Jackson Symmes, widow of Dr. Joshua Gee Symmes. 

There is an excellent Copley portrait of Dr. Hall Jackson in the 
possession of his collateral descendant, Mr. Amos Little Leigh, of 
Newbury, Massachusetts, a great-great-grandson of the doctor's sis- 
ter Sarah, wife of the "Tory Doctor," Stephen Little. This por- 
trays an aristocratic looking gentleman of the colonial period, with 
long brown periwig, fair complexion, blue eyes, a very dignified bear- 
ing, and sagacious aspect. Beside him, in the painting, are his 
surgical instruments, and in his left hand he holds a book which he 
is diligently perusing. 

102 




The Arctic Disaster of 1871 



|jS HE loss of thirty-two New Bedford whaleships in the Arc- 
tic in the season of 1871 was a terrific blow to the indus- 
try, and to the fortunes of owners. The story is that 
told by William F. "Williams, of New Bedford, Mass., 
who is now engineer to the State Highway Commission. Mr. Wil- 
liams sailed on his father's vessel as a youth. His narrative is 
contained in "History of New Bedford," by Zephaniah W. Pease : 

It is now more than forty-five years since the fleet of thirty-two 
whaleships was abandoned in the Arctic ocean, a lapse of time in 
which many of its leading participants have cleared for their Last 
Voyage, and in which the event itself has become little more than a 
memory even in the city of New Bedford, the home of its greatest 
sufferers. 

We returned to Honolulu in the bark "Josephine" from the sea- 
son of 1870, and on November 24, 1S70, we sailed again in the bark 
"Monticello" of New London for a cruise in the South Pacific and 
the Arctic ocean, the first part of the voyage being commonly known 
as the "between season cruise," and so arranged that we would 
reach the Arctic ocean by the time the ice had past out, the object 
l>eing sperm whaling and the "breaking in" of the crew. The 
time at my disposal this evening will not permit me to go into the 
details of the cruise in the South Pacific, although it abounded in 
interesting experiences. * 

Our last port of entry was Yokohoma, from which we sailed on the 
10th of April, 1871, and laid our course direct for the Behring 
sea. We entered the Arctic ocean the latter part of June, but find- 
ing heavy ice well to the south and closely packed on the American 
side we went to "walrusing." Up to a few years previous the 
whalemen had not considered the walrus a foeman worthy of their 
steel, but some one had put in his spare time while waiting for the 
ice to move out, killing walrus and converting their blubber into 
oil, to discover later that it was nearly if not quite as valuable as 
whale oil. That was the doom of the walrus. 

By the last of July a strong northeast wind broke up the ice, 
which up to this time "had hung close to the American shore, and we 
l>egan to think seriously of whaling. The ice was still heavy and 

103 



THE ARCTIC DISASTER OF 1871 

well to the south all across the ocean, so that it was impossible to 
get to the Herald island grounds, and as the whaling the year before 
had been around Point Barrow, all the ships commenced to work to 
the northeast in the clear water between the ice and the American 
shore. 

By the latter part of August the ice had worked some distance off 
shore and the ships commenced again to work to the northeast. 
Blossom Shoals off Icy Cape were passed, and it began to look as 
though we would reach Point Barrow, where we expected to find 
plenty of whales ; but on the 29th the wind came strong from the 
southwest accompanied by snow, and the ice commenced again to 
shut in. At this time we were off Point Belcher, and my father 
decided to turn back. It was a beat to windward, but we hoped to 
get by the shoals ahead of the ice. The sea room, however, was 
narrow, requiring short tacks and the taking of chances in the 
shoal water along the shore. We had only made a few miles to 
the south when one of those peculiar incidents happened which 
make sailors believe in luck, good and bad, only in this case it was 
bad. "We were on the "in-shore tack," trying to make every inch 
possible, the order was given for tacking ship, all hands were on 
deck, starboard watch aft, port watch forward, as was always 
the rule when working ship in close quarters. The ship was almost 
in the wind and coming beautifully ; another minute and she would 
be safely on the other tack. The calls of the leadsmen in the fore 
chains showed that we still had water under our keel, when of a sud- 
den, out of the gloom of the snow, there loomed a floe of ice right 
under our weather bow. There was a bare possibility that the 
ship would swing enough to strike it on her other bow, in which 
event we were all right, but as the sailors said, "Luck was against 
ns;" she struck on her weather bow, hung "in irons" for a few 
moments, then slowly swung off and stopped ; we were ashore. The 
sails were all quickly taken in and furled, and an anchor laid out to 
windward to try to keep her from going on hard. It was not rough, 
as the ice had made a perfect lee, and as night had then set in noth- 
ing more could be done until morning. The next day was clear and 
fair and showed the greater part of the fleet at anchor outside of 
our position. Our condition was soon known to them, and all sent 
their crews to assist in getting our ship off. To me it was a gala 
day, the decks fairly swarmed with men, orders were executed with 
a snap and vigor that only a sailor can put into his work when he is 
pleased to. More anchors were laid out astern, and the chains 
taken to the windlass and hove taut. Casks of oil were hoisted out 
of the hold and rolled aft, and finally she floated and was towed off 
to the other ships and her anchor dropped, as it later developed, for 
the last time. 

The pack ice had swung in until it was close to the shore at Point 

104 



THE ARCTIC DISASTER OF 1871 

Belcher and at Icy Cape, with most of the ships lying in the clear 
water between the ice and the shore, which here makes a long 
inward curve between the two mentioned headlands. The fleet was 
divided into four parts; the most northern including four ships 
was in the pack ice off Point Belcher. About ten miles to the south 
and off Wainwright inlet were eighteen ships, including our ship, 
and all in a small area of water about three-quarters of a mile in 
width, between the pack and the shore. A few miles further south 
were seven ships, some in the ice and some in clear water, and just 
in sight from our masthead, still further south, were three more 
ships. At that time it was not clearly known whether the other 
seven ships of the fleet were in the ice or outside. At first we looked 
upon the situation as only a temporary hindrance, and the boats 
were sent off up the coast to look for whales. Our boats captured 
the one which made us the recipients of many congratulations over 
our good luck. The weather was pleasant, but the wind, when there 
was any, was from the westward. Everybody prayed and whistled 
for a strong northeaster, but it did not come ; instead, the ice kept 
crowding the ships closer to the shore. 

The water at the edge of the pack where we were anchored was 
about twenty-four feet deep, yet the ice was on the bottom, and 
each day the tremendous force of the pack pressing in was driving 
it close to the shore. 

September 2d the brig "Comet" was crushed by getting between a 
grounded floe of ice and the moving pack. On the 7th the bark 
"Roman" was crushed, in a similar manner, only in this case the 
pack performed one of its peculiar tricks of relaxing its pressure, 
allowing the floe against the ship to draw back, as though gathering 
its energy for another attack, whereupon the ship immediately sank, 
giving the crew but scant time in which to save themselves. On the 
8th the bark " Awashonks" was crushed and pushed partly out upon 
the ice. 

It was now apparent that the situation was serious, and consulta- 
tions between the captains were frequent. It was finally decided 
that they ought to find out if any of the ships were outside the 
ice. Accordingly, Captain Frasier, of the ship "Florida," went 
down the coast in a v r haleboat, and reported upon his return that 
seven of the ships were either outside or in a position to easily get 
out, but that the ice extended to Icy Cape, a distance of about sev- 
enty miles from our position. He also reported that these seven 
ships had only just got out of a position which at one time looked 
serious, and that several of them had lost anchors, but the captains 
had promised that they would hold on as long as they could, but the 
most assuring message was brought from Captain Dowden, of the 
"Progress," who said, "Tell them all I will wait for them as long as 
I have an anchor left and a spar to carry a sail. ' ' And we all knew 

105 



THE ARCTIC DISASTER OF 1871 

he meant just what he said. The clear water had now begun to 
freeze over so that the bows of the boats had to be coppered to keep 
them from being cut through by this thin ice. All hopes of getting 
out were now given up, and active preparations were commenced for 
leaving the ships. It was evident that the distance to Icy Cape was 
so great that only one trip could be made, therefore everything that 
was not an absolute necessity had to be left, as all the available 
room in the boats was required for provisions. I recall with an 
everincreasing regret our family sorrow at giving up the many 
interesting articles we had collected during our cruise among the 
South Sea islands and our visit to Japan. 

September 12th the captains held their last conference, and 
decided to abandon the ships on the 14th, all signing a statement 
which briefly gave their reasons, as follows: First, there was no 
harbor available that the ships could be got into; second, there 
were not enough provisions to feed the crews for over three months ; 
third, the country was bare of food and fuel. 

My father decided that on account of my mother and sister, and 
perhaps also me, he would not attempt to make the trip in one 
day, so we started on the afternoon of the 13th and spent the night 
on the brig "Victoria" as the guests of Captain Eedfield. I doubt 
if I can adequately describe the leave-taking of our ship. It was 
depressing enough to me, and you know a boy can always see pos- 
sibilities of something novel or interesting in most any change, 
but to my father and mother it must have been a sad parting, and I 
think what made it still more so was the fact that only a short dist- 
ance from our bark lay the ship "Florida," of which my father had 
been master eight years, and on which three of his children had 
been born. The usual abandonment of a ship is the result of some 
irreparable injury and is executed in great haste ; but here we were 
leaving a ship that was absolutely sound, that had been our home 
for nearly ten months, and had taken us safely through many a try- 
ing time. 

The colors were set and everything below and on deck was left 
just as though we were intending to return the next day. All liquor 
was destroyed, so that the natives would not get to carousing and 
wantonly destroy the ships ; but the medicine chests were forgotten. 
Later, when the natives got to sampling their contents, some were 
killed and others made very sick, in retaliation for which they 
burned several of the ships. Our boat contained in addition to 
its regular crew, my mother, sister and I, and all of our clothing, 
bedding and provisions, so that we were loaded nearly to the gun- 
wales. We got an early start on the morning of the 14th, and by 
rowing and sailing, the water being very smooth all the way, we 
eventually reached Icy Cape and landed on the beach just as dark- 
ness was setting in. A tent was erected for the ladies and chil- 

106 



THE ARCTIC DISASTER OF 1871 

dren, and great fires were built for the men and for cooking. Wt 
still had several miles to go to reach the ships, and as it was in the 
open ocean outside the ice, there were some fears as to our ability 
to make it with our boats loaded so deep. To add to our discom- 
forts, mental and physical, it commenced to rain and blow, so that 
taken all in all it was a night that few of its participants will ever 
forget. By morning it had stopped raining, and although there was 
a good fresh breeze blowing it was decided to start out as soon as 
we had our breakfast. Our boat made the trip under sail, and 
although we put in several reefs, it was a hair-raising experience. 
My father had decided to go aboard the "Progress." She was still 
at anchor and pitching into the heavy seas that were then running 
in a way that would have made you wonder how we could ever get 
the men aboard, let alone a woman and two children; but it was 
accomplished without accident, or even the wetting of a foot. As 
fast as the boats were unloaded they were cast adrift to be des- 
troyed against the ice pack a short distance under our lee, where 
the waves were breaking masthead high. 

By the next day every man of the crews of all the abandoned 
ships had boarded some one of the seven, and sail was made for the 
straits. On the "Progress" there was 188 officers and men, besides 
three ladies and four children, one a baby in arms. Captain Dow- 
den gave up his cabin and state-room to the three captains and fam- 
ilies. I have forgotten just how the three ladies and the younger 
children disposed of themselves in the state room, but in the after 
cabin we just managed to fit in by putting one man on the transom 
and two men and myself on the floor, but we were all very thank- 
ful for what we had. The other captans and officers divided quar- 
ters in the forward cabin, and rough berths were put up between 
decks for the sailors and boatsteers, so that finally everybody was 
provided for except Captain Dowden, and I never did know where 
he managed to get his sleep. 

We stopped at Plover bay long enough to take in a supply of fresh 
water, and then laid our course for Honolulu. We had a good run 
and reached our destination on the 23d of October without anything 
taking place that was specially worthy of note. 

And now a brief statement of the sequel, which was not learned 
imtil the next year. In less than two weeks after we had left the 
ships the long looked for northeast gale came, and lasted several 
days. Some of the ships went off with the pack, some were sunk 
at their anchors, a few were burned by the natives, and several went 
through the winter without injury. Only one, the bark ■ ' Minerva, ' ' 
ever came back, and she was saved by my father the next season. 
Our ship was destroyed where we left her, as my father discov- 
ered a portion of her bow sticking up out of the water and recog- 
nized it by the iron plating, as she was the only ship in the fleet pro- 

107 



THE ARCTIC DISASTER OF 1871 

tected in that way. If we had waited until this gale came, withont 
doubt the greater part of the fleet would have been saved, but this 
was knowledge not possessed by the captains, who made their deci- 
sion after a careful consideration of the situation as it then existed, 
in connection with their united experience in those waters. 




108 



Editorial 

LITERARY NOTES 

Commendations of the last number of Americana have been 
exceedingly generous, and by no means simply out of compliment. 
The chapter on "The Illinois Centennial" has been very widely 
read and approved, and with it that on ' ' General Arthur St. Clair, ' ' 
the first governor of the Northwest Territory, out of which the State 
of Illinois was created. It is our purpose to make a considerable 
feature of early American history. Pages in the present number 
relate to the city of Worcester, Massachusetts. The city of Low- 
ell, in the same State, will have early attention, and will be followed 
in a future number by narratives relating to important early Maine 
history. 

As relating to the subject of the socialization of the State, stu- 
dents and investigators will find much of interest in a volume en- 
titled "Workmen's Compensation and Insurance," by Durand Hal- 
sey Van Doren, A. B., LL.B., a graduate of Williams College. It 
was written in answer to the demand for a brief critical presenta- 
tion of the subject, as distinguished from an exhaustive and non- 
committal treatise, and in successful competition for the 1917 award 
of the David Ames Wells prize offered annually to seniors of Williams 
College and graduates, for the best essay on a subject in the field of 
political science, assigned by a committee of the college faculty. The 
subject treated is regarded as one of first importance by students 
of economic and social questions, and among whom is a wide diver- 
gence of views. The work contains a clear exposition of the opera- 
tions of laws already enacted in this country, especially in New Jer- 
sey, and the pages of bibliography are of special value. Published 
by Moffat, Yard & Co., New York. 



THE GREAT WORLD WAR 

When the last number of Americana appeared before its readers, 

109 



EDITORIAL 

the World War was at its height, and the anxieties of the people 
were at the utmost tension. A few optimistic people there were 
who prophesied an early collapse of the Central Powers, but few 
they were. The great majority looked for a long continuation of 
the war, and there was an almost general conviction that the Ger- 
man fleet would make a sortie and save enough of their ships to do 
great damage to our transport vessels with their precious human 
burdens, and even assail our home coasts. It is well that the Allies 
overestimated the strength of their enemy. Under-estimation might 
have wrought much harm. 

Viewing the war as to continue for months, perhaps a year or 
more, the Allies rose superbly to meet the expected conditions, and 
the United States came to the task with a spirit and determination 
that place her achievements beyond the power of words to depict. 
She assembled for her army and navy hundreds of thousands of the 
superbest specimens of young manhood. No such bright courage- 
ous faces and perfect physical creations were ever before brought 
together. Their achievements were never surpassed either in hu- 
man or mythical history. 

The people at home, too, bent to their task with a devotion and 
persistence and degree of unanimity none would have thought pos- 
sible. Every call for money for war uses met with a response far 
beyond the demand. This was not only true as to governmental 
exactions; every civilian body received all the support for which 
it asked — the Red Cross, the War Service, the Christian Associa- 
tions, the Knights of Columbus, the Salvation Army, and a multi- 
tude of others. And in responding as they did, the people at large 
not only willingly but cheerfully and gladly bore privations and 
practiced economies such as the few disaffected prophesied to be 
impossible. Certain table necessities were taboo; long discarded 
clothing was resumed. Women and children throughout the land 
were foremost in these services. It was a common remark on the 
streets that not a murmur accompanied these sacrifices. 

Out of how our American lads on land and sea bore themselves 
and of what they accomplished, and of how the people at home sus- 
tained them, some Hugo of a future day will pen such a story as 
never before was told. He will have at his command exemplars of 
the antithises of human possibilities — the beast who in contempt of 
laws human and divine wrought such deeds of fiendishness as never 

no 



EDITORIAL 

before ; and the modest, duty-doing young man who, while fighting 
the beast to the death, never forgot that he was to some one a son 
and a brother, and as such treated the women and children, enemy or 
friend, who came in his way. The world has never seen such con- 
trasts; and the good, as exemplified by "our boys" and by those at 
home who sent them forth, gives us a more exalted view of human 
character, and a more abiding faith in American institutions. 



THE AFTERMATH 

We hold to the conviction that in the conclusion of the World 
War, the easiest task of the Allied Nations has been accomplished. 
The enemy, at least for the time being, has been rendered incapable 
of continuing the struggle. The great concern now is to secure the 
fruits of victory and to make secure the future, and this will tax 
the abilities of the peace-exacting powers to the utmost. There 
will undoubtedly be substantial agreement upon certain fundamental 
principles — the support of legitimate governments as against seiz- 
ure and domination by stronger powers ; and a stringent safeguard 
against brute force at the hands of any bloody-minded autocrat 
without regard for any law except his own will. Also, should be 
and undoubtedly will be, the exaction of liberal indemnities in the 
interest of the families of those who were victims of the sinking 
of the "Lusitania," and of other crimes against international law; 
and provisions for indemnity should, and doubtless will, be so 
phrased as to constitute a confession of awful criminality on the 
part of the common enemy. 

After such concerted action by the Allied Powers in the interest of 
the world at large, each of the nations, and none more than the 
United States, will have intricate problems of its own for solution — 
some long in the thoughts of its people, some growing out of changed 
conditions and expansion of vision, some out of mere desire for 
change, and all calling to all the people to come to their considera- 
tion with quickened conscience and impartial judgment. Need 
will there be for it, for the faddist and empiricist will be many and 
noisily assertive. Not in the days of the War of the Revolution, nor 
of the War for the Union, was there greater necessity for the True 
American, native or foreign-born, to be constantly and loyally on 
guard, than in the immediate peace days f ollowing the World War. 

in 



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THE UNRIVALLED EXPRESS RIDER, GIXERY TWICHELL 

Who rode from Worcester to Hartford, a distance of Sixty Miles, in Three Hours 

and Twenty Minutes through a deep snow, January 23, 1846 












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AMERICANA 

APRIL, 1919 




<J£ 



Early Transportation 

The Turnpike Road, the Canal, and the Early Railroad 




Y far the most picturesque road in Pennsylvania is the 
turnpike leading from Philadelphia to Pittsburgh, now 
known throughout the country as the Lincoln Highway. 
It passes over rugged mountains and through fertile 
valleys. In its construction was displayed some splendid engineer- 
ing, though this feature of it has been severely censured, because 
in some places it passes over hills where it ought to have been built 
on lower and more level ground. The critic is apt to forget, or 
perhaps is not aware of some influences which controlled the engi- 
neer, and perhaps forced Mm to locate the pike in places which 
would not be selected to-day. One of these influences was that 
when the pike was laid out, the country was very largely covered 
with its primeval growth of timber, and the low ground at the base 
of the hill or adjacent to the creek bottoms was extremely marshy, 
and it was much more difficult then than now to find a solid bottom 
or to build one. For this reason, in many instances, he was com- 
pelled to keep on higher ground. The pike being built in part by 
the State and in part by popular subscription, the engineer was com- 
pelled to pass through rich sections of farm land and through ham- 
lets which might become busy centers of population and thus afford 
traffic for the road. In many places the engineer was compelled to 
deviate from the line his science indicated as the correct one, per- 
haps to lay the road over a hill or forfeit the subscription of a land- 
owner whose residence would otherwise have been left farther from 
the highway. 

Note. — The greater part of this narrative is from "Old and New Westmoreland," 
by John N. Boucher (The American Historical Society, Inc.), 1918. 

"3 



EARLY TRANSPORTATION 

For these reasons the engineering is much better in the mountain 
than in the agricultural sections. Kelly's Hollow is perhaps the 
only place in its course through Chestnut Ridge, where the engineer- 
ing could be greatly improved, and that could only have been done 
at a considerable additional outlay of money. Passing up the west- 
ern side of Laurel Hill, in Ligonier Valley, and zigzaging down the 
more precipitous eastern slope, its course could scarcely be improved 
by our best modern engineer. Likewise it passes over the Alle- 
gheny mountain, going up the western side in a straight line for a 
distance of seven miles, five of which are in full view from any point 
in this part of its course. It passes down the eastern slope by a 
series of curves and turns which our advanced science of modern 
engineering could not in any way improve by changing its location. 
One curve in this descent, known nearly a century ago as "The 
Horseshoe Bend," not only exhibits the superior skill of the engi- 
neer, but affords one of the grandest and most sublime mountain 
views in Pennsylvania. From this curve the ''Horseshoe Bend," so 
well known on the Pennsylvania Railroad, is said to have taken its 
name. All through these mountains the engineers were free to 
select the best route possible, for they were on high and dry ground, 
which was entirely uninhabited by prospective stock subscribers. 

But to our generation, as we look back through the dim years to 
the thirties or forties, the most romantic and interesting feature of 
the pike is the stage coach, which closely followed the completion 
of the pike in 1817. No one, it is said, who thoroughly saw a gen- 
uine stage coach in use, can ever forget it. The outside of the coach 
was tastefully painted and beautified with bright colors, while the 
inside was lined with soft, silk plush. There were three seats 
within, splendidly cushioned, and three people could ride on each 
seat. There was also another seat by the side of the driver, which 
was a very desirable one in fine weather. Then on the flat top oth- 
ers could ride in a way, if the management permitted it, and these 
in turn, took the inside seats as they were vacated on the journey. 
Thus sometimes a stage bore as many as fifteen people, while its 
capacity was nine or ten and the driver. The stage coach was made 
without springs as springs are now, but the bed or top part swung 
easily and gracefully on large leather girders called thorough-braces, 
which were stretched between high bolsters or jacks on the front and 
rear axles. By this arrangement, stiff springs were obviated, and 

114 






EARLY TRANSPORTATION 

whether the coach were heavily laden or nearly empty, the passen- 
gers rode with equal ease, a feature of comfort which cannot be 
obtained with our modern springs of steel. This also gave a gentle 
swinging back and forth, a rocking motion, which was by no means 
unpleasant to the passenger. 

The horses were invariably show} 7 animals, selected for their light- 
ness of foot and their strong build. Most of them were of the 
North Star, the Murat, Hickory or Winilower breed, strains which 
seem to be now extinct, but which for beauty of carriage, speed and 
endurance combined, have not been surpassed by the best of our 
modern thoroughbreds. They were driven very rapidly, making 
frequently ten miles an hour if conditions were all favorable. The 
object of the stage management was to hasten the passengers on 
their journey, and every possible arrangement was made to this 
end. A system of relays was very early established, and from this 
the Pittsburgh and Philadelphia Transportation Company doubt- 
less took their idea of moving freight. By this arrangement fresh 
spans of horses were hitched to the stage coach every ten or twelve 
miles. Under ordinary circumstances they made from six to eight 
miles per hour, and relays enabled them to keep up that rate all 
day. 

The coach which carried the mail stopped at all postoffices on 
the pike, at all relay stations, and at taverns at meal times, but did 
not stop elsewhere. They usually entered the little towns along the 
way at a very rapid gait, and drew up before the principal taverns, 
where the relay stations were kept. There awaiting its arrival were 
the fresh horses, each span held by a groom. The stage driver threw 
down the lines and the grooms unhitched the panting horses, and 
"almost in the twinkling of an eye," said an old stage driver, "the 
new span took their places, the lines were handed to the driver who, 
without leaving his seat, cracked his whip and away rolled the coach 
for the next station." If it was at meal time the stay was longer, 
but even then it was always less than a half hour. The mail coach 
had to stop at the postoffice long enough to leave any incoming 
mail and secure the outgoing mail. This was called "changing the 
mail," a correct term in that day, which is even yet sometimes 
heard. This took perhaps not over four or five minutes, for letters 
were not as numerous then as now. 

In the early days of stage coach travel, there were two coaches 

"5 



EARLY TRANSPORTATION 

leaving Pittsburgh each day and two arriving. The first left very 
early in the morning, as early as five o 'clock, the time varying with 
the season of the year. They not infrequently reached Greens- 
burg at ten o'clock, having already exhausted three relays, that is 
twelve horses. The next relay station was at Youngstown and the 
next at Ligonier, so by rapid driving the passenger who left Pitts- 
burgh in the morning took a dinner, though shortly after noon, at 
Ligonier, having traveled fifty miles in six and a half or seven hours. 
The next fifty miles took them to Bedford, but the time occupied 
was much longer, for they had two ranges of mountains to climb and 
descend. The regular time between Pittsburgh and Philadelphia 
was fifty-six hours, and the stages of a good line invariably made it 
on time, or nearly so. There were more than two lines of stages 
on the eastern part of the road where the more thickly populated 
section gave rise to more travel. Later there were other lines on 
the western end. About one o'clock in the afternoon another coach 
was sent out of Pittsburgh. It followed the morning stage and kept 
up the same speed generally. This was kept up from day to day, 
from one year's end to another. One of the stage lines was called 
The United States Mail Line and carried the mail. "While more or 
less time was lost in waiting for mail at postoffices, it was made up 
by more rapid driving at other times. Another line was called 
"The Peoples' Line," the name being changed later to "The Good 
Intent Line." These rival lines, as may be supposed, promoted 
each to give the best possible service and the most rapid passage 
from one end of the pike to the other. 

The fare from Pittsburgh to Philadelphia was twenty dollars, as 
a general rule, though sometimes when the rivalry became bitter, 
passengers were carried for less money. For short distances the 
fare was eight cents per mile. Passengers generally changed 
coaches about every fifty miles, for the management used the heav- 
ier coaches in the mountainous region of the route between Ligonier 
and Chambersburg, while the newer and handsomer ones were used 
near the cities at the beginning and end of the line. Teams were 
also arranged to suit the road, the heavier and stronger ones being 
used to draw the coaches over the mountains, and the most showy 
horses being kept near the cities. The relay horses journeyed 
back and forth over the same road, and thus learned its easy and 
hard places thoroughly. The four horses which drew the outgoing 

116 



EARLY TRANSPORTATION 

stage to the first station, rested there from ten to twenty hours, 
when they took back a returning stage of the same line to the sta- 
tion from which they started. Generally a span of horses was only 
driven from ten to fifteen miles per day, depending somewhat on the 
condition of the pike and on the location, for a team could average 
more miles per day in the level sections than among the mountains. 
Driving as much as twenty miles per day on an average, very soon 
ruined the horses. 

Passengers on stage coaches were required to travel day and 
night in continuous passage until they readied their destination. 
They might have stopped off for a night's resi at a tavern, but the 
next morning's stage would likely be filled and Tunable to take on new 
passengers. The driver had a given length of time to go from one 
station to another, and his aim was to be on time. Not infrequently, 
while going up the mountains, in the western part of the State, pas- 
sengers would alight and walk for exercise, an<d to enjoy the beauti- 
ful scenery, for the road was lined with a thick growth of trees 
which, for miles and miles, formed almost an acrchway of green foli- 
age in the summer. The driver never attended to his team, though 
doubtless he assured himself that the horses in general were well 
cared for. No position seemed as commanding in the eyes of a boy 
in that day as that of a stage driver. Many a youth looked forward 
with bright anticipations to the time in maiMiood when he could 
reach the acme of fame, in his estimation — tliat of a stage driver. 
He was paid about fifteen dollars per month and boarded, and the 
best of them rarely ever received as much as twenty dollars per 
month. A splendid horse could be purchased, at that time for fifty 
or sixty dollars, and a span of horses, with an occasional rest, would 
last for eight or ten years staging. While they were being driven 
they were forced to put forth their best efforts. They went slowly 
up a long hill or up a mountain when the polling was heavy, but 
when the top was reached they started off more rapidly, and on the 
level rarely ever went slower than a trot, while down grade or 
down the mountainside they often went on a steady gallop. 

An old stage driver has told the writer that it frequently hap- 
pened that a driver coming west started his team on a moderate 
gallop or a fast trot at the top of Laurel Hill and made each horse 
do his utmost to keep out of the way of the stage, and thus kept up 
the speed for six miles until the first hill was reached, a mile or so 

117 



EARLY TRANSPORTATION 

east of Ligonier. There was little holding back done by the wheel 
horses of the average stage coach when going down a hill or down 
the mountains. Wheel horses, when made to hold back, became 
" sprung in the knees," and this was an evidence of bad driving. 
The horses, particularly in warm weather, came to the relay stations 
panting for breath and covered with foam, but they then had a rest 
of nearly a day before another effort was required of them. 

The regularity of the arrival of the stage coach at given points 
along the road was remarkable. Earely ever was a coach in any 
part of the drive more than two or three minutes ahead or behind 
its time. For all these reasons, excitement followed the whirl of 
the stage coach all along the way. The driver invariably carried a 
horn with a highly keyed loud sounding tone, which he winded at 
the brow of the last hill or just before entering a village or town, 
to give notice of his approaching stage. New passengers, the relay 
horses, the postmaster, the landlord, were all notified in that way, 
and were ready waiting for its arrival. To the country village the 
arrival of a stage coach was the leading event of the day, much 
more so than the arrival of important trains are now. Idlers col- 
lected around the station to learn the latest news, or to become 
acquainted with the newest arrival, should there be any. Farmers 
and workmen along the pike stopped their work when the stage 
passed by. They could regulate their time, in a measure, without 
a timepiece, for they knew the hour the stage was due to pass them. 
Washington Irving took great interest in the stage driver, and 
wrote of him as follows : 

The stage driver had a dress, manner, language and air peculiar 
to himself and prevalent throughout the fraternity. He enjoyed 
great consequence and consideration along the road. The women 
looked up to him as a man of great trust and dependence and he had 
a good understanding with every bright-eyed country lass. His 
duty was to drive from one station to another, and on his arrival 
he threw down the lines to the hostler with a lordly air. His dress 
was always showy and in winter his usually bulky form was further 
increased by a multiplicity of coats. At the village he was sur- 
rounded by a crowd of loafers, errand boys and nameless hangers- 
on, who looked up to him as an oracle and treasured up his cant 
phrases and information about horses and other topics. Both of 
them tried to imitate his air and rolling gait, his talk and slang, and 
the youth tried to imagine himself an embryonic stage driver. The 

118 



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STAGE COACH BETWEEN PITTSBURGH AND PHILADELPHIA 






EARLY TRANSPORTATION 

horn he sounded at the entrance of the village produced a general 
bustle and his passage through the country put the world in motion. 
Some hastened to meet friends, some with bundles and bandboxes 
to secure seats, and in the hurry of the moment could hardly take 
leave of the group that accompanied them. As the stage rattled 
through the village every one ran to the window and a passenger 
had glances on every side of fresh country faces and blooming 
giggling girls. At the corners were assembled the village idlers 
and wise men, who took their stations there to see the company 
pass. 

The stage driver carried a long whip with which he could touch 
his horses gently, or at his will could lash them into the highest 
speed. The lash of the whip was made of plaited rawhide, and was 
much thicker at the upper middle than at the ends. With years of 
practice the drivers learned to handle the whip with great dexterity. 
Its shape and the flexible stock made it possible for him to use it in 
a series of curves and swings that were not only very beautiful but 
accurate in its work when he chose to make it so. An old friend has 
assured the writer that he has seen an expert knock a fly from the 
back and shoulders of his lead horse with his whip and do it so 
gently that it would not injure the horse, nor urge him to greater 
exertion. When he cracked his whip over his team it was like the 
Teport of a gun, and without anything else urged each horse to 
strain every muscle. Seldom, however, was a careful driver com- 
pelled to use his whip. Sometimes on the road when one stage tried 
to pass another, for there was always a rivalry among them as to 
speed, the driver used his whip with all the skill he could command. 
Two stages abreast have thus come down the Allegheny mountains 
or down Laurel Hill, every horse exerting almost its utmost 
strength, and the driver lashing them to still greater efforts. In 
a race of this kind the rumbling of the stage could be heard for 
miles. The heavy body with its tightly drawn sides and top, its 
glass doors, and heavy thoroughbraces laden to their utmost ten- 
sion, gave it at all times a rumbling noise, but when two or more 
of them were making time or racing while coming down the moun- 
tain pike, the roadbed of which was stone, the noise is said to have 
been terrific and sublime. If the driver knew his business well, 
there was little danger in such a race, and it was to the passengers 
one of the most exciting events of their travels. 

119 



EARLY TRANSPORTATION 

The driver with his four lines and whip, sat perched high on the 
box, the position being somewhat imitated by that of the more mod- 
ern tally-ho. He began training for his work almost in boyhood, by 
becoming familiar with horses, with their varied characteristics and 
dispositions when suddenly placed under apparent danger, with 
their weak and strong points, and how best to assist, care for and 
manage them under all circumstances. The driver's judgment of 
the noble animal was considered of the highest authority. By a life 
of daily service he was enabled to attain almost perfection in his 
business. Quite frequently his work did not apparently require any 
particular skill, for one of the first lessons he was taught was to 
drive rapidly, but to avoid all unnecessary danger. But he drove 
under all circumstances and at all hours of the day and night. He 
drove through storms on the mountains when the lightning played in 
the sky overhead, and when the roaring thunder excited his nat- 
urally spirited horses. He drove through drifted snow banks in 
mid-winter with the thermometer below zero, or down a steep moun- 
tain grade covered with an unbroken sheet of frozen sleet, and all 
this perhaps in the darkness of midnight, made still more gloomy by 
overhanging forests. 

He was, moreover, compelled to meet hundreds of wagons and 
stages daily, and to pass them at his high rate of speed by short 
turns and curves, and he frequently encountered runaway teams, 
perhaps in most dangerous places. The necessary speed and high 
mettle of his own horses made them liable at all times to become 
frightened and to try to break away from him. Yet notwithstand- 
ing all this, accidents were very few. Indeed, compared with the 
amount of driving, they were generally so few and trivial that they 
were scarcely noted or remembered beyond the day. Hundreds of 
accidents were avoided by the skill, the clear head and nerve of the 
driver. Those who outlived him and who were familiar with the 
best drivers of his and of more modern days, were not slow to assert 
that the stager managed his team under all the varied circum- 
stances which confronted him, with a dexterity in horsemanship 
that has not been even approximated by our best drivers since his 
day. 

The pike in the mountainous sections was much more subject to 
sleet and ice and to high banks of drifted snow than elsewhere. 
Either condition rendered it temporarily impassable. While the 

120 



EARLY TRANSPORTATION 

icy covering caused by sleet was likely to last but for a day or two, 
the drifted snowbanks remained until the storm had passed, when 
they were shoveled aside by the authorities of the pike, if it were 
possible, or even perhaps melted by warmer weather. In the mean- 
time it not infrequently happened that one or more stage coaches 
with their passengers were snowbound at a wayside inn at the base 
of the mountains. This might last for two days or more, and while 
the storm lasted there was no remedy whatever. The landlord 
entertained such parties in his most hospitable manner. Long 
before the pike had reached its palmiest days, the old four-roomed 
tavern had given place to larger ones of stone, brick or frame, with 
twelve to fifteen guest rooms, a large sitting room, bar room and 
dining room, and with extensive stables, barns and wagon yards 
attached. The best men and women of our country traveled back 
and forth on the turnpike and their entertainment called for and 
brought about an improved style of inns. Many of them became 
famous and were well patronized. Accounts of them and their 
guests and landlords, written by very facile pens, are frequently 
found in our old writings. The stage driver would put forth his 
best endeavors to reach a good tavern before being snowed up by 
an impending storm. The passengers were, in some degree, recom- 
pensed for their delay by the wholesome entertainment. Country 
ham and sausage, fresh eggs, steaming hot biscuit, buckwheat cakes 
and maple syrup, was often the tempting bili-of-fare for breakfast. 
But before this each man guest had an ''eye-opener" of "Old Mon- 
ongahela ' ' at the regular price of three cents per dram. Wild tur- 
keys, pheasants, partridge, venison and all kinds of game were com- 
mon in those days, and the landlord bounteously supplied his table 
with these and all other delicacies he could procure. 

The country taverns were often named after Washington, 
Greene, Lafayette or Putnam, names then redolent with Revolu- 
tionary glory. The inn usually had a large sign about three and a 
half by five feet, hung in a strong frame, which allowed it to swing 
with the wind, and which was supported by a white painted post 
standing by the wayside. The rooms were warmed by grate fires, 
and the main sitting room had in it the old fashioned, capacious fire- 
place, such as Dryden and Johnson loved to write about. In the 
forties the fuel used was mostly hickory wood, which threw out a 
great heat, while the crackling flames leaped brightly up the wide 

121 



EARLY TRANSPORTATION 

chimney. Around this fireplace sat the guests of the inn when 
storm-staid, like a happy family, cracking hickory nuts and spinning 
stories, some of which, could they be produced, would doubtless be 
fraught with more interest to the modern reader than the Canter- 
bury Tales of the poet Chaucer, which have already lived more than 
five centuries. Well may those surroundings have made the snow- 
bound traveler think of England under the reign of the early 
Georges, so charmingly pictured in the measured beauty of Oliver 
Goldsmith or embalmed in the matchless prose of Joseph Addison's 
"Spectator." The city people who chanced to become guests of 
these old fashioned inns found them most enjoyable places indeed 
for a few days of idle comfort. "Can I not take mine ease in my 
inn?" was the question of Falstaff, which did not admit of a nega- 
tive answer. The lingering memory of these enjoyments, now gone 
forever, induced many elderly people to long for the ' ' good old days 
of the past" as they called them. To them, at least, the busy age in 
which we live has robbed us of the chief glories of their youth, and 
brought to us, as they thought, but few compensating virtues. 

Though the old style of travel on this historic State highway was 
practically abandoned nearly three score and ten years ago, yet 
here and there along its line, until recently, were still to be found 
old men who delighted greatly in recalling the palmy days of the 
forties, when the pike was in its prime. They loved to tell of the 
droves of cattle which, with heads bowed down, wound haltingly 
over the dusty pike, plodding on their weary way to the shambles of 
the cities; of the ponderous Conestoga wagons that with untold 
strength slowly bore our early products to the eastern markets, 
and returned laden with the city's contributions to the welfare of 
our people. Of the whirling stage coach and its welcome rumbling 
which daily echoed through the valleys and awakened the sleeping 
communities to a new life and new energy; and most of all they 
delighted to tell of the wayside inn, the ivy-covered walls of which 
are among the last lingering mementoes of the good old days so 
long gone by; of its hospitable landlord and landlady, and then they 
pointed in sadness to the green mounds on the hillside hard by, 
covering them in their last and sweetest sleep : 

It stands all alone like a goblin in grey, 
The old-fashioned inn of the pioneer day, 
In a land so forlorn and forgotten it seems .- 

122 



EARLY TRANSPORTATION 

Like a wraith of the past rising into our dreams; 
Its glories have vanished, and only the ghost 
Of a sign-board now creaks on its desolate post. 
Recalling the time when all hearts were akin. 
As they rested at night in the welcoming inn. 

Oh ! the songs they would sing and the tales they would spin, 

As they lounged in the light of the old country inn. • 

But a day came at last when the stage brought no load 

To the gate, as it rolled up the long dusty road. 

And lo 1 at the sun-rise a shrill whistle blew 

O'er the hills — and the old yielded place to the new. 

And the merciless age with its discord and din 

Made wreck, as it passed, of the pioneer inn. 

It is a lamentable fact that for more than a half century after the 
building of the Pennsylvania Railroad the old pike was neglected 
and became almost impassable in many sections. The farmers 
along its line gradually encroached on it with their fences until it 
was difficult to find even a small section that had retained its original 
width. Telegraph companies also encroached upon the original 
right of way and in so doing clogged up the gutters at its sides. 
Tree tops dropped by careless lumbermen also interfered with the 
drainage, and the pike, resultant from this want of drainage, 
sustained its greatest damage. Eains washed away the top dress- 
ing in many places, and laid bare the rough, unbroken stone which 
originally formed the Telford bottom. It was not worn out by 
travel, for so solidly was it constructed that in many sections, with 
scarcely any repairs, it remained a comparatively good road for 
more than two score years. For the greater part of the way the 
original road bed has been found to be as solid as it was a century 
ago when it was first thrown open to public travel. It was almost 
inexcusable on the part of the State to part with its original inter- 
ests or to permit it to be ruined by neglect. In the first years of this 
century a movement was set on foot to rehabilitate it so that we 
might have a highway connecting the East and the "West, the two 
great centers of industry of the State. By measurement it was 
found that if the old pike were rehabilitated, two of the most popu- 
lous districts of the United States, the Philadelphia and the Pitts- 
burgh districts, would be connected by a route that was fifty-seven 
miles shorter than the most direct railroad. To repair this lament- 
able neglect, some of the best men in the West united with those of 
the East. To be sure it was the coming of the automobile and its 
rapidly increasing efficiency and popularity that brought about this 

123 



EARLY TRANSPORTATION 

desire for a trans-state highway in keeping with the new methods 
of travel. 

It is now possible and not infrequent for an auto party to 
leave Philadelphia in the morning and after a ride of one hundred 
and fifty miles through the richest agricultural region of Pennsyl- 
vania to reach the foothills of the Appalachian mountains, where the 
"gray old pike" worm-like winds its way through sublimer views 
and enchanting beauties that would well repay the tourists, though 
they journeyed halfway across a continent to behold them. Lunch- 
ing at a hostelry nestled among the mountain peaks, following the 
Lincoln highway, the party would skirt the rich bituminous coal 
and coke fields, a region that surpasses all other sections of the 
State in natural wealth and yearly products, and dine in Pittsburgh, 
without exceeding the average speed of an auto. 

On Conestoga wagons were transported nearly all the goods 
between Philadelphia and Pittsburgh. There was almost a continu- 
ous stream of four- or six-horse wagons laden with merchandise, 
going west and returning with the products of the Ohio valley to 
supply the eastern cities. These wagons journeyed mostly between 
Pittsburgh and Philadelphia and Baltimore. The wagoners gener- 
ally stopped at a wayside inn which was less expensive than the inns 
in the towns. Wagoners cared little for style, but demanded an 
abundance, while stage coach passengers demanded both. The wag- 
oner invariably slept on a bunk which he carried with him and which 
he laid on the floor of the big bar-room and ofiice of the country 
tavern. Stage drivers and their passengers stopped at the best 
hotels and paid the highest prices. For the purpose of feeding his 
horses in the public square, the wagoner carried a long trough which 
at night he fastened with special irons to the wagon tongue, the end 
being held up by a prop. It was rarely ever that a team was fed in 
the middle of the day, the morning and evening meals being regarded 
as sufficient. There are but a few old public squares which have not 
been thus filled to overflowing with wagons and horses. An old gen- 
tleman told the writer that he had once seen fifty-two wagons in an 
unbroken line going towards Pittsburgh on this pike. They were 
Conestoga wagons with great bowed beds covered with canvas. 
None of them were drawn by less than four, while many of them had 
six horses. The public square which kept them over night must 

124 




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EARLY TRANSPORTATION 

have been a good sized one. The public squares on this turnpike 
were usually from three to four hundred feet long and from two 
to three hundred feet wide. Some of the older villages had two 
squares or diamonds, separated a short distance from each other, 
but this was generally brought about by a rivalry between two fac- 
tions when the towns were laid out. 

A requisite of the old fashioned wagon or stage town tavern or 
wayside inn was a large room used as an office and barroom and as 
a sleeping place for wagoners. In it was a large open fireplace 
which was abundantly supplied with wood in the early days and 
with coal later on. Around this, when the horses were cared for 
and the evening's diversions were over, the wagoners spread their 
bunks in a semi-circle in the winter with their feet toward the fire, 
for they were said to be greatly subjected to rheumatism, and this 
position was taken as a preventative. Colored men drove wagons 
sometimes but they never were employed as stage drivers. They 
stopped at the same taverns with the white wagoners but never, so 
far as can be learned, ate at the same table. "Wagoning was very 
hard work in many ways. They drove in all kinds of weather and 
the descent of a mountain or long hill was often attended with great 
danger, especially when it was covered with ice. A day's journey 
for a regular wagoner when heavily laden was less than twenty 
miles, and one hundred miles a week was a splendid average. To 
urge his horses on and compel the lazy ones to pull their share, the 
wagoner used a tapering wagon whip of black leather, about five 
feet long with a plaited leather and silk cracker a foot or more long 
at the end. The best whips were called Loudon whips, made in a 
little town of that name in Franklin county, where Fort Loudon 
had formerly been located. 

The average load hauled was about 6,000 pounds for four or six 
horses. Sometimes four tons were put on, and even five tons 
which the wagoner boastfully called "a hundred hundred" were 
hauled, but these were exceptions. The wagons were made with 
broad wheels, four inches or more, so that they would not "cut in" 
if a soft place in the road was passed. The standard wagon for 
heavy work was the ' ' Conestoga. ' ' The bed was low in the center 
and high at each end. The lower part of the bed was painted blue. 
Above this was a red part about a foot wide which could be taken 
off when necessary, and this with white canvas covering made 

125 



EARLY TRANSPORTATION 

the patriotic tri-color of the American flag, though this was prob- 
ably unintentional. Bells were often used in all seasons of the year, 
though not strings of bells such as were afterwards used in sleigh- 
ing. The wagoners' bells were fastened to an iron bow above the 
hames. The bells were pear shaped and very sweet toned. Per- 
haps they relieved the monotony of the long journey over the lonely 
pike. 

Wagoners preferred to stop with a landlord who was a good fid- 
dler, not a violinist, as an old wagoner once told the writer, but 
1 'just a plain old fashioned fiddler." Then when the evening work 
of the wagoner was over, a dance in the dining room or office bar- 
room was not an infrequent occurrence. Gathered together at one 
place were the young maidens of two or three nearby taverns, and 
other neighbors, and then, to the music of the landlord's fiddle came 
the Virginia hoe-down, the memory of which made the old wagon- 
er's eyes sparkle with joy even when he was bent with the weight of 
four score years. The young wagoner who saved his money did 
not always remain a wagoner. Very soon he could own a team 
of his own, then another and another until he could purchase a farm 
with perhaps a "tavern stand" on it, or engage in other business. 
Some of the wagoners became men of prominence as merchants and 
manufacturers in Pittsburgh or elsewhere. One of the best known 
wagoners between Pittsburgh and the East afterwards became a 
business man of high standing and wealth in Pittsburgh. On one 
occasion he said he had driven over the road many times and knew 
every man, woman and child on the way. "I was welcome every- 
where and had plenty of enjoyment." "Indeed," said he, "those 
were the best days of my life. ' ' 

Gears, not harness, was the name used in that day, and they were 
so large and heavy that they almost covered the horse. The back- 
bands were often a foot wide and the hip straps as much as eight 
inches wide. The breeching of the wheel horses were so large and 
ponderous that they almost covered the hindquarters of a large 
horse. The housing was of heavy black leather and came down 
almost to the bottom of the hames. It required the strength of a 
man to throw them on the back of a large horse. The wagoner's 
saddle was made of black leather with long, wide flaps or skirts cut 
square at the bottom. 

With the Conestoga wagons originated our modern "stogies" or 

126 

















CONESTOGA WAGON, 1825 
(From an Old Engraving) 






EARLY TRANSPORTATION 

cigars, which are so common in "Western Pennsylvania, and which 
are now sent from Pittsburgh to every part of the Union. They 
were made of pure home-grown Lancaster county tobacco, and being 
mostly brought here at first by the Conestoga wagoners, took the 
name "stogies," which clings to them yet. There was no revenue 
on them then and labor being cheap, they sold readily at three, four 
or five for a cent. The wagoner smoked a great deal, which per- 
haps relieved the monotony of his life, but he very rarely drank 
liquor to excess, though whiskey was only three cents per glass, and 
was free to him in most taverns. The landlords kept liquor, not to 
make money out of it, but to accommodate their guests. There was 
on the pike, it is said, an average of one tavern for every two miles 
between Pittsburgh and Bedford, yet all put together outside the 
city, did not sell as much liquor as one moderately well patronized 
house does now. In a corner of the bar-room of the country tavern, 
was a small counter and back of this were kept several bottles 
labeled with the names of the liquor they contained. And this was 
the extent of the bar. 

Even the best wagons of the early days were not supplied with 
brakes or rubbers to prevent the wagon from going too rapidly 
down a steep hill. The brakes were not in use at all until late in 
the history of the pike and were invented by a man named Jones in 
Brownsville, on the National Koad. They were never patented as 
they might have been, but came into general use soon after the 
inventor put them on his own wagon. In place of this the early 
wagoner tied a flexible hickory pole across his wagon, so that the 
one end bore heavily on the wheel. Sometimes he cut a small tree 
which he tied to his rear axle and allowed it to drag behind, and thus 
he could drive down more safely. In the winter when the pike 
was covered with ice, he used a rough lock, a heavy link chain which 
he tied around the wheel and then tied the wheel when the rough 
chain touched the ground, so that the rough lock would drag and 
score the ground and thus hold the wagon back. 

"Wagoning as a business between the East and the West began 
about 1818 and reached its highest point about 1840, or perhaps a 
year or so later. With the building of the Pennsylvania Canal, wag- 
oning was greatly crippled, but in a few years had gained all it had 
lost by the increase of the population of the southwestern part of 
Pennsylvania. The business of the pike declined very rapidly when 

127 



EARLY TRANSPORTATION 

the Pennsylvania Railroad was built, so that in 1S54 it was almost a 
feature of the past. Most of the elderly men of the last generation 
fixed the highest point of travel and transportation on the pike at 
about 1840. This was the year of the greatest political campaign in 
the nation's history, the Log Cabin Campaign, and is likely fixec 
by that event in the minds of the older inhabitants. There is no 
reason why more business should not have been done on the western 
end of the pike in 1842 or in any vear up to 1846, or even up to 
1851 or '52. 

The times soon demanded more rapid methods of transportation 
between the East and the West, and this was brought about by the 
Philadelphia and Pittsburgh Transportation Company. This com- 
pany introduced a system of relays, that is, a change of horses about 
every twelve or fifteen miles, according to the grade of the pike. In 
this way, they kept a wagon going day and night from the beginning 
to the end of the trip. When a tired team reached a relay station, a 
new team and driver took the wagon and moved on at once. The 
tired horses rested and in a few hours took the returning wagon of 
the same company back over the route. Relay wagons were never 
heavily loaded, 4,000 pounds being the heaviest they carried. The 
driver was expected to make an average of two miles per hour. For 
freight thus delivered in less than half the time consumed in the old 
way, the merchants of both cities were willing to pay a much greater 
rate per ton. 

To approximate the extent of the wagoning on the pike it is 
hardly fair to take the record of a gate-keeper close to Greens- 
burg or to Pittsburgh or close to any populous community where the 
local travel was undoubtedly great. But the gate-keeper on the 
Chestnut Ridge, about forty-three miles east of Pittsburgh, thirteen 
miles east of Greensburg, reported the following for the year ending 
May 31, 1818, which was the first year after the road was completed : 
Single horses, 7,112; one horse vehicles, 350; two horse vehicles, 
501 ; three horse vehicles, 105 ; four horse vehicles, 281 ; five horse 
vehicles, 2,412 ; six horse vehicles, 298 ; one horse sleighs, 38 ; two 
horse sleds, 201 ; making a total of 38,599 horses for the first year of 
the pike. From March 1 to March 29, 1827, five hundred wagons 
passed a gate about ten miles west of Greensburg. On March 1, 
1832, eighty-five wagons passed through the same gate, and on 
March 12, 1837, ninety-two wagons passed through it, though that 

128 



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was one of its best days. These wagons were often driven in com- 
panies of six or eight and sometimes many more. In this way they 
could assist each other in any misfortune that might befall them and 
thus they were company for each other at night. It was not unusual 
for a wagoner with a heavy load, to get two additional horses, mak- 
ing eight in all, to help him up Laurel Hill or up any steep grade. 
They were furnished at regular rates by a farmer or tavern keeper 
who lived near by, and who sent a boy along to bring back the team. 

The canal from Buffalo to New York was built largely through 
the efforts of DeTVitt Clinton and was opened up on November 4, 
1825. The result was that the cost of carrying freight over the 
route was reduced from about $100 per ton to $10 per ton. This 
awakened the people to the importance of a similar waterway across 
Pennsylvania. The Legislature took up the question at once and 
had surveys of the principal rivers made in order that the most 
practicable route might be selected. A canal across the Allegheny 
mountains was impossible, but the gap was to be supplied by good 
roads over the mountains. Much time was consumed in trying to 
locate canals on either side, so that the haulage from one to the other 
would be as short as possible. 

In 1824 the Legislature authorized the appointment of three 
co mmi ssioners to examine the route between Philadelphia and Pitts- 
burgh and on April 11 they were appointed. Already the Union 
canal had been constructed, connecting the Schuylkill river with the 
Susquehanna, its western terminus being Harrisburg. The com- 
missioners appointed by the Governor reported the route by the 
Juniata and the Conemaugh to be the most practicable. Accord- 
ingly, in 1826, the Legislature provided for the construction of the 
Pennsylvania canal. It was to begin at the western terminus of the 
Union canal and to extend to the mouth of the Juniata river. West 
of the mountains it was to extend from Pittsburgh to the mouth of 
the Kiskiminetas river. The object of this arrangement was that 
these two rivers should be navigable by slackwater. The Legisla- 
ture appropriated $300,000 so that the work might go on at once. 
This was done and it was pushed so rapidly that in 1827 the water 
was turned into the levels at Lechburg. Later the slackwater proj- 
ects for navigation of the Juniata and Kiskiminetas rivers were 
abandoned as impracticable. The canal was extended accordingly, so 

129 



EARLY TRANSPORTATION 

that when it was completed, it reached from the Susquehanna to Hol- 
lidaysburg, at the base of the eastern slope of the Alleghenies, and 
from Johnstown at the foot of the western slope, to Pittsburgh. 
These canals were managed by a board of canal commissioners, con- 
sisting of three men, appointed by the Governor. These appoint- 
ments were among the most important in the State and almost 
invariably the leading business men sought them. 

No improvement in the State's history up to that time was 
attended with so much benefit to the West as the completion of this 
canal. Towns and villages sprang up all along its route, and the 
population was everywhere increased. Blast furnaces came, for 
now the transportation of the heavy products was a comparatively 
small matter. Mountains which had hitherto, been regarded as 
worthless, became of great value because of their deposits of iron 
ore, with limestone and timber near at hand, for it will be remem- 
bered that furnaces were then operated entirely with charcoal. The 
canal came west from Johnstown on the north bank of the Cone- 
maugh, passing near the towns of Ninevah, New Florence, Lock- 
port, Bolivar, Blairsville, Bairdstown, Livermore, Saltsburg, Lech- 
burg, and thence to Freeport. It crossed the Conemaugh river to the 
south bank on a beautifully arched stone aqueduct at Lockport. It 
will thus be seen that it passed along and through the northern part 
of our county for a distance of about sixty miles. Though part of 
this distance it was not within the limits of Westmoreland, it was 
at all points within our reach and benefited our people accordingly. 

The first canal boat on our part of the canal was built at Apollo, 
and was named General Abner Leacock. It was entered as a freight 
and passenger boat, and had berths, etc., like the steamboats of a 
later period. 

These two canals were connected by the Portage Eailroad, which 
was completed in 1834. The Philadelphia and Columbia Railroad 
was completed about the same time. A canal boat could be and 
actually was Vrought from the East over the canal and over the 
mountains on trucks to Johnstown, where it was put on the west end 
of the canal and finally reached Pittsburgh. The newspapers of 
that day hailed this as one of the great feats of modern times. Capi- 
talists invested their means in schemes all along the canal route. 
Business men who were not interested in canal lines, in canal boats 

130 • 



EARLY TRANSPORTATION 

or turnpikes, stages, etc., or in blast furnaces, were not regarded as 
wealthy nor enterprising, nor on the true highway to fortune. 

A canal may be briefly described as an artificial waterway over 
which boats are drawn by mules or horses. Beside the canal was a 
narrow path called a tow-path, on which the mules were driven. 
They were hitched tandem to a long rope, which was fastened to the 
front part of the boat. By means of a rudder the boat was kept in 
the middle of the canal and could be landed at the side opposite the 
tow-path when necessary. Each section of the canal was necessarily 
level from one end to the other. The next section of the canal, being 
either lower or higher than the first, made it necessary to raise or 
lower the boat. This was done by means of a lock, which was prac- 
tically the same in construction as the locks now used on rivers 
which are made navigable by slackwater dams. The average canal 
was about thirty feet wide and held about four feet of water. The 
boats varied in size, particularly in length. They were generally 
about twelve feet wide and from twenty-five to fifty feet long. Two 
boats could therefore pass each other, for they were never half as 
wide as the canal. 

The canal sometimes passed through small hills by tunnels, and 
likewise over small valleys or streams by embankments or bridges, 
the latter being called aqueducts. The canal was fed at the begin- 
ning of its highest section, usually by a dam across a stream or river. 
The water in the canal moved so slowly in passing from one basin to 
another that it often became stagnant. There being no current, the 
boat could be landed at any time, and the draft was about the same 
going either way. It was a very cheap system of transportation. 
Two mules could easily draw fifty tons and average about two miles 
an hour. The mules were driven on a rapid walk, unless the boat 
was unusually heavily laden. While this speed was sufficiently 
rapid for iron, coal, lumber, or almost any species of freight, it was 
too slow for passenger traffic, and the canals were never much oppo- 
sition to the stage coach lines passing over the turnpike. They were 
of great advantage in the transportation of freight. They are now 
nearly all abandoned, and one seldom sees even the remains of a 
lock or basin that is not slowly filling up with sediment, so thor- 
oughly have they been supplanted by railroads. 

From the " Blair sville Becord" of July 23, 1829, we copy the fol- 
lowing with reference to travel by canal : 

131 



EARLY TRANSPORTATION 

We have delayed the publication of our paper till this morning 
so that we might announce the arrival of the first packet boats, the 
Pioneer and the Pennsylvania, at the port of Blairsville. They 
arrived last evening. They are owned by Mr. David Leech, whose 
enterprise and perseverance entitle him to much credit. A large 
party of citizens and strangers met the boats a few miles below this 
town and were received on board with that politeness and attention 
for which Mr. Leech is proverbial. The Pioneer passed the first 
lift lock below this place in the short space of three minutes. The 
boats are handsomely fitted up and well calculated to give comfort 
to passengers. They were welcomed at our wharves by the pres- 
ence of many of our citizens of both sexes. They departed at nine 
o'clock this morning for Pittsburgh. 

The reader will understand that these were the first real passen- 
ger boats on the canal; freight boats had been in use two years 
before this. One of the most interesting descriptions of traveling 
by canal in Western Pennsylvania is given by Charles Dickens in 
his "American Notes," written during his first visit to America, 
in 1842 : 

The canal extends to the foot of the mountains, and then, of 
course, it stops, the passengers being conveyed across it by land car- 
riages, and taken on afterwards by another canal boat, the counter- 
part of the first which awaits them on the other side. There are two 
canal lines of passage boats ; one is called the Express, and the 
other, a cheaper one, the Pioneer. The Pioneer gets first to the 
mountain, and waits for the Express people to come up, both sets 
of passengers being conveyed across it at the same time. We were 
the Express company, but when we had crossed the mountain and 
had come to the second boat, the proprietors took it into their heads 
to draft all the Pioneers into it likewise, so that we were five and 
forty at least, and the accession of passengers was not at all of that 
kind which improved the prospect of sleeping at night. One of two 
remarkable circumstances is indisputably a fact with reference to 
that class of society who travel in these boats, either they carry their 
restlessness to such a pitch that they never sleep at all, or they 
expectorate in their dreams, which would be a remarkable mingling 
of the real and the ideal. All night long and every night on this 
canal there was a perfect storm and tempest of spitting. Between 
five and six o'clock in the morning we got up and some of us went 
on deck to give them an opportunity of taking the shelves down, 
fbj "shelves" is to be understood the contrivance for the sleepers ), 
while others, the morning being very cold, crowded around the 
rusty stove, cherishing the newly kindled fire, and filling the grate 

132 



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with these volunteer contributions of which they had been so liberal 
at night. The washing accommodations were primitive. There 
was a tin ladle chained to the deck, with which every gentleman who 
thought it necessary to cleanse himself, many were superior to this 
weakness, fished the dirty water out of the canal and poured it into a 
tin basin secured in like manner. There was also a jack-towel. 
Hanging up before a little looking-glass in the bar, in the immediate 
vicinity of the bread and cheese and biscuits, were a public comb and 
a hair brush, and yet, despite these oddities, — and even they had 
for me, at least, a humor of their own, — there was much in this mode 
of traveling which I heartily enjoyed at the time, and look back upon 
it now with great pleasure. Even the running up bare-necked at 
five o'clock in the morning from the tinted cabin to the dirty deck, 
scooping up the icy water, plunging one's head into it and drawing 
it out all fresh and glowing with cold, was a good thing. The fast, 
brisk walk upon the towing-path, between that time and breakfast, 
when every vein and artery seemed to tingle with health, the exquis- 
ite beauty of the opening day, when light comes gleaming off from 
everything; the lazy motion of the boat when one lay idly on the 
deck looking through rather than at the deep blue sky ; the gliding 
on at night so noiselessly, past frowning hills, sullen with dark 
trees, and sometimes angry in one red, burning spot high up where 
unseen men lay crouching round a fire; the shining out of the 
bright stars, undisturbed by noise of wheels or steam, or any other 
sound than the rippling of the water as the boat went on, all these 
were pure delights. 

The great novelist arrived in Pittsburgh at 9.30 p. m. on March 
28, as is announced in the "Morning Chronicle" of March 29, so that 
this trip was taken on the twenty-eighth. He went from Pittsburgh 
to St. Louis. It must be remembered in this connection that on his 
first trip to the United States he criticised our cities, our people 
and our institutions very severely, while on his second trip he was 
very laudatory in most instances. He even apologized for the 
severity of his first visit criticisms and caused his apology, or expla- 
nation, to be published in all the future editions of his "American 
Notes." 

In 1830 David Leech owned and conducted a line of canal boats 
between Blairsville and Pittsburgh, the rates being: For freight, 
twenty cents per hundred pounds, and two cents a mile for pas- 
sengers. 

David Stevenson, an English engineer, made the journey from 
Philadelphia to Pittsburgh in 1836, and gave an extensive and well 

133 



EARLY TRANSPORTATION 

prepared account of it. The entire distance, he said, was 395 miles, 
which he traveled in ninety-one hours, at an average rate of less 
than four and one-half miles per hour, at a cost of three pounds 
sterling, nearly four cents a mile. One hundred and eighteen miles 
of this distance was made by railroad, and this method of travel he 
styles as "extraordinary." The main part of the journey, two 
hundred and seventy-seven miles, was made by the Pennsylvania 
canal. He came by the Columbia Railroad from the Delaware 
river to the town of Columbia on the Susquehanna ; thence by the 
Susquehanna and the Juniata rivers and by the canal to Hollidays- 
burg, at the eastern base of the Allegheny mountains. Over the 
mountains he came on the Portage road to Johnstown, where he took 
the canal down the Conemaugh and Allegheny rivers to Pittsburg. 
Canal boats for the central division of the canal were frequently 
hauled on the railroad to Columbia and there put into the canal 
and brought to Hollidaysburg. That division of the canal had 
thirty-three aqueducts and one hundred and eleven locks, and rose 
five hundred and eighty-five feet between its eastern terminus and 
the foot of the Allegheny mountains at Hollidaysburg. 

The Portage road was thirty-six miles long and cost $1,860,000. 
It required fully two years of steady work to build it. A second 
track was added in 1835. It crossed the mountains at Blair's Gap, 
2,326 feet above sea level, and had a tunnel on the summit about 
nine hundred feet long. Much of this distance was made by side- 
hill cuttings and embankments, which required heavy walls, some 
of them being a hundred feet high. A thirty horsepower engine, 
which by means of a large cable, pulled the trains, the descending 
and ascending ones moving at the same time on the double track. 
Three cars each, laden with three tons, constituted a load for the 
stationary engine and cable. Twenty-four ears, with seventy-two 
tons of freight, could be taken over an incline in an hour, and this 
was abundantly rapid for the traffic of the road at that time, for dur- 
ing its first years seldom more than a hundred cars passed over it 
per day. For passengers the trip over the Portage road was very 
tedious. One might start at Hollidaysburg in the morning at nine 
o'clock and reach the summit at noon; there he could dine at a hotel 
and resume his journey, so that by good luck he could reach Johns- 
town at five o 'clock p. m. The time made was rarely less than seven 
or eight hours. 

134 



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COLONIAL WAREHOUSES, DELAWARE RIVER. AT EASTON, PENN. 




FERRY HOUSE OF DAVID MARTIN, AT EASTON, 1739. 



EARLY TRANSPORTATION 

The western division of the canal, that is from Johnstown to 
Pittsburgh, was one hundred and five miles long and had sixty-four 
locks and sixteen aqueducts and a tunnel about a thousand feet long. 
Shortly after the canal business began, railroad building came. Yet 
for our people in Westmoreland, and, indeed, for all in AVestern 
Pennsylvania, the canal was the only outlet for more than a quarter 
of a century. The canal, it is said, cost the State $26,000,000 origin- 
ally, and subsequent outlays for loss by floods, improvements, etc., 
brought the cost up to $40,000,000. It was badly managed during 
its latter years, for it was managed by politicians appointed as 
Canal Commissioners by the Governors. It was a constant expense 
to the State, and was universally called "The Old State Robber." It 
required many years to pay the State debt entailed by the canal, yet 
the State gained immensely by it for it saved the traffic of the West 
from going across New York by the Erie canal. This traffic built up 
our State from Philadelphia to Pittsburgh, developing particularly 
the intervening country. Western Pennsylvania should never for- 
get the debt it owes to the ' ' Old State Robber. ' ' 

It reduced very greatly the cost of transportation of all com- 
modities. The average freight on the canal between Pittsburgh and 
Philadelphia was about one cent per pound and the time consumed 
was between six and seven days. Packets, with passengers, ran 
more rapidly, making the journey in about three days. The 
fare by canal was also much less than the fare by stage coach, and 
the canal, therefore, took travel and freight both from the turn- 
pike. Canal boats were not expensive. A man with a few hundred 
dollars could purchase a boat, employ a few hands and engage in 
general canal transportation business. 

The building of the Pennsylvania Railroad was the first of the 
railroad projects in America. On March 31, 1823, our Legislature 
incorporated a company to build a railroad from Philadelphia to 
Columbia, a town situated on the Susquehanna river, in Lancaster 
county. The distance was about eighty miles. It was not built for 
some years afterwards, but its agitation helped to prepare the pub- 
lic mind, and thus contributed, in no small degree, to its ultimate 
success. Among its incorporators were Horace Binney and Stephen 
Girard, of Philadelphia. John Stevens, of New Jersey, was the 
leading spirit in the enterprise. 

135 



EARLY TRANSPORTATION 

At that time the majority of our people had no faith in railroads. 
They truly regarded agriculture as the basis of all wealth, and rea- 
soned that transportation by steam power would injure the sale of 
horses, oats, corn and other farm products. But New York, in 
1826, had completed the Erie canal, which connected the northern 
lakes with New York City. Our Pennsylvania legislators were 
bright enough to see that something must be done or the western 
trade, or the greater part of it, would go that way to the seaboard. 
The Erie canal was already carrying seventy million dollars' worth 
of western products to the East each year. In 1828, therefore, 
commissioners were directed to complete a railroad from Philadel- 
phia to Columbia within two years, and to examine a route over the 
Allegheny mountains with the ultimate purpose of thus reaching 
the navigable waters of the Ohio river at Pittsburgh. 

The Erie canal was a sad blow to Philadelphia and to our State 
in general, for it stimulated New York trade at the expense of 
Pennsylvania. Our State, therefore, appropriated two millions of 
dollars for the project of opening a way between the Ohio river and 
Philadelphia. It was a large sum for that day, but the Legislature 
was equal to the emergency. They continued the charter of the 
Bank of Pennsylvania for eighteen years on an agreement that the 
bank would lend the State four millions of dollars at five and one- 
half per centum interest. This money all went into canal and rail- 
roads between Philadelphia and Pittsburgh. "With it was built the 
Columbia road and also the Portage Railroad across the Allegheny 
mountains. Thus they in a measure triumphed over a most serious 
barrier between the East and the West. Under the circumstances 
the "Old Portage Road" has not been surpassed by railroad build- 
ing in America. It consisted of eleven levels, or grade lines, and 
ten inclined planes. The cars were pulled over the levels by locomo- 
tives, and were pulled up the inclined planes by wire ropes attached 
to stationery engines at the tops. It was operated for twenty years 
and was one of the wonders of America. From Johnstown going 
east, the five inclines, with an aggregate length of 9,670 feet, raised 
the train 800 feet ; the five inclines on the eastern slope of the moun- 
tains with an aggregate length of 13,499 feet, lowered it 1,202 feet. 
The levels between the inclines were constructed so as to gradually 
raise or lower the train, that is, they were not quite level. 

Thus by means of these two railroads and the canals, they opened 

136 



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up a continuous line of travel and transportation from Philadelphia 
to Pittsburgh aa early as 1834. The line consisted of a railroad 
from Philadelphia to Columbia, eighty-two miles; then came the 
canal, one hundred and seventy-two miles from Columbia to Holli- 
daysburg ; then the Portage road from Hollidaysburg to Johnstown, 
thirty-six miles ; and last a canal from Johnstown across the north- 
ern part of Westmoreland county and then on to Pittsburgh, a 
distance of one hundred and four miles, making in all three hundred 
and ninety-four miles. Freight, of course, had to be handled with 
every transfer, and its transportation was slow and expensive. The 
State had expended about fourteen millions on the project, and 
never realized anything of value from it by way of dividends. But 
it was of untold benefit to the country through which it passed, and 
by the development of our resources, the State was in the end an 
abundant gainer. 

As soon as this route was finished, a project was set on foot and 
agitated for many years to construct a railroad all the way, that is, 
to supplant the canals with railroads. On March 6, 1838, a general 
convention was held in Harrisburg to urge the building of the road 
to Pittsburgh. Delegates were present from twenty-nine counties 
and a good many from Ohio. Thus the matter was agitated, and not 
long after Mr. Charles L. Schlatter was appointed by the Canal 
Commissioners to survey and determine the best route upon which 
to build a railroad to the West. In 1840 he reported three routes 
which he had surveyed. One of these routes followed the Juniata 
and, crossing the mountains, passed down the Conemaugh. This 
was thought to be the best route. It was he and his survey which 
first demonstrated conclusively that the Allegheny mountains could 
be crossed without using inclined planes. The project did not 
assume a tangible shape until 1846, when on April 13 the incorporat- 
ing act of the Pennsylvania Eailroad Company was passed by our 
Legislature. On February 25, 1847, Governor Francis R. Shunk 
granted a charter to the company, and work was soon begun at both 
ends, that is, at Pittsburgh and at Harrisburg. The grading of 
fifteen miles east of the former city was let on the twenty-second 
day of July. On September 17, 1850, the road was opened to Holli- 
daysburg, where it connected with the Portage road across the 
mountains. In August, 1851, twenty-one- miles from Johnstown 
were finished, and this, with the part built east from Pittsburgh, left 

137 



EARLY TRANSPORTATION 

a gap of only about twenty-eight miles to finisla to complete the 
entire road. The following year this gap was closed up, and on 
December 10, 1852, the trains began to run from Philadelphia to 
Pittsburgh. The Portage road was still used in crossing the moun- 
tains, but by February 15, 185-4, the road over tfee mountains was 
finished and trains passed through from Pittsburgh to Philadel- 
phia without using the incline planes. 

The Allegheny mountains had for twenty-five years been con- 
sidered an unsurmountable barrier. The completion of the road 
was of great advantage to Westmoreland county and its industries, 
and because of the benefits we reaped from it, we have dwelt longer 
on its early history than the road would otherwise warrant. A 
great deal of credit for its construction is due to the early Repre- 
sentatives and Senators in the Legislature. They were men of 
much more ability than the average legislator. Those who then rep- 
resented Westmoreland were vigilant in looking after the interests 
of their county, and managed to have it included in all the great 
railroad and canal building schemes undertaken by the common- 
wealth. 

Public meetings were held in Greensburg, one as early as April 
19, 1836, to express a desire for the people to have the railroad pass 
through "Westmoreland and through Greensburg. Such agitations 
were not unnecessary, nor were they without reason. Schlatter was 
then surveying, and from his examinations, reported a route south 
of the present location, and which would have passed only through 
the southern part of the county. This southern route had, more- 
over, been reported as the preferable one by Hother Hage, a dis- 
tinguished engineer, some years prior to Schlatter^ survey. This 
was called the southern route. But Schlatter also reported a third 
route, called the northern route, which passed up the Susequehanna 
and down the Allegheny river to Pittsburgh. While this route was 
longer than either of the other routes, it had one advantage which 
appealed to all, viz., by a short branch to the northwest, it was 
possible to reach Lake Erie with all the commerce on the Northern 
lakes, which was then almost all passing through New York. A 
road to Lake Erie would divert this trade and draw it over the pro- 
posed Pennsylvania Railroad. The survey of the road through our 
county was made by Charles DeHass, and it was he who, in January, 

138 



EARLY TRANSPORTATION 

1837, first reported in favor of the route passing through Greens- 
burg. 

The grading of the road near Greensburg began in 1849. The 
tunnel at Greensburg and the immense fills east and west, made 
it one of the most difficult and expensive sections west of the Alle- 
gheny mountains. The contractor was Michael Malone. The sec- 
tion west of Greensburg, which included the old Eadebaugh tunnel, 
was let by contract to Richard McGrann, Jr. Charles McCausland 
was contractor for the next section eastward, including the "cut" 
near the old fair grounds. It required about three years to com- 
plete the work near Greensburg on account of the heavy fills, etc., 
above referred to. All the earth for these fills was hauled there in 
carts. A strike occurred in November, 1850, the report of which 
shows something of the wages paid laborers employed on the work. 
When the days began to shorten with approaching winter, the con- 
tractor reduced the wages from one dollar per day to eighty-seven 
and one-half cents per day, and a general strike was inaugurated. 
As is usual in such cases, the men went to work again, after a week's 
idleness, at the reduced wages. 

The first locomotive which entered Westmoreland county came 
from the West, that is, from Pittsburgh. It had been built in the 
East and taken to Pittsburgh in pieces on canal boats. It arrived 
at Radebaugh's, near Greensburg, on Monday, July 5, 1852. Its 
coming had been widely heralded and men, women and children 
came from all sections of the county to witness the unprecedented 
event. Most of them had never seen a locomotive before, and many 
a level-headed visitor studied it with deep and curious interest, try- 
ing to discover the secret of its hidden strength. On Thursday, 
July 15, 1852, trains began to run regularly from Radebaugh to 
Pittsburgh and return. The daily train left the station at six 
o'clock a. m. and reached Pittsburgh, twenty-nine miles, in two 
hours. It returned again in the evening, leaving Pittsburgh at six 
thirty and reached Radebaugh's about eight o'clock. The fare 
each way was eighty cents. 

A few months later, on November 29, was the eventful day for 
Greensburg, so far as railroad building was concerned. It will be 
understood that trains from Pittsburgh stopped at Radebaugh's, 
two miles west of Greensburg, because of the immense fill imme- 
diately west of Greenburg, which was not yet completed. On No- 

139 



EARLY TRANSPORTATION 

vember 29 it had been finished, and the engine passed over it and 
through the tunnel and over the embankments east of the tunnel. It 
passed over them very slowly, going over them several times, per- 
haps each time with more assurance and speed, to test the solidity of 
the massive piles of earth and stone. Later in the day a train 
passed over the entire length of the road in the county. It was a 
great event. For almost a generation they had been talking about 
it and projecting it. Now, at last, it was a reality. People of all 
ages, from all directions, gathered at the station, or along the line, 
to see this wonder of the nineteenth century. Not alone was the 
railroad a curiosity among the people of the rural sections when it 
first made its appearance. Though poorly equipped and only in 
embryonic form of the railroads of to-day, travel by railroad was 
the marvel of the age. 

The celebrated statesman and abolitionist, Joshua R. Giddings, 
of Ohio, one of the ablest men of his day, when on his way to Wash- 
ington in November, 1838, to assume the duties of his long and 
noted career in Congress, took his first ride on a railroad. The 
experience was so remarkable to him that he made the following 
note of it in his journal. Its uniqueness entitles it to a prominent 
place in railroad literature: 

At eleven o'clock about one hundred and twenty passengers, 
seated in three cars carrying from forty to sixty passengers each, 
started upon the Baltimore and Ohio Bailroad for Washington. 
The cars were well carpeted and the seats cushioned. We had also a 
stove in each car, which rendered them comfortably warm. Thus 
seated, some conversing in groups, others reading newspapers, and 
some, from loss of sleep in traveling, sleeping in their seats, we 
were swept along at the rate of fifteen miles per hour. At the usual 
time our candles were lighted and we presented the appearance of 
three drawing rooms filled with guests traveling by land. At about 
seven o'clock we arrived at Washington City. The moment we 
stopped we were surrounded on every side with runners, porters, 
hackmen and servants, one calling to know if you would go to Gads- 
by's, another if you would go to Brown's, another if you would take 
hack, etc. They are a source of great annoyance, which the police 
ought to prevent. 

The "Greensburg Gazette" of March 25, 1824, had in it a picture 
representing a railroad engine drawing three cars laden with coal. 
Three columns of the paper are devoted to a description of this won- 

140 
















THE OLD AND THE NEW 



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THE ARRIVAL OF THE TRAIN 
From "Stage Coach and Tavern Days" by Alice Morse Earle 



EARLY TRANSPORTATION 

derful motive power, then recently introduced in England. The 
editor thought it marvelous that three cars filled with coal could be 
transferred by one engine twelve or fifteen miles per hour. He 
informed his readers, however, so that they might not "lay the flat- 
tering unction" to their souls, for it would be impossible to intro- 
duce such a method of transportation in Western Pennsylvania 
because of the hills. "It would require too many engines to haul 
the cars over the hills. It can never be used near Greensburg 
because of the hills, because we are situated on one and surrounded 
by them on all sides." 

To further illustrate the popular idea, the well authenticated 
story of James Burns presents itself. He had been a contractor in 
building the Pennsylvania canal, and was afterwards a canal com- 
missioner, but was extremely incredulous as to the power or possi- 
bility of steam engines to surmount and draw carriages over the 
crest of the Allegheny mountains. Meeting J. Edgar Thomson, 
then an engineer on the proposed road over the mountains, but who 
in after life became one of the road's most distinguished presi- 
dents, Burns asked him how many miles per hour an engine could 
run over the eastern end of the railroad, which was already con- 
structed. Being told, he then asked how many hours it would take 
for a train to run from Pittsburgh to Philadelphia when the road 
was completed. Thomson told him it would require fifteen. In 
telling this story shortly afterwards, Burns said: "Then I knew 
that Thomson was a blathering idiot. ' ' 

The early roads in the eastern part of the State were built with- 
out ties, but had posts sunk to the level of the roadbed, and on these 
posts the rails were spiked. Soon after these posts were abandoned 
for ties. All rails were at first made of wood and they were rein- 
forced by long strips of iron being spiked on the top side of the 
rail. On these strips of iron the car wheels rolled. Solid iron or 
steel rails were not then thought of, for iron was too expensive, as 
it was manufactured in those days, to be used as railroad rails. 
When the spikes in the strips of the iron came out, the strips often 
curled up as the wheels passed over them, and the end sometimes 
punctured the bottom of the car. This was called a ' ' snake-head, ' ' 
and was very much feared by the passengers. Wood was used for 
fuel instead of coal in making steam for the engine. As a result, 
not infrequently live coals fell on the passengers ' clothes when th* 

141 



EARLY TRANSPORTATION 

windows were open, and burned holes in them before they were 
noticed. In many of the earlier cars, seats were arranged length- 
wise at the sides ; for night travel they were more readily converted 
into bunks than the short seats are. Above these seats was a hang- 
ing shelf, the design of which was borrowed from the state-room of 
a canal boat. When the car was crowded at night this shelf was let 
down and on it sleeping passengers were made as comfortable as 
possible. This rude car, with its sleeping shelf, was in reality the 
embryonic sleeping car of modern travel. 

To the foregoing may be added the following from the pen of 
Mr. F. "W. Coburn, author of "Lowell (Mass.) and Its People," 
now in press (Lewis Historical Publishing Co.) : 

In the general story of navigating on the Merrimack, the Middle- 
sex canal supplies one of the chief chapters. John L. Sullivan, who 
succeeded Colonel Baldwin, as superintendent of the canal, was a 
man of much business energy and drive, who became interested in 
steam navigation immediately following Fulton's successful demon- 
strations on the Hudson. In 1814 Sullivan obtained a charter to 
build boats after models of his own. His first effort was a stern- 
wheeler, which was operated for a time on the canal, but which 
created such a wash that it injured the banks. He persevered and 
a little later extended a steamboat service up river to Concord, New 
Hampshire. 

On June 22, 1819, the "Concord Patriot" extended to Mr. Sulli- 
van the courtesy of what would now be called a "reading notice." 
"The citizens of Concord," it stated, "have for two weeks past been 
much gratified with the appearance for the first time, of a steamboat 
in our river. A good portion of the ladies and gentlemen in town, 
availed themselves of the very polite invitation of the proprietors 
to take pleasure rides up and down the river in Mr. Sullivan's 
steamboat." It is notable that Mr. Sullivan originally purposed to 
use his steamboat for towing freight carriers up the Merrimack, but 
he soon found that the rapids above the mouth of the Nashua were 
so strong that the craft barely made her own way against the 
current. 

Much of the freight and passenger traffic of the manufacturing 
community that was slowly growing up at the falls of the Merrimack 
and Concord was by way of the Middlesex canal. Like all canal 
transportation this had a picturesque color of its own, which later 
annalists have liked to revive. The long flat-bottomed boats, drawn 
by horses, were called "gondolas," a name which is said still to be 
applied to similar boats on the Delaware & Hudson canal. 

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EARLY TRANSPORTATION 

The captains of the "gondolas" were almost universally native 
New England men of good character and reliability. "The bow 
hands," Judge Hadley recalls, "were a hard working and, it must 
be confessed, although there were some exceptions, a hard drinking 
class; but I can remember but few cases of drunkenness among 
them when about their business. The favorite, and, as I remember, 
the only beverage, was New England or Medford rum, a gallon 
jug of which somewhat fiery stimulant was always to be found in 
the captain's chest under the steering sweep in the stern of the 
boat." 

Not much imagination is needed to picture lively scenes at the 
tavern in Middlesex Village after it had became a rendezvous of the 
canal employees. Frequently fifteen or twenty boats would spend 
the night at the locks, and the crews would make merry in the bar- 
room. "Flip" was the high-class beverage of the day, but for the 
most part the canal men bought black strap, a mixture of rum and 
molasses, at three cents a glass. "Plenty of drunkenness, Uncle 
Joe, in those days," Benjamin Walker queried of an ancient boat- 
man who was discoursing on the good old times. "Bless your 
heart, no ! " was the reply. ' ' Mr. Eddy didn't put up with no drunk- 
ards on the canal. They would drink all night, sir, and be as steady 
as an eight-day clock in the morning." 

The horses by which this canal boat service was carried forward 
were hard-working animals in a day when there was no Society for 
the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. Their greatest liability to 
suffering was from galling at the collar. The captains, it is recalled, 
were usually very considerate of their valued motive power, though 
occasionally one was so careless as to rouse the ire of Judge Had- 
ley 's father, for many years in charge of the locks at Middlesex 
Village. 

Travel was permitted on the Middlesex canal on Sunday, but "in 
consideration of the distance from home at which those persons 
using it generally are, it may be reasonably expected that they 
should not disturb those places of public worship near which they 
pass, nor occasion any noise to interrupt the tranquility of the day. 
Therefore it is established that no Signal-Horn shall be used or 
blown on Sundays." 

Many documents concerning the operation of this property were 
kept by Mr. Sullivan in a scrapbook which is now in the special 
libraries department of the Boston Public Library. These admir- 
ably supplement the reminiscences of many of the older residents of 
Lowell. Under the caption of "Middlesex Canal Navigation," a 
notice, undated, but believed to belong to the first decade of the nine- 
teenth century, gives details of the conditions imposed by the pro- 
prietorship upon shippers and passengers. It is as follows : 

143 



EARLY TRANSPORTATION 

The public are informed that a large Boat, called the Washington, conveying 
upwards of thirty tons, covered so as to secure goods and passengers from the rain, and 
having two commodious rooms in her, will proceed from the head of the canal (having 
laid there one day previously to receive freight) on every Thursday morning, and arrive 
at Charlestown the same day before night. She will remain at Charlestown from Thurs- 
day to the next Tuesday, to receive freight, in which interim she can proceed over to 
Boston to deliver freight brought down the Canal, or to take on freight to be transported 
into the country. The Boat is drawn by two horses, having a relief on the way, and 
conducted by Mr. Wardwell. The passengers will bring their provisions on board, as 
there can be no delay to go on shore for refreshment. The passage money is four cents 
a mile, and passengers will be taken on and landed where they shall choose. 



The first locomotive to be built at Lowell was placed upon the 
rails, June 30, 1835. No longer was the railroad dependent upon 
English machine shops. The naming of this engine created some- 
thing of a local commotion. In compliment to Patrick Tracy Jack- 
son, it was proposed to call the new locomotive "The Jackson." It 
happened, however, that at the moment feeling among Lowell Whigs 
against General Andrew Jackson ran very high, and strenuous 
objections to this naming were registered. As a compromise the 
management of the machine shop called the engine "The Patrick." 
A second one was finished four days later and was christened "The 
Lowell. ' ' This locomotive was the first to be devoted exclusively to 
freight hauling. 

The first ticket agent at the Merrimack street station was a Mr. 
Long. His honesty was evidently never in question, for his oppor- 
tunities for collusion with himself seem to have been unlimited. The 
system was such, the tradition goes, that he sold the ticket at the 
station and then went aboard the train just before it started, to col- 
lect them. The railroad had been chartered to carry passengers to 
Boston for seventy-five cents ; the management at once set a price of 
one dollar. To live within the law, however, one car on each train 
was run, at the legal price. This was a rude open box car with a few 
rough pine seats. People who possibly could afford to pay the 
additional twenty-five cents never rode in the second-class car. 

Concerning the running of the first trains out of Lowell, Mr. Taft 
recalls that the original conductor was John Barrett, a native 
New Englander. The original engineer, who merited the adjec- 
tive in both senses of the word, was William Robinson, a Briton, who 
had been imported for this special work. Robinson took a quite 
lofty view of his own indispensableness, and readily undertook to 
play upon the credulity of the ignorant natives. "He was not very 
particular about train time, would saunter up to the depot about an 
hour after his train was due to start, carelessly look around upon 
the waiting passengers, look over his engine, mount the platform, 
put on his kid gloves and in his own good time and pleasure, start 
his train toward Boston. He would also stop his train suddenly 
when he got nearly to a station, jump down, look the engine over 

144 



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STAGES leave WORCESTER, 

fis>%{\ on (lie arrival of ilje Morning Trains of Cars from Boston, Norwich, Springfield and Stenm-Boiit from New- 
SfeK-3 York, via. Aorwich, passing over the Bnrrc nnil Petersham New Houd, — 1>1.\I.\G AT PETERSUAM, — 
ibiSS arrive at Greenfield und .Bratlleboro', at 7 o'clock, P. M. 

^J*l Leave Greenfield and Brnttleboro'.ntG o'clock, A. M.,— DIM.YG AT BAHRE,— arrive at Worcester, s-'^s- 
Y£k in season for the afternoon Trains of Curs for Boston, .Yorvtieh, Springfield, aoi3 Stenmbont via. Aor»ich nS&31 
d^jejj for A. V. ID* STAGES leave Winchester on the arrival of Worcester Stage lia. Burre and Pettrsbaui, fc I'.^V, 
&?&§ TlESD * J '"*- TllVUSDA l'-S, and SA TVRD.1 YS, and arrive at Ketae. X. U„ same day. fpjv^ 

Pf MONDAYS, WEDNESDAYS and FUIDAYS, W_ 

S~%Jj4 STAGES lenve Worcester on the nrrivnl of the morning Trains of tars from Boston, Aornicli, Sprinn- i*?} r - '"■ 
%f'44 field, and Steamboat from Aew York via. Aor»ieb.— DIM.VG AT TEMPLETOA,— arrive at Keene, '4d^ : 
Sy!y \. II., the same day nt 7 o'clock, P. .VI. &^*-~ ! 

m iftffltt III R.it tt It <tti 



ss 



P$3 i^ a J5.^ e * n .?' TCESDAYS, THURSDAYS, and SATURDAYS, at 6 o'clwt, A. M.,— DINING AT jjv<^ 



SJSrj^S TEMPLETO.V, — arrive at Worcester, in sensou for the afternoon Trains of Cars for Boston, .\omich, 



9 Springfield, nnd Steamboat via. Norwich for .View York. 

r3 Also.—Stajjes leave Worcester, 



fci^JJ Mondays, Wednesdays nnd Fridays, on the arrival of the Morning Truins 
3£5ytJ tleboro', via. Templetoo and Athol, arriving the some day. 



EP RETURNING :— Leave Greenfield nnd Bratlleboro'. TUESDAY'S. THURSDAYS and SATUR- 
jj5 Will be furnished with Stage and Rail Road Tickets, on application to F. A. BILLIAGS, Ao. 7, or J. 



hooks -• 




of Car*, for Greenfield and Brat- 



m 



■'> ' j 

M 



B 



-UMISi «0„ So 



I .r. -I.. I tiilt. Br« 



J- ,^_ 



HT" Passengers purchasing their Tickets nt Ao. 7, Elm St., Boston, for Greenfield, or Bratlleboro', will 

. c«l[fl4r>M, o J Mtrverctf It. .he Cor,. FREE OK LAPLSSE' 



Worcester, July 1, 1S4« 



C. TWICHELL & CO. 




EARLY TRANSPORTATION 

anxiously, crawl under it, remove a nut from some bolt, look it over 
and put it back again. The next day the papers would have an 
account of how the engine had broken down on its way, but had been 
skillfully repaired by Engineer Robinson. It was not long, how- 
ever, before the management caught on, and he was replaced by a 
skilled mechanic from the Locks and Canals Locomotive Works, 
from which source the engineers required were obtained for many 
years." 

Of the inauguration of railroad service between Lowell and Bos- 
ton, Mrs. Eobinson says, in "Loom and Spindle." "I saw the 
first train that went out of Lowell, and there was great excitement 
over the event. People were gathered along the street near the 
'deepot,' discussing the great wonder; and we children stayed at 
home from school, or ran barefooted from our play, at the first toot 
of the whistle. As I stood on the sidewalk I remember hearing 
those who stood near me disputing as to the probable result of this 
new attempt at locomotion. 'The ingine never can start all them 
cars.' 'She can, too.' 'She can't. I don't believe a word of it.' 
'She'll break down and kill everybody,' was the cry." 



WSfflgtfB? 




»45 




American Loyalists in South Wales 

By E. Alfred Jones, London, England 

|EOM the early days of the American Kevolutionary War, 
large numbers of American loyalists sought refuge in 
the British Isles. Many of these were government 
officials, custom officers, judges and others, who had 
been deprived of their offices and emoluments; many were clergy 
of the Episcopal church and missionaries of the Society for the 
Propagation of the Gospel, who, rather than decline to offer the 
prayer for the King in the Book of Common Prayer, and sharing 
with John Fowler, a Massachusetts loyalist, the conviction con- 
tained in his petition, ". . . fully convinced as a Christian that 
his duty to his King must be performed to answer a good and just 
conscience . . ." preferred to sacrifice their livings and suffer 
exile and privations. Another class of loyalist exiles was com- 
posed of merchants of varying degrees of prosperity, who, at an 
advanced period in life, suffered sudden change from affluence to 
poverty and distress. London, the seat of government and the 
capital of the British Empire, was the goal of many of the more 
prosperous loyalists. Here their claims for compensation were to 
be heard, and here they hoped to be awarded the full amounts of 
their claims for the loss of their real and personal property, and for 
their heavy losses from debts left unpaid by their debtors. 1 

Bristol, the landing place of so many ships which bore the 
unhappy exiles, was the refuge of a considerable colony, composed 
mostly of loyalists from Massachusetts. It was selected mainly 
because the cost of living in London was beyond the means of these 
distressed people, the annual allowances of the British Government, 
comparatively generous as they were in the circumstances, being 
barely sufficient in many cases for the maintenance of large fam- 
ilies. The proximity of Bristol to Bath, the gayest and most fash- 
ionable English city outside London, may have had some influence 



v 'The Colony of Massachusetts Loyalists at Bristol," Mass. Hist. Soc, by Prof. Wil- 
bur H. Siebert, Jan., 1912. 

146 



AMERICAN LOYALISTS IN SOUTH WALES 

in their selection of it as a place of residence. The large number 
of loyalists of Scotch origin or of Scotch descent, who outnumbered 
the English loyalists, not unnaturally returned to their friends and 
relations in Scotland; while the not inconsiderable number of 
Scotch-Irish loyalists found homes amongst their family connections 
in the north-east of Ireland. 

Towards South Wales, being a "cheap country," the eyes of sev- 
eral loyalists turned, and here a certain number settled, until re- 
moved by death or other causes, as will be shown in this article. Se- 
lecting the names at random, the first of the American loyalist refu- 
gees in South Wales was Samuel Mather, who chose as his abode the 
ancient borough of Cowbridge in Glamorganshire. Born in Feb- 
ruary, 1736-37, the bearer of this illustrious New England name 
was the eldest son of Rev. Samuel Mather, of Boston, and was, in 
the words of his petition to the Commissioners of American Claims 
in London, "descended from some of the most ancient and reputable 
settlers" in the Province of Massachusetts Bay. Like many of the 
prominent colonial families who fought on the loyalist side in the 
Revolutionary War, he and other members of his family had served 
in the war against the French in North America. Samuel Mather 
himself was an officer in a provincial corps, and as a reward for his 
services was in 1763 appointed Amherst as Deputy Commissary 
General in Quebec, an appointment which he held until a change 
from military to civil government occurred in that province. One 
of his brothers perished at the siege of Havana, where many Anglo- 
Americans lost their lives, and another lost his life with his regi- 
ment at Halifax, Nova Scotia. While stationed in Quebec, Samuel 
Mather was appointed a justice of the peace and a commissioner 
of the Court of King's Bench. In or about 1771 he removed to his 
native place, Boston, and in that year, by the influence of friends 
and relations, received the appointment of chief clerk at the Cus- 
toms, as well as some minor offices. 

By his adoption of the loyalist side in the Revolutionary War, 
Samuel Mather incurred the implacable hostility of his revered 
father, and in his own pathetic words, was ' ' guilty of disobliging the 
best of fathers by refusing his advice and commands to quit the ser- 
vice of His Most Gracious Sovereign, and enter into that of the 
States of Am erica. ' ' But he elected to follow into exile his beloved 
maternal uncle, Governor Thomas Hutchinson, (whose sister Han- 

147 



AMERICAN LOYALISTS IN SOUTH WALES 

nah had married Rev. Samuel Mather), rather than espouse the 
American cause, .painful as was the severance from his father and 
other members of the Mather family. 

Writing from Ilfracombe, on the coast of Somerset, in a letter 
dated 29th October, 1782, to one Counsellor Price of Cowbridge, 
Samuel Mather says that he ''intended removing back to some 
part of Glamorgan as soon as the bathing season was over here, 
and to have taken a small cot with a bit of land to myself if I had 
received my allowance from Government, that I might enjoy the 
pleasing acquaintance I had made in that country, but alas ! I can- 
not stir for want thereof." He called upon Counsellor Price in 
forma pauperis, having lost by death the only friend to whom he 
could freely apply for assistance in his distress, namely, his uncle, 
Governor Hutchinson. To Miss Price, Miss Harris and Mrs. Mor- 
gan at Cowbridge, Samuel Mather sent his compliments in this 
letter. 

An examination of the loyalist claims shows that the amount of his 
claim on the British government for the loss of his property was 
£200, which was paid in full. A further claim of £225 for the loss 
of his annual income at the Customs at Boston was met by a pay- 
ment of £200, while his annual allowance or pension from the Treas- 
ury from 1784 until his death was £100. 2 Samuel Mather had mar- 
ried Margaret, daughter of Benjamin Gerrish, and died in 1813 at 
Boston, the place of his birth. 3 

In this same little old Welsh town dwelt for a while another and 
more eminent Massachusetts loyalist, William Browne, of Salem, 
sometime representative in the General Assembly and Judge of the 
Superior Court, who was one of the two hundred or more loyalist 
members of Harvard College, and a member of one of the most 
highly respected families in the Province. So vast in extent and 
value was his real estate in Connecticut and Massachusetts that his 
claim reached the large total of £32,256 sterling, and the final allow- 
ance was £7,658. His only son, Lieut. William Browne, who had 
been educated at Winchester College, one of the most famous of 
English public schools (where the son of another American loyalist 
was admitted a scholar during the Revolutionary War), was ga- 



'Public Record Office, London, Loyalist documents, etc. : A.O. 12/99, fo. 226 ; A.O. 
12/109; A.O. 13/47; A.O. 13/75; AO. 13/83; A.O. 459/7; T. 50/8; T. 50/44. 

"'The Mather Genealogy," by Horace E. Mather, 1890. 

148 



AMERICAN LOYALISTS IN SOUTH WALES 

zetted to the 58th Regiment of Foot in 1779. Lieut. William Browne, 
in his petition of 16th December, 1780, states that his father had 
been living in England, since his banishment from his beloved home 
at Salem, "until he was obliged to seek a retreat better adapted to 
his circumstances, and is now concealed among the rugged moun- 
tains of Wales subsisting with a family upon a salary of £200 a 
year. ' ' 

William Browne, the elder, had lived in South Wales for over two 
years, as is confirmed by Governor Hutchinson's Diary, under date 
of 24th July, 1778, when the Governor went on a visit to Cowbridge 
and called upon him and his wife, as well as Mr. and Mrs. Murray, 
who were also American exiles. The ever hospitable Governor of 
Massachusetts wrote to William Browne at Cowbridge on 7th 
April, 1779, asking him to send his son, who was about to be ga- 
zetted to his regiment, to London, so that his (the Governor's) 
tailor might make his military uniform, and inviting the young 
subaltern to breakfast and dine with him during his visit to Lon- 
don, before embarking with his regiment for Gibraltar. Lieutenant 
Browne served throughout the memorable siege of Gibraltar 4 from 
1779 to 1782, as did another young American officer from Virginia, 
Lieut. Prestley Thornton, of the 12th Eegiment of Foot. This 
young officer's life came to a tragic end by hanging himself on 30th 
April, 1786. Jonathan Dowse, a Massachusetts loyalist, living in 
exile at Carmarthen in South Wales, gave an account of this affair 
to Dr. Peter Oliver, who mentions it in his Diary, 5 and describes 
Lieut. Browne as a worthless character, though on what evidence is 
unfortunately not revealed. 

It will be remembered that a third American is associated with 
the Siege of Gibraltar by his well-known painting of it, in the Na- 
tional Gallery in London, namely, John Singleton Copley. 

William Browne, 6 the elder, left Cowbridge on his appointment as 



"'The History of the British Army." by Hon. John Fortescue, Vol. iii. p. 427, and the 
Encyclopedia Britannica contains a bibliography of the Siege of Gibraltar. 

•Printed in Governor Hutchinson's Diary, Vol. ii. p. 423. 

*For an account and other particulars of the Browne family, see "The Loyalists of 
Massachusetts," by G. H. Stark, pp. 449-451 ; "The Old Silver of American Churches," 
ty E. Alfred Jones, 1913, pp. 421-423 and 431 ; "The Ontario Bureau of Archives," 2nd 
Report, pp. 638-646, 720-721 and 1272, and "The Loyalist Documents in the Public Rec- 
ord Offiec," London, in A.O. 12 and 13. 

149 



AMERICAN LOYALISTS IN SOUTH WALES 

Governor of Bermuda, 7 on 19th January, 1781. He remained in 
that island until his retirement in 1788, when he returned to Eng- 
land, dying in 1802 at the age of 65, and leaving, according to his 
will, two daughters, Catherine and Mary. 

The fifth Massachusetts loyalist, including Mr. and Mrs. Murray 
previously mentioned, who was a refugee in South Wales, was 
John Erving, of a distinguished New England family, a prominent 
merchant of Boston, one of the Mandamus Councillors, and colonel 
of the militia before the outbreak of the Revolutionary War. The 
length of his residence in the old borough of Haverfordwest is not 
disclosed in the documents. In comparison with others (the £200 
of Governor Browne for example), John Erving's allowance of £300 
a year from the British Treasury was generous. From South 
Wales he removed to Bath, where he died on 17th July, 1816. 8 

Allusion has already been made to the loyalist, Jonathan Dowse. 
He was the son of Joseph Dowse, Customs Officer at Salem, Mas- 
sachusetts, likewise a loyalist, and was born 22nd July, 1739. On 
15th June, 1774, he was appointed deputy surveyor and searcher at 
the Customs at Salem and Marblehead. Fleeing for safety from 
Massachusetts at the outbreak of war, he eventually reached Eng- 
land, leaving his aged father and mother, Joseph and Jane Dowse, 
and three spinster sisters, at Boston, where they lived in great 
distress on a small allowance from the British government. 

The date of the arrival of Jonathan Dowse at Carmarthen, "the 
cheapest part of Wales," as it is described in the loyalist docu- 
ments, is not recorded, but he was a resident there in September, 
1788, in broken health, and finding his small pension of £25 insuf- 
ficient for his needs, despite the exercise of the severest economy. 
His pension was granted on 5th July, 1788, (with an extra allowance 
of £15 in 1797-1798), and was continued until 1802, when he doubt- 
less died. 9 

The town of Carmarthen was also the refuge of another Massa- 
chusetts loyalist, Hannah Pollard, who claims consideration from 
the fact that her husband, Benjamin Pollard, a Boston merchant, 



"'Another Massachusetts" loyalist, Daniel Leonard of Taunton, was Chief Justice of 
Bermuda during the Governorship of William Browne. 

"'The Loyalists of Massachusetts," by J. H. Stark, pp. 298-299. Public Record 
Office, London: A.O. 12/82, fo. 2. A.O. 12/105; fos. 3-4, 8; A.O. 12/109, fo. 134; 
A.O. 13/45; T. 50/6; T. 50/25. 

•A.O. 12/105, fo. 35; A.O. 12/109, fo. 126; A.O. 13/44; A.O. 13/83. Ibid. 

ISO 



AMERICAN LOYALISTS IN SOUTH WALES 

"was an active combatant in the war, having been appointed an 
ensign in the famous loyalist corps, De Lancey's Brigade, so called 
After its founder, Brigadier-General Oliver de Lancey, of New 
York, who had commanded an American provincial regiment in the 
war against the French, which ended in the conquest of Canada. This 
corps was at first divided into three battalions, General de Lancey 
being colonel of the first, with his son-in-law, John Harris Cruger, 
as lieut.-colonel. 

Benjamin Pollard was gazetted to the 2nd Battalion, which he 
accompanied to Georgia in November, 1778, and was present at the 
end of December following, when Lieut.-Col. Archibald Campbell, 
commander of a detachment of British troops sent to that province, 
attacked and defeated the American forces under Gen. Robert 
Howe, and captured Savannah. The detachment of De Lancey's 
corps in that engagement specially distinguished itself, and its 
leader, Lieut.-Col. John Harris Cruger (whose great merits as a 
provincial officer have received inadequate appreciation) received 
well-deserved praise. ^Ensign Pollard met his death in action, 
in the gallant defence of Savannah against the unsuccessful assault 
on 4th October, 1779, by the combined forces of the Americans under 
Gen. Lincoln and the French under Count d'Estaing. Mrs. Hannah 
Pollard claimed £1,572 for the loss of her husband's property at 
Boston, and was awarded compensation to the amount of £200, 
receiving a pension of £30 per annum from 1784 to 1818, when her 
death is believed to have occurred. 10 

Lieut. James Smyth was born in 1759, and five years later accom- 
panied his parents from his native county of Gloucestershire to 
Beaufort, South Carolina, where they died shortly after their 
arrival. In 1779, the youthful James Smyth joined one of the loy- 
alist corps as an ensign, against the advice and desire of his friends 
and of his guardian, AVilliam Hazzard Wigg. Offers of prospects 
of early advancement in the American army failed to tempt him 
from his allegiance to his King and country. Promotion followed 
by his appointment as lieutenant on 22nd November, 1780, in the 
King's Carolina Rangers, 11 in which he served until that well known 



"Public Record Office, London: A.O. 12/81, fo. 46; A.O. 12/105, to. 108; A.O. 
12/109, fo. 244; T. 50/8; T. 50/25; A.O. 13/49; A.O. 13/75- 

"The King's Carolina Rangers would seem to have been formed in June, 1779, by 
the redoubtable loyalist, Lieut.-Colonel Thomas Brown, from his loyalist corps, the 
King's Florida Rangers. 

151 



AMERICAN LOYALISTS IN SOUTH WALES 

loyalist corps was disbanded in 1783, when he returned to England 
and lived on his half -pay of 2s. 4d. a day. Lieut. James Smyth is 
next heard of in 1784, in South Wales, where he resided at Cwm 
Castell, an early seventeenth-century house, now much decayed, in 
the parish of Newchurch, Carmarthenshire. Two witnesses to his 
loyalty and military services in America, before the Commissioners 
in London, were Mrs. Katherine Palmer and Lieut. John Ander- 
son, a brother officer in this regiment, both of whom were at that 
time living in or near the town of Carmarthen. 12 

Lieut. John Anderson, 13 just mentioned, was born in England in 
1762, and on 21st November, 1780, at the age of eighteen was ap- 
pointed lieutenant in the King's Carolina Rangers, in which he 
served until that corps was disbanded, when he retired on half- 
pay. 14 

The history of Airs. Katherine Palmer referred to above, is briefly 
as follows. She was taken at an early age from Gloucestershire to 
South Carolina, and appears first to have married one Harvey or 
Hervey. She was possessed of considerable real and personal prop- 
erty, negro slaves, furniture, and silver plate, amounting in all to 
about £3,000, which included debts due to her, all of which she lost. 
In addition to suffering this heavy loss and the consequent depriva- 
tions, she was obliged to submit to the humiliation of being kept a 
close prisoner to a house at Charleston, which was guarded by sen- 
tries, on suspicion that her love and affection for her native coun- 
try would induce her to convey intelligence to the British army. 
The horrors and calamities of the war to her were past her abilities 
to describe. After the British evacuation of Charleston, Mrs. Kath- 
erine Palmer, like many other loyalists from the southern colonies 
of America, sought refuge in Jamaica. There, however, she was 
unable to support herself and her children, and she left for Eng- 
land, finally settling in 1784 at Carmarthen. Her petition conveys 
no hint of the full name of her husbands, Harvey and Palmer, nor 
is any information vouchsafed as to whether the second was alive 
in 1784. With her petition is the original certificate of Lieut. James 
Smyth, dated from Carmarthen, 2nd June, 1784, testifying to her 



"Public Record Office, London: A.O. 12/92, fo. la. 97; A.O. 12/99, to. 5; A.O. 
13/83; Ind. 5604-5605-5606. 

"Sabine's Loyalist, Appendix. 

"Public Record Office, London : Ind., 5604, 5605 and 5606. 

152 



AMERICAN LOYALISTS IN SOUTH WALES 

loyalty and her losses. 15 Mrs. Katherine Palmer's losses are 
enumerated as follows: 16 Plate, gold watch and rings, £150; 
wearing apparel, £200; furniture, £90; negro slaves, £405; debts 
on bond due to her, £755. Total, £1600. The witnesses in support 
of her case before the Commissioners in London were Capt. 
Alexander Campbell, of the South Carolina Bangers, and Lieut. 
James Smyth, previously mentioned. 

Samuel McKenna, at the advanced age of eighty, emigrated from 
Scotland to New Jersey in 1774 or 1775, apparently with his only 
child, Barbara, 17 the wife of William Blane or Blain, also a Scots- 
man, who bought a property at Woodbridge in that State. 

These three Scotch loyalists came over to England at the conclu- 
sion of hostilities; William Blain, however, died on 23rd June, 
1784, and his wife died a year later, at Haverfordwest in South 
Wales. 

The aged Samuel McKenna, unlike some of his loyalist fellow- 
countrymen who returned to Scotland, migrated to Haverfordwest, 
where he lived on his small pension, and where he appears to have 
died in 1787. Lord Milford testified in person before the Commis- 
sioners in London as to his indigent circumstances, a testimony 
which was confirmed by a certificate of William Thomas, surgeon, 
of Haverfordwest. 

A fourth refugee at Haverfordwest, where he was living in March, 
1784, was John Hallser Pickering, of Philadelphia. From his me- 
morial the following narrative is compiled. He was captured on 
the 20th May, 1776, at Kinderhook, in New York province, while 
trading on his own sloop between Albany, New York, the City of 
New York, and Philadelphia, and was immediately taken to Albany 
gaol, where he was confined until 12th August following, when he 
escaped by means not disclosed in his memorial. During his impris- 
onment a mob broke into and destroyed the house of his uncle, 
Arthur Thomas, 18 at Philadelphia, where his wife dwelt and carried 
on her business. The personal feuds between the loyalists and rev- 



a Ibid: A.O. 13/133. 

"Ibid: A.O. 13/93- 

"Public Record Office, London: A.O. 12/101, fo. 351. A.O. 12/109, f°- 204; A.O. 
13/110. 

"The Welsh surname, Thomas, suggests that John Hallser Pickering may have joined 
his family connections in South Wales. 

153 



AMERICAN LOYALISTS IN SOUTH WALES 

olutionists were of such unexampled fury, culminating in atrocities 
of every description, as to be almost unbelievable in our own day. 
Property of all kinds was destroyed without compunction, and the 
raid on a large timber yard, the joint property of this loyalist's wife 
and her cousin, John Thomas, was one of many such episodes on both 
sides during the war. John Hallser Pickering's own losses on that 
occasion were 700 Portugal pieces, a number of dollars, wearing 
apparel and silver plate. His losses in real property also com- 
prised a house and storehouse in the city of New York, which had 
been let at £95 sterling a year before the war. The Commissioners 
of American Claims made no order or recommendation, unless the 
claimant could produce conveyances, proofs of title or proofs of the 
confiscation of their property. In this loyalist's case, all his pa- 
pers were lost on board the ship Rachel, which foundered at sea on 
the voyage from New York to England, when this exiled loyalist 
and his wife narrowly escaped a watery grave. 

John Hallser Pickering, from his attachment to the royal cause, 
was imprisoned four times, twice condemned to death, but escaped 
"by the Providence of the Almighty," though not without receiving 
wounds. His military service would seem to have been confined to 
acting, "at the hazard of his life," as a despatch bearer from Gen- 
eral Howe to General Burgoyne on one occasion. 19 The Commis- 
sioners granted him £80 a year. 

A fifth exile at Haverfordwest was James Kitchen or Kitching, 
the successor of Thomas Carr, or Kerr, as Collector of Customs at 
Sunbury, in Georgia, in 1772, his emoluments from this office being 
nearly £300 a year. He was one of the most conspicuous loyalists 
of Georgia, having been one of the seven signatories from that 
Province to the Loyal address to George III in June, 1779. James 
Kitchen, or Kitching, was appointed a major in a loyalist corps in 
Georgia. In 1783, when he was forty years old, he was granted an 
allowance of £40 per annum. Whether he went immediately to 
Haverfordwest in that year, cannot be determined from the docu- 
ments, but he was living there on 29th September, 1788, on an 
increased government allowance of £90, and his letter of that date, 
still preserved in the Public Record Office, bears the postmark of 
that ancient South Wales borough, as well as his own personal seal 



"Public Record Office, London: A.O. 12/103, fo. 48; A.O. 13/67; A.O. 13/93. 

154 



AMERICAN LOYALISTS IN SOUTH WALES 

composed of his initials in Louis XVI. style. 20 James Kitchen, or 
Kitching, claimed £100 for loss of property and was allowed £280. 21 
He also made a claim of £300 per annum for loss of income during 
the war, and was allowed £200. He received an allowance of £10 
per annum from 5th July, 17S8, to 1799. 

The fifteenth and last American loyalist who resided in South 
Wales was Lieut.-Col.Propert Howorth or Howarth, believed to have 
been a Welshman. He was appointed in 1760 commander of Fort 
Johnston, near Charleston, South Carolina, and after the Revolu- 
tionary W r ar settled at Hay in Breconshire, where he died at the end 
of 1796 or early in 1797. 22 

How far the fact that the only loyal addresses to the King from 
Wales, deprecating the rebellion in America, were the three from 
the town and county of Carmarthen and from Haverfordwest, influ- 
enced these American loyalists in selecting those places as their 
asylum, apart from their "cheapness," it is impossible to con- 
jecture. 23 



"Public Record Office : A.O. 13/85. 

a Ibid A.O. 12/99, fo. 81; A.O. 12/109, fos. 184-185; A. O. 13/83; A.O. 461/16; T. 
50/7; T. 50/8. 

"For an account of Lieut-Colonel Howorth (Howarth) see "Welshmen in the 
American War of Independence, by E. Alfred Jones, in Y CYMMRODOR, Vol. XXVII. 
pp. 203-263. 1917-. 

"Force's American Archives, Series IV, Vol. III. pp. 081, 1086, 1128. 







155 



A Sketch of Abraham Lincoln's Mother 

By Lucy Poeteb Higgins, Boston, Mass. 
"Do Men Gather Grapes of Thorns, or Figs of Thistles?" 




f F February 12, 1809, is commemorated all over the world, 
and Abraham Lincoln is one of few all-world names, it 
is just as it should be. We cannot do too much to honor 
that name, or to bring before the "world the simple gran- 
deur, the unassailable truth, fairness and fearlessness that it stands 
for; and when we say all that can be said, we have not said it all. 
But whenever we honor the birthday of a great man, we should not 
fail to remember that man's mother. In the ancient Bible days 
when a great man was named, the name of his mother was given. 
Strangely enough, it is only Lincoln himself that has rightly hon- 
ored his mother, history, with a purblind political eye, having failed 
utterly to see in Nancy Hanks the name and fair fame of one of 
the loveliest characters that ever lived. Her name, which meant 
Soul, came down to us through more than a thousand years. A 
wonderfully interesting tale it is. 

Researches take us back to the beautiful old town of Malmsbury, 
in the ancient county of Wiltshire, England, and the year 878, when 
Alfred the Great defeated the Danes who had overrun the whole 
kingdom of the West Saxons. All the men from Malmsbury, as well 
as others who had fought with King Alfred, were rewarded with 
grants of land, five hundred acres to each. Among these men were 
two brothers by the name of Hanks. Their descendants still hold 
"commoners' rights" in Malmsbury, their charters being renewed 
from time to time. The town is only ninety-six miles from Lon- 
don, near the ruins of Stonehenge, which is believed to have been 
built by the Egyptians ages ago. The name Hanks is derived from 
the Egyptian word " Auk," meaning soul, and this family is thought 
to have lived here for long ages. They are reputed to have 
been very exclusive in their habits, many never leaving their 
native home, considering it a disgrace even to sleep out of 

156 











REMARKABLE STATUE OF ABRAHAM LINCOLN, AT NEWARK. X J. 

The gift of Amos H. Van Horn, of that city; unveiled on Memorial Day, 1910. 
former President Roosevelt making the presentation address 



1 



A SKETCH OF ABRAHAM LINCOLN'S MOTHER 

■"town. This, be it remembered, was a thousand years ago in King 
Athelstane's time. 

Along the old Foss road near the town, one of the four built by 
the Romans, and running up to London and York and so along far 
north into Scotland, the descendants of the Hanks family first began 
to travel. . About 1550, Thomas Hanks, with his family, including 
Thomas Jr., moved to "Stowe on the Wold," and later we find 
Thomas 3d living there, who was a soldier under Oliver Cromwell. 
Benjamin, son of Thomas 3d, with his wife "Abigell," came to 
America, it is thought with their friends Richard and Catherine 
White, landing in Plymouth, October 17, 1699. Among the parish 
records of the Rev. Daniel Lewis of Pembroke are the names of their 
eleven children. Their first home was in what was called "The 
Major's Purchase," they owning thirty acres of the 35th lot, which 
was then a part of Duxbury, but was later included in the town of 
Pembroke. They also owned land at the Saquish, then and now a 
part of Plymouth. The name is variously spelled, and is an Indian 
word meaning or pertaining to clams, which are still abundant and 
most delicious in that locality. 

The descendants of Benjamin and "Abigell" Hanks became 
known as a "remarkably inventive family" in a wide range of activ- 
ities, we are told. The first bells ever made in America were cast 
on ' ' Hanks ' Hill, ' ' on their old New England farm. The first tower 
clock in this country, also a device of theirs, was placed in the old 
Dutch church in New York City. The bells and chimes made by this 
family spread all over the world on land and sea. Other members 
of the same family sent out libraries for sailors far and wide. Oth- 
ers erected the first silk mills run by water power in this country. 
Others made the first cannon carried by the Continental artillery. 
Members of this family were found in all our wars. Sunday school 
publications without number have been the product of other mem- 
bers. Graduates from this family can be traced in almost every 
University of Am erica. A new mineral species found in San Ber- 
nandino county, California, was given the name of "Hanksite," 
after Prof. Henry G. Hanks, of California, than whom "no man 
has done more to give the world a correct knowledge of the minerals 
of the great States of our Pacific Coast." 

The Columbian "Liberty Bell" in front of the Administration 
building at the World's Fair in Chicago in 1893, weighing 13,000 

157 



A SKETCH OF ABRAHAM LINCOLN'S MOTHER 

pounds to represent the Thirteen Original States, made from relics 
of gold, silver, old coins and metals, sent from all parts of the 
world, was inscribed by the great-great-great-grandson of the first 
Benjamin Hanks of Plymouth county. These were the words, all 
scriptural quotations: "Glory to God in the highest, and on earth 
peace, good-will toward men. Proclaim Liberty throughout all the 
land and unto all the inhabitants thereof." "A new commandment 
give I unto you, that ye love one another." "We hope it may ring 
again for the coming World Peace. 

Abundant proof of all these statements can be found. And they 
all go to prove that the mother of our Abraham Lincoln belonged to 
a family which ' ' has given to America some of her finest minds and 
heroic hearts." 

The third child of Benjamin and Abigail Hanks, their son Wil- 
liam, born February 11, 1704, migrated to Virginia and settled near 
the mouth of the Rappahanock river, where his five sons were born. 
Four of his sons, including his youngest son, Joseph, became large 
landowners, buying and selling land frequently. Joseph at one time 
sold to his oldest brother, Abraham, 284 acres on the lower side of 
Seller creek, in the county of Amelia. In 1754 he bought land on 
which he settled down, and there his five sons and three daughters 
were born, the youngest being his daughter Nancy, named for her 
mother, Nancy (Shipley) Hanks, and born February 5, 1784. 

Here in Old Virginia the brothers and sisters lived and settled, 
and a large family of cousins enjoyed the thousand acres owned 
among them. When Nancy was about five years old, in 1789, they 
decided to move to Kentucky, sold out their Virginia holdings, and 
thereafter their names appear in the Kentucky records. About six 
or seven families were included. This journey westward occurred 
at the time the great migration into Kentucky was at its height, led 
on by Daniel Boone and his friend James Harrod. In 1784 the 
population of this new country was estimated at 30,000. It must 
have been a picturesque and romantic journey through the Virginia 
Valley, thence to Cumberland Gap, and thence by the Wilderness 
Road, so called, to the Ohio. From Cumberland Gap it was noth- 
ing but a footpath running northwest to the Ohio at Louisville, a 
mere bridle path through the forest and over the mountain, but a 
route preferred to the one by Pittsburg and the Ohio river. Five 
years had improved it greatly, the Virginia Legislature becoming 

158 



A SKETCH OF ABRAHAM LINCOLN'S MOTHER 

interested in it because of the number of Virginians seeking a home 
in Kentucky. But from Cumberland Gap it was still only a foot- 
path over which parties traveled in single file, with their goods and 
children, sometimes their women on horseback, and their stock 
driven behind. Indians and wild beasts were still abundant, and 
the journey was often attended with grave peril, yet the tide of emi- 
grants continued to increase. This perilous way seemed to have a 
fascination in spite of all the hardships and danger. Bears, buffalo, 
wolves, wild-cats and herds of deer, were often seen, we are told. 
Sometimes it became necessary to encamp for days to rest the weary 
pack-horses, and to forage for themselves. The accounts of the foot 
travel through these regions for twenty years read like fairy-tales. 

The farm on which Joseph Hanks settled consisted of one hun- 
dred and fifty acres near Elizabethtown, in what is now Nelson 
county. Indians were still contesting the white man's rights, and 
the settlers lived in stockades for mutual protection. Logs had to 
be cut and prepared for the new homes, and hunting, fishing, and 
exploring the new country kept them all busy. The Sparrows, Berrys, 
and Mitchells settled a few miles away, near the present town of 
Springfield, in Washington county. 

Joseph Hanks lived only a few years after he came to Kentucky, 
yet we are told at his death had a "goodly amount of stock for the 
times." His five sons were given each a horse in his will dated 
1793. His son and namesake also received one hundred and fifty 
acres of land "whereon I now live;" his three daughters, Elizabeth, 
Polly and Nancy, one heifer each, named "Gentle," "Lady," and 
"Peidy," the latter to the little Nancy, who no doubt gave it its 
name. His wife "Nanny" was to have the whole property during 
life, and at her death it was to be equally 'divided between them 
all, excepting, of course, the 150 acres to his son Joseph. There 
were no slaves to be disposed of. 

After the death of Joseph Hanks, his children married and scat- 
tered. William was the first to marry. His wife was Elizabeth 
Hall, the daughter of a Virginia family who moved to Kentucky 
before 1793. Their son, John Hanks, was an intimate friend of 
Abraham Lincoln in his early years. Nancy's sister Elizabeth mar- 
ried Levi Hall. His father was killed by Indians, and later his 
mother married Caleb Hanzel, Abraham Lincoln's first teacher. 
Joseph Hanks continued to live on the old homestead at Elizabeth- 

159 



A SKETCH OF ABRAHAM LINCOLN'S MOTHER 

town, and married Polly Young, November 10, 1810. He was a car- 
penter and a cabinet-maker, and a man of wealth for those days. 
Nancy's sister Mary, or Polly as she was called, married Jesse 
Friend. 

Soon after her father's death, Nancy's mother passed away, and 
the little orphan went to live with her mother's sister, Mrs. Rich- 
ard Berry, at Beachland, near Springfield, where all her aunts and 
uncles and cousins on her mother's side, the Mitchells, Shipley s and 
Berrys, were living, and with her Uncle Richard Berry and his wife, 
Aunt Lucy, she lived until her marriage, the "constant playmate 
and beloved friend of her two cousins, Frank and Ned Berry." 

Nancy Hanks seems to have been the centre and leader in all 
the merry country parties, noted for her keen wit and great loving 
heart. Among the many friends who visited the Berry homestead 
was one cousin, some six years older than Nancy, known as Thomas 
Lincoln. His mother, Mary Shipley, was the oldest sister of Nancy's 
mother. She was married in Virginia to Abraham Lincoln before 
the migration of the family to Kentucky. This Abraham Lincoln 
was a successful farmer, owning some 210 acres of land. His 
father, John Lincoln, had come into Virginia from Pennsylvania, 
probably influenced by his friend, Daniel Boone, who had moved to 
North Carolina with his father's family in 1748. In 1769 he ex- 
plored the land westward, and in 1773 moved with his family and a 
few neighbors to Kentucky. In 1780 his friend Abraham followed, 
entered a large tract of land in Kentucky, and having sold his Vir- 
ginia property, moved his family to his new possessions. Eight 
years later he was killed by Indians, owning at that time some 
twelve thousand acres. 

According to the laws of Kentucky, nearly all his estate went to 
his oldest son, Mordecai. His youngest son, Thomas, who was only 
nine years old at his father's death, received nothing. He lived 
with various members of the family, and eventually went to Eliza- 
bethtown and learned the carpenter's trade of his cousin, Joseph 
Hanks. He became a fine workman, and was said to own the best 
set of tools in the country. He no doubt often saw his cousin Nancy, 
when visiting his brother Mordecai, who lived near the Berrys. He 
was a young man of "good habits, temperate, honest, a church 
goer," and his name occurs in more than one place in the Kentucky 
records. His brother Mordecai was at one time a member of the 

160 



A SKETCH OF ABRAHAM LINCOLN'S MOTHER 

Kentucky Legislature. "One of his old friends said that he and 
Nancy were just steeped full of notions about the wrongs of slavery, 
and the rights of men as explained by Thomas Jefferson and Thomas 
Paine." He was famous as a story-teller, and his brother was the 
most famous story-teller of the country. He had a good trade, and 
owned a farm in Buffalo, and also land in Elizabethtown. He was 
called the strongest man in the country, and a terror to evil-doers 
generally. 

The traditions of Nancy Hanks all agree in calling her a beautiful 
girl of fresh color, light hair, beautiful eyes, a sweet sensitive mouth, 
attractive and lovable, winning the love and esteem of everyone. 
Thomas Lincoln came often to his brother's, and no one at first 
seemed to guess the attraction. He was not long in learning of 
Nancy's skill in spinning flax, as in the contests of the spinning par- 
ties she generally bore off the palm, her spools having the longest 
and finest threads. Her cousin, Sarah Mitchell, who was stolen by 
the Indians when a child, had been restored to her friends, and was 
made a member of the Berry family circle. She and Nancy were 
like sisters. She was also a pupil of her cousin, readily learning the 
art of spinning from Nancy's deft fingers. Nancy's industry and 
cheerful disposition were like sunshine to the pioneers. 

Thomas Lincoln and Nancy Hanks, thus thrown together, could 
hardly help falling in love, and so they became engaged. According 
to the custom among the pioneers at this time, a marriage bond was 
entered before the marriage ceremony. This bond was dated June 
12, 1806, and we have the fac simile of this document. Two days 
later the marriage ceremony took place, of which certificate we have 
also the fac simile. The ceremony occurred at the home of Major 
Richard Berry, the officiating clergyman being the Rev. Jesse Head, 
a Methodist preacher of Washington county, Kentucky, and of some 
note, being also a judge. The official record of this marriage may 
be found in Springfield. 

A distinguished citizen of Kentucky, Dr. Christopher Columbus 
Graham, who was born and lived in this State until his death, gives a 
very interesting account of this marriage and of the wedding feast 
which followed. He says : "Rev. and Judge Jesse Head was one of the 
most prominent men there. Next came the bridegroom's brother, 
Mordecai Lincoln, at that time a member of the Kentucky Legis- 
lature." Of the wedding feast he says: "They had bear meat, 

161 



A SKETCH OF ABRAHAM LINCOLN'S MOTHER 

venison, wild turkey, ducks, and a sheep that the two families bar- 
becued whole over coals of wood burned in a pit and covered with 
green boughs to keep the juice in. " The cabin in which Thomas and 
Nancy were married was still standing eighteen years ago. It was 
in Beachland, near Springfield, and was described by one of the 
neighbors as "a large house for those days, when men slept with 
guns under their pillows. It was twice as large as the meeting 
house." It was in a beautiful spot, the surroundings described as 
among the most picturesque in Kentucky ; the Beach Fork, a small 
river of "wonderful meanderings flows near and is lost to view 
in a semicircular amphitheatre of hills." 

After the wedding, Thomas Lincoln and his bride went to live in 
Elizabethtown, and he worked at his trade, in which he was very 
skilled. The life of the family is described by Mrs. Hitchcock as 
the extremely simple life of the pioneer of those days. One large 
room with a loft overhead, reached by a rough staircase or ladder, 
and an outside shed used for a storeroom and summer kitchen, was 
the ordinary home. These cabins were made habitable in winter by 
a huge fireplace over which all the cooking was done, a crane on 
which to hang iron pots and teakettle, and a Dutch oven, constituting 
the cooking outfit. The furniture was home-made. Rough slabs 
into which logs had been fitted made the chairs and benches. The 
tables and bedsteads were also of home manufacture. The cover- 
lids for the bed were made by the busy housewife on the home-made 
loom and wheel. The heavy skins of animals furnished all other 
coverings, as well as rugs. 

A little baby girl came to them here, the little Sarah, named by 
Nancy for her cousin Sarah Mitchell, her companion and friend. 
Nancy Hanks Lincoln is described by a Massachusetts woman of the 
Hobart family and related to Vice-President Hobart, as a beautiful 
character, and that she and her many friends "had learned to love 
her long before they knew that to her had been given an honored 
son." 

In 1808 the Lincolns moved to the farm which Thomas had bought 
five years before. It was only fourteen miles away, near the big 
South fork of Nolan creek, and belonging to Buffalo. This house on 
Nolan creek was constantly visited by their faithful friend, Dr. Gra- 
ham. He tells us "the Lincolns had a cow and a calf, milk and but- 
ter, and a good feather bed, for I have slept on it." 

162 



A SKETCH OF ABRAHAM LINCOLN'S MOTHER 

The next year after they moved to the farm, on February 12, 1809, 
a son was born, whom they named Abraham, the name of his fath- 
er's father, and common in both families, and here on Rock Spring 
Farm the little Abraham "grew healthy and strong amid the mag- 
nificent natural surroundings of the place." He resembled the 
Hanks family, we are told, and to a striking degree, being some- 
times taken for one of them even after he was a man grown. 

In four years they moved to Knob Creek, four miles away, with 
even more beautiful surroundings on the elevation known as "Mul- 
draugh's Hill." Nancy Hanks' life here, we are told, "was prob- 
ably the same combination of pioneer life and farm life, milking, 
churning, spinning, and caring for her children, who, she said, 
were the 'joy and care of her life.' " She herself was well edu- 
cated, and was anxious that they should study. The home books 
were few, — a Bible, The "Kentucky Preceptor," a school reader, 
"Aesop's Fables," and perhaps a few others, a history of the United 
States, "Robinson Crusoe," "Pilgrim's Progress," and Warner's 
"Life of Washington." From these books she often read and 
taught them their letters. When Sarah was old enough to go to 
school, Abraham was sent with her. The school teachers of the time 
were not very satisfactory or efficient, and fulfilled their duties only 
temporarily. One of these, Caleb Hazel, previously mentioned, was 
remembered long afterwards by Lincoln, and is mentioned in his 
autobiography. Abraham Lincoln became an ambitious student. 
A former playmate of his tells us of his bringing in a bush to burn 
in the fireplace evenings, to have light to read by, explaining, no 
doubt, the legend of his "studying by the light of a pine knot." Be 
that as it may, Nancy helped both her children in their studies, and 
was happy in their mental advancement and physical growth. 

It was a hospitable home, and many an old neighbor has left 
reminiscences of visits there. One of them said, "the Lincolns' 
home at Knob Creek was a very happy one. I have lived in this 
part of the country all my life, and knew Nancy Hanks and Thomas 
Lincoln well. She was a loving and tender wife, and adored by her 
husband and children, as she was by all who knew her. ' ' Life went 
on at Knob Creek for three years. A third child was born, but he 
only lived for a few months. There was undoubtedly hard work 
and privations, but love went with them, hand in hand, and the 
wife and mother never complained. 

163 



A SKETCH OF ABRAHAM LINCOLN'S MOTHER 

Thomas Lincoln was at this time venturing into the dangerous 
commerce of carrying the products of his labors to New Orleans, 
building a flatboat, loading it up with the produce of his farm, and 
other valuable materials secured by hunting, etc., then working down 
the Ohio into the Mississippi to New Orleans, "the great market 
of the west." It was a long trip, attended by many risks, but a 
money-making adventure if successful, besides a chance to see a lit- 
tle of the outside world; for which double reason many were will- 
ing to brave all the perils. Thomas Lincoln made one adventure, 
his last, in which a very valuable cargo and the boat were a total 
loss. After this heavy loss he made a trip north of the Ohio in 
search of new land. His brother Josiah had settled in Indiana on 
the Big Blue river, and he decided to sell his property in Kentucky 
and to move into Indiana. Years later his son tells us, "this re- 
moval was partly on account of slavery, but chiefly on account of 
the difficulties over land titles in Kentucky." 

In 1816 "the family prepared to leave Kentucky. Their house- 
hold furniture and farm tools were packed into a wagon, whatever 
stock they may have owned was driven behind, and the little proces- 
sion started. The first part of their journey could not have been 
difficult, for the highway to the Ohio was excellent, but after cross- 
ing the river, they had literally to cut their way through the forest 
to the land Thomas Lincoln had taken up for himself and family. 
This land lay in what is now Spencer county, on the Little Pigeon 
creek, fifteen miles north of the Ohio, and a mile and a half east from 
Gentryville. ' ' 

To Nancy Hanks this removal from Kentucky must have been 
full of sadness. She was leaving a wide circle of friends and rela- 
tives. She was leaving the grave of her youngest child. "One of 
the most pathetic incidents was the visit with her two older children 
to this little grave just before starting on the journey to the Indiana 
wilderness." To be sure, there were no longer Indians or wild 
beasts in the way, and there was much amusement and adventure in 
riding or walking, and much delight and joy to the children in the 
journey. But in the wilderness camp which was to be her home, her 
hardships began. This, a species of a log lean-to without any doors 
or windows, hastily put together, must needs suffice until a log 
cabin could be built which, though rude, was a sufficient shelter. We 
are told they soon found new friends and neighbors; joined the 

164 



A SKETCH OF ABRAHAM LINCOLN'S MOTHER 

Baptist church, and became interested in whatever interested the 
neighborhood. Several of Nancy's friends and relatives moved to 
Indiana the next year, and the new home became more interesting 
and habitable. Long afterward, people still told of the "impres- 
sion of gentleness and brightness she left like a ray of sunshine 
everywhere she went." Her last recorded words were "cheer up." 
Rev. Allen Brooner tells of the occasion. His mother was very ill, 
and Mrs. Lincoln went to visit her. The old lady was very despon- 
dent and said, "Mrs. Lincoln, I am going to die, you will never see 
me again while living." "You must not say that," said Mrs. 
Lincoln; "why, you will live longer than I, so cheer up." It was 
but a few days later, we are told, "on the 5th day of the glorious 
October of 1818, that this prophecy came true, and the body of 
Nancy Hanks was laid to rest under the golden autumn leaves in a 
lonely yet enchanted spot on the top of the hill near Lincoln Sta- 
tion, Indiana," and where it may be was laid a few days later, her 
daughter, who had married Aaron Grigsby, and died before Thomas 
Lincoln moved away from Indiana. There where Nancy and her 
boy had often sat together and watched the gorgeous colors of the 
sunset far over the hills, is now a simple white headstone which 
reads: "Nancy Hanks Lincoln, mother of President Lincoln. Died 
Oct. 5, A. D. 1818. Aged 35 years. Erected by a friend of her 
Martyred Son." To this quiet spot not even a wagon road leads. 
It is well — for Nancy Hanks had finished her work, and kept the 
faith. 

The first letter that Abraham Lincoln ever wrote with that hand 
which was afterwards to electrify the nation, was about his mother 
— that mother whom he had loved so dearly and had so early lost. 
This letter was written by Abraham Lincoln when he was but ten 
years old, several months after his mother's death. It was to Par- 
son David Elkins, whom he asked to "come and preach a memorial 
service to my Mother." And so on a Sunday morning two hun- 
dred people assembled about the Lincoln home, and from there pro- 
ceeded to the tree beneath which her body was laid to rest. There 
the touching service was read by Rev. David Elkins, who had ridden 
a hundred miles on horseback through the wilderness to preach the 
funeral sermon for Nancy Hanks, of whom Abraham Lincoln said 
in after years: "All that I am or ever hope to be I owe to my 
Sainted Mother." Blessings on her memory. 

165 



A SKETCH OF ABRAHAM LINCOLN'S MOTHER 

It is most fitting at this time to recall attention to this fascinat- 
ing and wonderful story of one who in the quiet walks of life was 
early left an orphan, yet, because of her own sweet loveliness of 
character, never lacked for friends; surrounded from birth by 
nature's wonderful scenery of forest and stream, in three different 
States, without thought of loneliness, sweetened and brightened the 
lives of those around her, and left a son who so nobly testified to 
her worth, and, when her brief life faded out like a flower, cher- 
ished her memory as his choicest possession, himself becoming a 
man of wonderful power and deeds, whose name can never perish 
from the earth. 




166 



Illinois in History 




|j;HE Centennial of Illinois, which appeared in the Octo- 
fS"T\ ber (1918) number of this Magazine, has attracted spe- 
i^| cial attention, as shown by numerous historical narra- 
tives relating to that State, which have been sent to the 



editor. It is to be regretted that for obvious reasons most of these 
must be disregarded, at least for the time being. In two instances, 
they are immediately available. 

"Pioneer Letters of Gershom Flagg," by Solon J. Buck, a pamph- 
let reprinted from the Transactions of the Illinois State Historical 
Society, affords a vivid picture of conditions in what is now the 
heart of the country — Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois, for conditions in 
all these States were much alike, — at the time when the latter State 
came into the Union, in 1818. 

Gershom Flagg had for his first American forbear Thomas Flegg, 
who came from England and settled in Watertown, Mass., in 1637. 
Two of the Flagg family (as the name now appears) served 
in the Revolutionary War. One of these was Ebenezer, who 
was father of Gershom Flagg, the writer of "Pioneer Let- 
ters." The last named was born in Orwell, Vermont, in 1792; 
he became a competent surveyor, served in the War of 1812, 
and participated in the battle of Plattsburgh. In 1S16 he 
set out for "The Far West," seized with what was then termed 
"the Ohio fever." What follows is all too briefly drawn from his 
letters. He arrived in Springfield, Ohio, Nov. 12, 1816, after forty- 
six days travel from Richmond, Vermont. After remaining about 
a year, he went to St. Louis, and in September, 1818, he writes from 
Edwardsville, Illinois, near which place he established his home, 
and is to this day the home of some of his descendants. Here was 
born and lived his son, Willard C. Flagg, who became a renowned 
specialist in horticulture, took a prominent part in the establish- 
ment of what is now the University of Illinois, was a leader in the 
** Farmers' (or Grangers') Movement" in the seventies; he was a 
man of unusual breadth of mind, and with voice and pen wielded a 

167 



ILLINOIS IN HISTORY 

wide and useful influence. 1 He had a worthy successor in a son, 
Norman C. Flagg, who has always lived on the homestead farm, and 
has served in the State Legislature. These two, father and son, 
were well known to the writer of this review. 

Space here can only be given to briefest quotations from the 
"Letters," showing conditions as they were that year that Illi- 
nois became a State : 

Edwardsville, Ills., Sept. 12, 1818.— The Territory of Illinois (it 
did not become a State until December) contains nearly all that part 
of the United States Territory east of the Mississippi and N. W. of 
the Ohio & Wabash Rivers. It is not exceeded by richness of soil 
by any in the United States. ... It produces Corn & Wheat 
better than any other Country I have seen. . . . Cotton is raised 
sufficient for domestic use a very small piece of ground produces 
enough for a family. Grapes & of several kinds and several kinds 
of Wild plumbs & Cherries in profusion also Dew Berries Black 
berries Strawberries. The bottom Prairies are covered with Weeds 
of different kinds and grass about 8 feet high. The high Prairies 
are also thickly covered with grass but finer & not so tall. The 
prairies are continually covered (in the summer season) with wild 
flowers of all colors which gives them a very handsome appearance. 
These high Prairies are smoother than any intervale & not a stone, 

^Willard Cutting Flagg was the only son of Gershom and Jane (Paddock) Flagg. 
He was born September 16, 1829, prepared for college in St. Louis, and graduated from 
Yale in 1854. Returning to Illinois, he took charge of his father's farm in Madison 
county and made a specialty of horticulture. He was secretary of the State Horticul- 
tural Association from 1861 to 1869. and was afterwards its president. He played a 
prominent part in the establishment of the Illinois Industrial University, now the Uni- 
versity of Illinois, and was on its board of trustees from the start until his death in 
1878. In politics, Flagg was a Republican, and in 1861 President Lincoln appointed 
him collector of internal revenue for the twelfth district of Illinois, a position which he 
held until 1869. He was also enrolling officer for Madison county during the war, by 
appointment of Governor Yates, and was State Senator from 1869 to 1873. During the 
decade of the seventies he was one of the leaders of the "Farmers' Movement" or 
"Granger Movement" as it was called, and was president of the State Farmers' Associa- 
tion. The objects of this movement were the organization of farmers for their mutual 
advantage, and the regulat'on of railroads by the State. Flagg made speeches and 
wrote articles on the railroad question which attracted attention in the East as well as 
in Illinois. The movement led to the formation of an "Independent Reform" party in 
1874 and Flagg, who was always a hard-money man, strove, but without success, to keep 
this organization from adopting the Greenback planks. 

In addition to his political and agricultural activities. Flagg was deeply interested in 
western history and gathered together a considerable library on the subject, together 
with a large number of manuscripts and newspaper clippings relating to the history of 
Illinois and of Madison county. To him is due the credit for the collection and preser- 
vation of these letters written by his father. These books and manuscripts are now in 
possession of his son, Hon. Norman G. Flagg. Willard C. Flagg was married February 
13, 1856, to Sarah Smith, of St. Louis. He died in the prime of life, March 30, 1878, 
and his widow survived him until February 16, 1905. Their three children living are, 
Mrs. Isabel Hatch, of Springfield, Illinois; Mrs. Mary W. Gillham, of Wanda, Madisoa 
county, Illinois ; and Norman Gershom Flagg, of Moro, Madison county, Illinois. 

168 



ILLINOIS IN HISTORY 

log, or anything but grass & weeds to be seen for miles excep[tj 
where they border the timber there is generally a thicket of plumb 
bushes, hazel grape vines, &c &c. The Roots of the grass are very 
tough it generally requires 3 yoke of Oxen or six horses to plough 
up the prairies & the plough must be kept at a keen edge by filing 
often, the steel not being hardened, but this is all that is to be done 
excep[t] fencing to raise a crop. After one year the ground is mel- 
low and requires but a light team to plough it. 

We have a great plenty of Deer, Turkies, "Wolves, Opossoms 
Prairie hens, Eagles, Turky Buzzards, Swans, Geese, ducks, Brant, 
sand hill Cranes, Parokites & with many other small Animals & 
birds. Gray squirrels are as thick here as I have ever seen stripeid 
[sic] ones in Vermont. There is more honey here in this Territory 
I suppose than in any other place in the world, I have heard the 
Hunters say that they have found 8 or 10 swarms in a day on the St. 
Gama & Illinois Rivers where there are no settlements (Truly this 
must be the Land of Milk & honey.) The Climate is not so hot as 
might be expected there is almost a continual breeze blowing from 
the large prairies like the breezes on large Lakes & ponds. The 
country is so open that it is considerable cold in Winter the ground 
freezes very hard There being generally but little snow. The past 
summer has been very hot more than common I am told. The ther- 
mometer on the hottest day stood at 98°. I learn from the News 
Papers that the Weather has been very hot in different parts of the 
United States. 

The Stock of this Country consists principally of horses horned 
Cattle & hogs. Sheep will do very well here if they can be kept from 
the Wolves but this cannot well be done in the newsettled parts the 
wolves are so very numerous Hogs will live & get fat in the Woods 
and Prairies. I have seen some as fat upon Hickorynuts, Acorns, 
Pecons & Walnuts, as ever I did those that were fat[t]ed upon 
Corn. All that prevents this country being as full of Wild hogs as 
of Deer is the Wolves which kill the pigs when the sows are not shut 
up til the pigs are a few weeks old. There are places in this Ter- 
ritory where Cattle & horses will live all winter & be in good order 
without feeding, that is upon the Rivers. Most of the people cut no 
hay for their Cattle & horses but this is a foolish way of theirs they 
either have to feed out their Corn or their Cattle get very poor. 
Cattle & horses do very well in this Country they get very fat by the 
middle of June. They do not gain much after this being so har- 
rassed by swarms of flies which prevent their feeding any in the heat 
of the day. They are so bad upon horses that it is almost impossi- 
ble to travel from the 15 June til the 1st Sept unles a horse is cov- 
ered with blankets. Where ever a fly lights upon a horse a drop of 
blood starts. I have seen white horses red with blood that these 

169 



ILLINOIS IN HISTORY 

flies had drawn out of him. As the Country becomes settled these 
flies disappear. 

It appears from the returns to the secretary that there is in this 
Territory upwards of 40,000 Inhabitants. The Convention which 
met the first mondy [sic] in August have formed a Constitution but 
it is not yet published as soon as it is I will send you a Copy. 2 

I Entered 420 Acres of Land near this place and about 25 mils 
from St. Louis and 10 or 12 from the Conjunction of the Mississippi 
and Missouri Rivers and IS or 20 from the Mouth of Illinois nearly 
in Lat. 38° 30' North. I now own only 160 acres haveing sold the 
remainder for $285. dollars being double what I gave for it. 3 The 
quarter Section which I now own is on the trail which leads from 
Edwardsville to fort Clark which is at the south end of Illinois Lake 
a dilation of the Illinois River 210 miles from its mouth following 
its meanderings. This fort was built in the time of the Late War. 
This with the forts at Chicago and fox River which empties into 
green bay, Macinau, Prairie des Chien, and fort Edwards on the 
Mississippi below the mouth of Rock River serve to regulate the 
Indian trade and protect the Frontiers from the savages. The 
United States have also garisons upon Red River, Arkansaw, and 
Missouri Rivers. 

The people of This Territory are from all parts of the United 
States & do the least work I believe of any people in the world. 
Their principal business is hunting deer, horses hogs and Cattle and 
raising Corn. They have no pasture but turn every thing out to 
run at large and when they want to use a horse or oxen they will 
have to travel half a dozen miles to find them through grass and 
weeds higher than a man can reach when on horse back and the 
grass and vines are so rough that nothing but their Leather hunt- 
ing shirts and trowsers will stand any Chance at all. 

'By act of January 7, 1818, the legislature of Illinois Territory provided for a 
census to be taken between April 1, and June 1, 1818. Three days later another act 
was passed providing for a supplementary census in each county of all persons who 
should move into the county between June r, and December 1. The enabling- act, passed 
by Congress April 18, 1818, conditioned the admission of the proposed state upon this 
enumeration showing a population of at least forty thousand, and the marshal; are said 
to have resorted to various devices for swelling their rolls. The returns were finally 
made to foot up to forty thousand but it is probable that the actual population at the 
time did not exceed thirty-five thousand. Some questions were raised in Congress as 
to the accuracy of the returns but the state was admitted and two years later the federal 
census showed it to have a population of 55,162. Lazvs of Illinois Territory, 6th session 
(Reprint), 42-45; Moses. Illinois, 282; William H. Brown, Early History of Illinois 
(Fergus Historical Series, No. 14), p. 86. 

'The southeast quarter of section 3, township 5, range 8, being on Liberty Prairie 
in the township of Fort Russell and about six miles north of Edwardsville. The farm 
is now owned and occupied by Hon. Norman G. Flagg, grandson of the writer of these 
letters. The neighborhood was known as Paddocks' Settlement (John M. Peck, Gazet- 
teer of Illinois, 2d ed., p. 265) and there was once a post-office there by the name of 
Paddocks' Grove. The post-office now is at the village of Moro, about four miles 
west 

170 



ILLINOIS IN HISTORY 

log, or anything but grass & weeds to be seen for miles excepftj 
where they border the timber there is generally a thicket of plumb 
bushes, hazel grape vines, &c &c. The Roots of the grass are very 
tough it generally requires 3 yoke of Oxen or six horses to plough 
up the prairies & the plough must be kept at a keen edge by filing 
often, the steel not being hardened, but this is all that is to be done 
except t] fencing to raise a crop. After one year the ground is mel- 
low and requires but a light team to plough it. 

"We have a great plenty of Deer, Turkies, Wolves, Opossoms 
Prairie hens, Eagles, Turky Buzzards, Swans, Geese, ducks, Brant, 
sand hill Cranes, Parokites & with many other small Animals & 
birds. Gray squirrels are as thick here as I have ever seen stripeid 
[sic] ones in Vermont. There is more honey here in this Territory 
I suppose than in any other place in the world, I have heard the 
Hunters say that they have found 8 or 10 swarms in a day on the St. 
Gama & Illinois Rivers where there are no settlements (Truly this 
must be the Land of Milk & honey.) The Climate is not so hot as 
might be expected there is almost a continual breeze blowing from 
the large prairies like the breezes on large Lakes & ponds. The 
country is so open that it is considerable cold in Winter the ground 
freezes very hard There being generally but little snow. The past 
summer has been very hot more than common I am told. The ther- 
mometer on the hottest day stood at 98°. I learn from the News 
Papers that the Weather has been very hot in different parts of the 
United States. 

The Stock of this Country consists principally of horses horned 
Cattle & hogs. Sheep will do very well here if they can be kept from 
the Wolves but this cannot well be done in the newsettled parts the 
wolves are so very numerous Hogs will live & get fat in the Woods 
and Prairies. I have seen some as fat upon Hickorynuts, Acorns, 
Pecons & Walnuts, as ever I did those that were fat[t]ed upon 
Corn. All that prevents this country being as full of Wild hogs as 
of Deer is the Wolves which kill the pigs when the sows are not shut 
up til the pigs are a few weeks old. There are places in this Ter- 
ritory where Cattle & horses will live all winter & be in good order 
without feeding, that is upon the Rivers. Most of the people cut no 
hay for their Cattle & horses but this is a foolish way of theirs they 
either have to feed out their Corn or their Cattle get very poor. 
Cattle & horses do very well in this Country they get very fat by the 
middle of June. They do not gain much after this being so har- 
rassed by swarms of flies which prevent their feeding any in the heat 
of the day. They are so bad upon horses that it is almost impossi- 
ble to travel from the 15 June til the 1st Sept unles a horse is cov- 
ered with blankets. Where ever a fly lights upon a horse a drop of 
blood starts. I have seen white horses red with blood that these 

169 



ILLINOIS IN HISTORY 

These kind of People as soon as the settlements become thick 
Clear out and go further into the new Country. The method of 
Kaising Corn here is to plough the ground once then furrow it both 
ways and plant the Corn 4 feet each way and plough between it 3 or 
4 times in the Summer but never hoe it at all. Wheat is generally 
sowed among the Corn and ploughed in sometime in August or first 
sept. There are no barns in this Country people stack all their 
Wheat and thresh it out with horses on the ground. We have not 
many good mills in this Country. 

The price of Corn last harvest was 33 1-3 cents in the spring 50 
cents in the summer 75 cents Potatoes are from 50 to 100 cents a 
bushel oats 50 cents Wheat one dollar Beef from 3% to 5 dollars 
per hundred Pork from 4 to 7 dollars a hundred. Dry goods are 
geting very Cheap the country is full of them we have more mer- 
chants than any thing else. Boots and Shoes sell the highest here 
of any place I was ever in Iron is 75 dollars a hundred salt 3 dollars 
a bushel Butter from 12y 2 to 50 cents a pound Cheese generally 
brings 25 cents and very little to be had at that price, for there is 
none made except by Eastern people. The price of improved farms 
here is from 5 to 12 dollars an acre. 
********* 

Edwardsville, Ills., Feb. 6, 1819. — . . . The principal objec- 
tion I have to this Country is its unhealthiness the months of Aug. 
and Sept. are generally very sickly. I was taken sick with the 
feever & ague the 15 Sept. which lasted me nearly two months. I 
shall try it one season more and if I do not have my health better 
than I have the season past I shall sell my property and leave the 
Country. The summer past has been very hot and dry in the 
month of August the Thermometr stood at 98°. We have had but 
very little Rain or snow the past fall. We have not seen a single 
flake of snow since the 5th of January nor but very little ice. For 
three weeks past there has scarcely been a frost and the Bees (which 
are very plenty) have been daily at work. [Wild?] Geese have been 
flying to the north for ten days in la[rge number] s. Grass has 
grown 3 or 4 inches, the Birds are singing and in [truth'?] every 
thing looks like spring season. John Messenger lives in St. Clair 
County near Belville 4 in this state 15 miles east of St. Louis. He 

*St. Clair was the first county laid off in the Illinois country after the Northwest 
Territory was established. When erected by Governor St. Clair in 1790, it embraced 
all the western part of Illinois, the eastern part being in Knox county with its seat at 
Vincennes. In 1795 the territory south of a line a little below the settlement of New 
Design was laid off as Randolph county but no further counties were established until 
1812. Bluebook, Illinois, 1905, pp. 386-397.) The old French village of Cahokia, a few 
miles below St. Louis, was the county seat until 1814 when a commission appointed by 
the legislature selected a site about fifteen miles southeast of Cahokia. The place 
chosen was on the farm of George Blair, who immediately laid out the town of Belle- 
ville. The town grew slowly and was incorporated in 1819. History of St. Clai* 
County (Philadelphia, Brink, 1881), pp. 183-185. 

171 



ILLINOIS IN HISTORY 

was a member of the convention which formed the Constitution of <^ 

this State. He is very much esteemed by the people. I understand 
he is now surveying 20 or 30 miles north of this, I have not seen 
him but soon shall. 



Edwardsville, His., June 9, 1822. — My health is very good which 
is the most that I have to communicate at present but as you will 
expect something more I will write a few lines respecting things 
which have come within my observation. We have had a very rainy . 

Bpring which has caused the streames to overflow their banks and in . <r 

some instances Bridges have been carried away. The weather for a 
week past has been very hot yesterday the Thermometer rose to 98°. 
The wet and heat has caused the grass to grow very fast and in 
great aboundance. Our natural pastures are now covered as it 
were with droves of Cattle and horses which have already fattened 
on the spontaneous productions of the earth. I have seen Corn in 
silk this day but not our co mm on sort the seed was brot from the 
Mandan Nation of Indians who reside 12 hundred miles up the Mis- 
souri. 

We have our share of hard times here and have worse times com- 
ing. I say worse because our Legislature have introduced a sort of 
paper currency which, tho' it may yield a temporary relief will, ^ 

eventually, prove a great disadvantage to this State that is in my 
humble opinion and als[o] in the opinion of many others. Brother 
I am full in the belief that we are carelessly suffering our govern- 
ment to waste the public Monies in giving high salaries, creating 
new offices for the sake of providing for their friends, &c. The peo- 
ple of the United States ought not to sleep while their Representa- 
tives are voting to themselves 8. dollars pr. day and giving such sal- 
aries to their officers as cause hundreds of applicants for one office. 
As times grow hard and money scarce and our revenue is declining 
why should not our representatives in congress reduce their pay to 
6 dollars pr day Reduce the salaries of the different officers of Gov- *<* 

eminent and make such other retrenchments as will cause our rev- 
enue to equal the expenses of Government. Most surely we ought 
not to run into debt in times of peace for if we do what shall we 
do in case of war. I am afraid our Governmental officers are growing 
corrupt and we the sovereign People ought to look to it or we shall 
go down the broad road where all other Nations have gone who pos- 
sessed a happy government like ours. 

Some other little skirmishes have taken place in consequence of 
the extraordinary and unparaleled proceedings of our Legislature 
of which no doubt you have heard before now. A great party (but ^ 

not a majority I think) are making use of every means to introduce 

172 



ILLINOIS IN HISTORY 

slavery into this State. 5 I have not time or paper to write more 
enough has been written to convince you that we are a great and 
magnanimous people. 

Another Illinois item reaching our desk is a speech printed in the 
Government Printing Office — that delivered in the Senate Chamber 
on July 18, 1866, by Hon. Richard Yates, United States Senator 
from Illinois, in support of the bill to revive the grade of full Gen- 
eral of the Army, and to which Lieutenant-General Ulysses S. 
Grant was to be nominated. The Senator's masterly resume of 
the military services of the Great Commander cannot be afforded 
space here, but certain portions may not be omitted — the story of 
how that illustrious career began, and of his unique personality. 
Senator Yates said : 

Mr. President: The war through which the country has just 
passed, developed many great military men whose names are asso- 
ciated with this or that particular campaign, or this or that particu- 
lar field of battle. But viewing the war from its commencement to 
its close, what man is there whose name, like that of Grant, is con- 
nected with almost every really effective military movement which 
marked its progress"? What a record is his! How marvelous are 
the ways of Providence in the affairs of nations and of individuals. 
What changes, surpassing the enchantments of romance, may be 
seen in four short years. Is it not a matter of profound wonder 
that a man of such stoic simplicity of character and of such sur- 
passing modesty; that the plain, unassuming, quiet citizen of 111- 
nois, who five years ago sought the humblest service in the armies 
of the Union, should prove to be the only man whose rare genius and 

'When the constitution of 1818 was framed, there was a considerable party in favor 
of making Illinois a Slave State, but it was evident that any attempt in that direction 
would be likely to interfere with the speedy admission of the State into the Union, and 
so the constitution contained a clause prohibiting the future introduction of slaves. It 
was not long, however, before a movement was on foot to change the constitution so as 
to admit slaves and this was the principal issue in the State election of 1822. Edward 
Coles, the Free State candidate, was elected by a small plurality, but the party in favor 
of the change secured a majority of both houses of the general assembly. The only 
way to bring about the desired change was by calling a convention to revise the con- 
stitution, and in order to do that it was necessary for a resolution to be adopted by two- 
thirds of each house for submitting the question to the people. The slavery party was 
able to muster exactly enough votes in the Senate, but the two-thirds was secured in 
the House only by reopening a contested election case, unseating the man who had pre- 
viously been declared elected, and seating his opponent. The resolution was thus car- 
ried in February, 1823, and then the question of a convention was before the people. It 
was understood that the real issue was as to whether Illinois should or should not 
become a Slave-State, and after an exciting campaign, which lasted a year and a 
half, the people decided against a convention by vote of 6,640 to 4.972. — N. Dwight 
Harris, Negro Servitude in Illinois; William H. Brown, Early Movement in Illinois for 
the Legalization of Slavery {Fergus Historical Series, No. 4). 

173 



ILLINOIS IN HISTORY 

energy rose in proportion to the colossal demands of the war; who 
should rise from the humblest clerkship and step by step ascend 
every grade of promotion, to the exalted rank of Lieutenant-Gen- 
eral! Is it not strange that such should be the man who has con- 
ducted the most gigantic of all wars to a successful conclusion, and 
whose name, glory-crowned with shining victories, shall fill thou- 
sands of history's brightest pages and live in freedom's anthems to 
the end of time 1 

It would be affectation in me not to acknowledge a personal as 
well as State pride in aiding the bill before the Senate with my voice 
and my vote. As a Senator from the State where General Grant 
resides, which claims not only an interest in common with other 
States, but also a special and particular interest in the fame of her 
illustrious son, I feel it my duty to advocate this measure. Some 
remarks from me also may not be inappropriate on account of cer- 
tain personal and official relations in which I stood to him at the com- 
mencement of the war. 

In April, 1861, 1 first saw General Grant. I knew nothing of him. 
I did not then know that he had seen service in Mexico ; that he had 
fought at Palo Alto, Resaca de la Palma, and at Monterey under 
General Taylor; or that he had served under General Scott in his 
memorable campaign from Vera Cruz to the City of Mexico ; or that 
he had been made first lieutenant on the field for gallantry at Mo- 
lino del Rev, and brevetted a captain for the gallant and skillful 
manner in which he had served a mountain howitzer upon the heights 
of Chapultepec, under the observation of his regimental, brigade, 
and division commanders, as appears from the official reports of the 
battle by General Worth and other officers. 

In presenting himself to me, he made no reference to any merits, 
but simply said he had been the recipient of a military education 
at West Point, and now that the country was assailed he thought 
it his duty to offer his services, and that he would esteem it a privi- 
lege to be assigned to any position where he could be useful. I can- 
not now claim to myself the credit of having discerned in him the 
promise of great achievements, or the qualities "which minister to 
the making of great names," more than in many others who pro- 
posed to enter the military service. His appearance at first sight 
was not striking. He had no grand airs, no imposing appearance, 
and I confess it could not be said he was a form 



"Where every god did seem to set his seal 
To give the world assurance of a man." 



He was plain, very plain; but still, sir, something, perhaps his 
plain, straightforward modesty and earnestness, induced me to 
assign him a desk in the executive office. In a short time I found 
him to be an invaluable assistant in my office, and in that of the 

174 



ILLINOIS IN HISTORY 

adjutant-general. He was soon after assigned to the command of 
the six camps of organization and instruction which I had estab- 
lished in the State. 

Early in June, 1S61, I telegraphed him at Covington, Kentucky, 
(where he had gone on a brief visit to his father), tendering him 
the colonelcy of the Twenty-first Regiment of Illinois Infantry, 
which he promptly accepted, and on the 15th of June he assumed the 
command. The regiment had become much demoralized from lack 
of discipline, and contention in regard to promotions. On this 
account, Colonel Grant, being under marching orders, declined rail- 
road transportation, and, for the sake of discipline, marched his 
men on foot toward the scene of operations in Missouri, and in a 
short time he had his regiment under perfect control. 8 
********* 

Who among the long roll of honored names has achieved a 
grander success or given to his people a nobler boon than Grant? 
Black visaged war desolated the land; horrible dread froze up the 
fountains of hope; from every house went up to heaven wails for 
the loved and lost, louder than Israel for the loss of her first born ; 
and from foreign despotisms came the shouts of exultation over the 
fading fortunes of our great experiment for universal liberty. And 
when there was no eye to pity or arm to save, suddenly a light 
gleamed athwart the sky, hope banished sickly fear, order was 
where confusion reigned, and victory snatched our chastened nation 
from the jaws of ruin and clothed her anew with the garlands of 
immortal youth ; and the people saw high above the common plane 
their two deliverers, Lincoln and Grant. 
********* 

Grant welcomed the end of conquest as a national blessing. His 
name will go shining doAvn the ages, lustrous with the halo of great 
achievements and of great beneficence, without strain of selfish- 
ness ; and will be enshrined in the hearts of the coming millions as 
the man to whom we are most indebted for the success of our arms, 
the triumph of truth and liberty, and the preservation of our Na- 
tional Union. 

Governor Yates not only afforded the first stepping stone to Gen- 
eral Grant, but he was throughout the War for the Union one of 
the chiefest of the War Governors upon whom President Lincoln 
leaned in the darkest of the nation's hours. His heroic mold is par- 



*With his regiment. Col. Grant was attached to a brigade commanded by Brig. 
Gen. John M. Palmer. Palmer organized the 14th Illinois Regiment, became its 
colonel; was promoted to brigadier- and major-general; was Governor of Illinois,. 
U. S. Senator; and "Gold Democrat" candidate for President in the Bryan campaign 
for 16 to 1 silver money. — Editor. 

175 



ILLINOIS IN HISTORY 

ticularly discerned in 1863, when a "Copperhead" Legislature re- 
fused him means for recruiting and equipping troops, and adopted 
treasonable resolutions. He at once prorogued the Legislature, 
an act which the "Copperheads" bitterly condemned. But he had 
secured the absence of the Unionist members, leaving the Legis- 
lature without a quorum, and in the following year's revulsion, that 
body was again in loyal control. Pending this, staunch patriots 
gathered about him and contributed the means necessary to enable 
the Great War Governor to comply with every call made upon the 
State by the National Administration. 

It is pleasing to note that Governor Yates' mantle descended 
worthily upon a namesake son, who in 1910 became Governor, hav- 
ing been nominated by the Republicans on the fortieth anniversary 
of his father's nomination for the same office. In 1918 Governor 
Yates (2nd) was elected Congressman-at-large from the Prairie 
State. 




176 




Leach and Allied Families 

| NTIQUABIANS trace the origin of the Leach family of 
to-day in England and America to John LeLeche, sur- 
geon to King Edward III. of England, a figure of prom- 
inence in court circles in the reign of that monarch. An 
interesting tradition attaches to the history of the early 
progenitor and to the origin of the arms of the family. It is said 
that when the Kings of France and Scotland were prisoners of Ed- 
ward, the three were dined together at the home of John LeLeche. 
On leaving King Edward presented to his host three crowns, and 
later, when as a further mark of the royal esteem a large estate 
was granted LeLeche, these emblems (three crowns) were embodied 
in his arms. Extended mention of John LeLeche is made in the 
"Memorials of London," by Riley. 

The term leech, as an old English synonym for physician, is 
derived from a Teutonic root meaning "to heal." When the adop- 
tion of surnames spread throughout England, Leech and Leach 
sprang into common use, so large was the class which followed the 
calling from which the name was taken. The name appears in the 
Hundred Rolls with frequency under the form LeLeche. At a later 
date the French particle "Le" was dropped and the name assumed 
the form in use to-day in England and America. The Leach eoat-of - 
arms is as follows: 

Arms — Ermine on a chief indented gules three ducal coronets or. 

Crest — Out of a ducal coronet or, a dexter forearm grasping a serpent, all proper. 

The family in America dates from the first decade of New Eng- 
land Colonial history, from the year 1629, when Lawrence Leach, 
founder of the family, settled in Salem, in the Massachusetts Bay 
Colony. He was an Englishman of parts, from every evidence a 
man of family and standing in his English home, well fitted to as- 
sume the position of prominence in the early settlement of Bridge- 
water, which he later held. Well authenticated tradition states 
that he was a descendant from John LeLeche, head of the English 
house. Lawrence Leach became the founder in New England of a 
family which since the middle of the seventeenth century has been 
prominent in American life and affairs. 

I. Lawrence Leach, immigrant ancestor and founder, was born 
in England, in the year 1589. He came from England as one of the 
"planters" with the Rev. Francis Higginson, in 1629, and settled in 

177 



LEACH AND ALLIED FAMILIES 

Salem, Massachusetts. In 1630 he was proposed as freeman, and 
from that time until his death figured prominently in official life in 
the town. In 1636 he was a member of the first church of Salem, 
and in the same year received a grant of a hundred acres from the 
town. This plantation he developed to capacity, later establishing 
in connection with it mills which drew patronage from all the adja- 
cent towns. These mills were located in what is now the town of 
Beverly, and were of such importance in the early life of the colony 
that surrounding settlements caused public roads to be opened to 
them. Lawrence Leach was active in public affairs, and held sev- 
eral important offices in Salem. In 1630 he was one of the twelve 
jurymen who at Boston served on the trial of the first capital 
offence case that was heard in Massachusetts. For many years he 
represented Salem in the Massachusetts General Court. It is said 
that more than ten thousand of his descendants are now living in 
America, although no deiinite genealogical effort has been made to 
trace them. When he came to New England he was accompanied 
by his wife Elizabeth and their sons, John, Richard, and Bobert, 
Clement remaining in England. Their son Giles was born in Salem. 
Bobert Leach became one of the founders of Manchester, Massa- 
chusetts, and one of- its largest landed proprietors. 

II. Giles Leach, son of Lawrence and Elizabeth Leach, was born 
in Salem, Massachusetts. He became one of the founders of the 
town of Bridgewater, Massachusetts, and was one of the fifty-six 
proprietors of the town. He settled at Weymouth in 1656, but 
before 1665 was in Bridgewater, where he became a leader in public 
affairs, and the owner of a considerable landed property. From 
Giles Leach descended one of the foremost of Bridgewater 's dis- 
tinguished sons, the late Rev. Daniel Leach, D. D., who was grad- 
uated from Brown University in 1830, later preparing for the divine 
ministry at Andover, and also under Bishop Griswold; he later 
became prominently identified with educational affairs both in Mas- 
sachusetts and Rhode Island, and for nearly a quarter of a century 
was superintendent of the public schools of Providence, Rhode 
Island. 

From Lawrence Leach, the founder, descended the journalist, 
Hon. De Witt Clinton Leach, who in 1850 was a member of the Con- 
stitutional Convention of Michigan, and appeared before it urging 
the granting of the right of suffrage to the colored race. Other 
notable descendants of the progenitor were the late Rev. Joseph 
S. Leach, of New Jersey, clergyman and editor, and his sons, Hon. 
Josiah G. Leach and Frank W. Leach, Esqs., who also attained 
prominence. Descending from Lawrence Leach through a dis- 
tinguished line of forbears who had figured largely in the history 
of Bridgewater and Southeastern Massachusetts was the late Hon. 

178 



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£^>r?^2^s 




LEACH AND ALLIED FAMILIES 

James dishing Leach, business leader, financier, and public man 
of note, whose death occurred in Bridgewater, October 3, 1895. 

III. John Leach, son of Giles and Ann (Nokes) Leach, was born 
probably in Bridgewater or Weymouth, Massachusetts. He mar- 
ried Alice , and they were the parents of several children 

among whom was Nehemiah, mentioned below. John Leach died 
in 1744. 

IV. Nehemiah Leach, son of John and Alice Leach, was born in 

1709. He married (first) Mercy Staples; (second) Bryant, 

of Plympton, Massachusetts, who died in 1775. He died in 1769. 

V. James Leach, son of Nehemiah and (Bryant) Leach, 

was born in Bridgewater, Massachusetts, 1737, and was a lifelong 
resident and prominent citizen of the town. He married, in 1765, 
Hazadiah Keith, daughter of Robert Keith. 

VI. Alpheus Leach, son of James and Hazadiah (Keith) Leach, 
was born August 2, 1765, in Bridgewater, and was a prosperous 
farmer and landowner there throughout his life. He married, in 
1787, Cassandra Keith, who was born January 21, 1767, daughter of 
William Keith. Among their children was Alpheus, mentioned 
below. 

VII. Alpheus (2) Leach, son of Alpheus (1) and Cassandra 
(Keith) Leach, was born in Bridgewater, Massachusetts, April 3, 
1796. He married Elizabeth Cushing Mitchell, daughter of Brad- 
ford and Meriba (Keen) Mitchell. Their children were: 1. Lu- 
cretia Mitchell, who became the wife of Miller S. Oldham, of Pem- 
broke, Massachusetts. 2. James Cushing, mentioned below. 3. 
Alice, who married Linus Snow. 4. Warren S., who resided in 
Eaynham, Massachusetts. 

VIII. James Cushing Leach, son of Alpheus (2) and Elizabeth 
Cushing (Mitchell) Leach, was born in Bridgewater, Massachusetts, 
July 11, 1831. He spent his early youth and manhood on his fath- 
er's farm, following the custom of the youth of New England of 
that period, attending the local schools during the winter months 
and helping with the work of the farm during the summer. A lover 
of nature always, he developed in early life a passionate regard for 
rural scenes and traditions which he carried through his life, and 
which kept him in Bridgewater, although he was well fitted to have 
gained notable success in larger centres. At the age of seventeen 
years he apprenticed himself to Ambrose Keith, a prominent builder 
of Bridgewater, under whom he worked as a journeyman for several 

179 



LEACH AND ALLIED FAMILIES 

years. He subsequently entered the employ of Joseph E. Carver, 
a cotton-gin manufacturer of Bridgewater, with whom he remained 
until he had amassed sufficient capital to establish himself inde- 
pendently in business. In 1870 began business as a manufacturer 
of oil-proof paper for use in shoes and boots, and in addition dealt 
in various kinds of shoe findings. The venture proved highly suc- 
cessful from the very outset, and in the course of his lifetime Mr. 
Leach developed it from an enterprise of comparative unimportance 
to one of the largest of its kind in Massachusetts. 

Mr. Leach rose gradually into a place of prominence in the busi- 
ness and financial world of Southwestern Massachusetts. Widely 
recognized through the success of the enterprises with which he 
was connected, as a business genius, and above all a Christian gen- 
tleman of unimpeachable integrity, he was sought for responsible 
executive posts. For many years he was trustee and member of 
the investment committee of the Bridgewater Savings Bank. He 
was also a director of the Brockton National Bank, and member of 
the Plymouth County Agricultural Society for a long period. The 
welfare and advancement of Bridgewater, the home of his ancestors 
for seven generations, was always at his heart, and he was the 
earnest advocate of every movement instituted to advance this end. 
He was a generous patron of educational institutions, and for many 
years was a trustee of the Bridgewater Academy. 

Mr. Leach was a Republican in political affiliation, and in 1892 
was elected to represent Bridgewater in the General Assembly of 
Massachusetts. He was re-elected in the following year. In 1894, 
so ably had he served, he was nominated for the office of State Sen- 
ator, served one year and was renominated, but died before the elec- 
tion. Political intrigue was foreign to his nature, and public office 
not in accord with his inclination, yet he served ably and well 
through three terms of the Legislature. He was a member of sev- 
eral important legislative committees, among them that on bank- 
ing. In 1877 he was commissioned justice of the peace by Gov- 
ernor Eice and continued to hold the office until his death. Mr. 
Leach was also a well-known figure in social and fraternal circles 
in Bridgewater. He was a member of Fellowship Lodge, Ancient 
Free and Accepted Masons; of Harmony Chapter, Royal Arch 
Masons, of Bridgewater; of Bay State Commandery, Knights 
Templar, of Brockton. He was a liberal donor to charitable and 
philanthropic causes, and was deeply interested in religious socie- 
ties and church organizations. He was a member of the Central 
Square Congregational Church of Bridgewater, and gave freely to 
its support. Mr. Leach was a well known and eminently respected 
figure in practically every department of the life of Bridgewater, 
one of its first citizens, honored and loved by the entire community. 
He was not only the successful business man, but the kind and 

180 



LEACH AND ALLIED FAMILIES 

thoughtful friend, the generous benefactor. He occupied a place in 
the hearts and minds of all Bridgewater which his death, on Octo- 
ber 3, 1895, left sadly vacant. 

On April 29, 1860, Mr. Leach married Phebe Conant, daughter 
of Marcus and Hannah (Leach) Conant, of Bridgewater, descendant 
of several of the foremost families of Massachusetts and New Hamp- 
shire. Mrs. Leach was born in Bridgewater, where she was edu- 
cated and grew to young womanhood. She was graduated from the 
Bridgewater Normal School, and on completing her studies taught 
in the schools of Bridgewater, Taunton and Raynham, Massachu- 
setts, until her marriage. She presided at the handsome Leach 
residence on Pleasant street in Bridgewater as hostess at the lead- 
ing social functions of the town, and was an active figure in social 
life until the death of her husband, since which time she has retired 
largely to private life. Mrs. Leach still makes her home at the 
Leach residence, which was built by Mr. Leach in 1869. Mr. and 
Mrs. Leach were the parents of three children, all of whom died in 
infancy : Harriet Allen, Jason, Albert Marcus. 

(The Conant Line.) 

The surname Conant was primarily of Celtic origin, taking its 
rise from the name Conan or Conon, which is found at a very early 
period among the various races of Celtic origin, including the Brit- 
ons, Welsh, Irish, Gaels and Bretons. The name in very nearly 
its present form has existed in England for more than six hundred 
years, and no less than thirty-two forms of spelling it have been 
found in ancient and modern records. It is derived from the Celtic 
Conan, meaning chief or leader ; this later became a personal name 
and as such lingered until near the close of the fifteenth century. 
The surname, which took its form from the baptizmal name, came 
into use shortly after the custom of using surnames was introduced 
into England. The Conant coat-of-arms is as follows : 

Arms — Gules, ten billets or; four, three, two and one. 

Crest — On a mount vert a stag proper sustaining with his dexter foot an escutcheon 
of the arms. 

Motto — Conanti dabitur. 

The Conant family in America dates from the early years of the 
Colonial period, and in Massachusetts, Connecticut and Rhode Is- 
land, the family has attained a high degree of prominence and dis- 
tinction. 

7. John Conant, with whom the authentic genealogy of the family 
begins, lived in the parish of East Budleigh, Devonshire, England, 
but was probably born about 1520 at Gittisham, the adjoining town. 

181 



LEACH AND ALLIED FAMILIES 

He was a taxpayer at East Budleigh in 1571. In 1577 he was war- 
den of the church there. On March 30, 1596, he was buried in East 
Budleigh. John Conant is thought to have been a son of John 
Conant, who died at Gittisham, in September, 1559. 

II. Richard Conant, son of John Conant, was born in the parish 
of East Budleigh, about 1548. In 1588 he was assessed for lands 
there and he was church warden in 1606-16. He married, February 
4, 1578, Agnes Clarke, daughter of John Clarke, Sr., of Collyton. 
Richard and Agnes his wife were buried on the same day, Septem- 
ber 22, 1630. Both are spoken of in the "Life of John Conant," 
as "persons of exemplary piety." His will was proved at Exeter, 
October 13, 1631. Of their eight children, two came to America, 
namely: 1. Boger, mentioned below. 2. Christopher, who was 
baptized June 13, 1588 ; he was a grocer in London, where he mar- 
ried, September 14, 1619, Anne Wilton ; he came to Plymouth, New 
England, in 1623, in the ship "Anne," but no records of him exist 
after the date 1630. 

III. Roger Conant, son of Richard and Agnes (Clarke) Conant, 
was baptized April 9, 1592, at All Saints Church in the parish of 
East Budleigh, Devonshire, England. He was the immigrant ances- 
tor of the family in America. One of his brothers was educated at 
Oxford University, and he too received an excellent education. On 
January 20, 1619-20, Christopher Conant, grocer, and Roger Conant, 
Salter, both of the parish of St. Lawrence, Jewry, London, signed 
the composition bond of their brother, John, for the "first, fruits" 
of the rectory of Lymington. He married, November, 1618, and 
had probably been seven years an apprentice Salter in London, liv- 
ing there until he came to America in 1623. He was lirst at Plym- 
outh, but, owing to differences in religious belief, he followed Rev. 
John Lyford and others to Nantasket (Hull). It was probably 
while at Nantasket that he made use of Governors Island, which 
for some time was called Conant 's Island. In 1632 it was granted 
to Governor John Winthrop, however. In 1624-25 Conant was 
chosen by the Dorchester Company to govern their colony at Cape 
Ann, and Lyford was chosen minister at the same time. After a 
year at the Cape, he removed with those colonists who did not return 
to England, and settled in Naumkeag, later called Salem. Conant 's 
house was the first built in Salem. It was removed from Cape Ann 
and became the parsonage, then an inn, and the frame, which is said 
to have been brought from England originally, is still in use, form- 
ing a part of the stable on the north side of the church near Wash- 
ington street, Salem. The exact location of Roger Conant 's house, 
which was the first built in Salem, cannot be ascertained. After the 
patent for the territory had been received John Endicott, one of the 

182 



LEACH AND ALLIED FAMILIES 

patentees, was sent over with fifty colonists and superseded Con- 
ant as governor, after he had held that office for three years. Al- 
though he is not universally recognized as the first governor of Mas- 
sachusetts, Roger Conant is fairly entitled to that honor, for the 
colony of which he was head was the first permanent settlement in the 
Massachusetts Bay Territory. After some friction, Conant and the old 
settlers made their peace with Endicott and the newcomers. Roger 
Conant became a freeman, May IS, 1631, having previously sup- 
ported the Established Church under Lyford. He was frequently 
called to places of honor and trust. He was justice of the quarterly 
court at Salem for three years, was selectman, 1637-41, and 1651-54 
inclusive, also 1657-58. In 1667 he was one of the original members 
of the Beverly church. He had large grants of land and bought 
and sold extensively in Salem, Beverly and the vicinity. He died 
November 10, 1679. His will is dated March 1, 1677, and proved 
November 25, 1679. He married, November 11, 1618, in the parish 
of Blackfriars, London, Sarah Horton. 

IV. Lot Conant, son of Roger and Sarah (Horton) Conant, was 
born about 1624, in Nantasket, or at Cape Ann, Massachusetts, and 
settled as early as 1657, at Marblehead, Massachusetts. He was a 
selectman in 1662, and a householder in 1674. His father gave him 
a farm and homestead at Beverly, November 20, 1666, and about 
this time he moved there and built a house near the dwelling of his 
father. He was one of those dismissed from the church at 
Salem to form the Beverly church, July 4, 1667. Many of his 
deeds are on record. He died September 29, 1674, and his 
will is dated September 24 of that year. He married Eliza- 
beth Walton, daughter of Rev. William Walton, who took de- 
grees at Emanuel College, Cambridge, and was settled over the 
parish of Seton, Devonshire, England, where his daughter was bap- 
tized, October 27, 1629. He was pastor of the church at Marble- 
head until his death in 1668. Elizabeth, widow T of Lot Conant, mar- 
ried (second) on January 10, 1681-82, Andrew Mansfield, of Lynn, 
son of Robert and Elizabeth Mansfield. 

V. William Conant, son of Lot and Elizabeth (Walton) Conant, 
was born in Beverly, Massachusetts, February 19, 1666-67, and bap- 
tized July 30, of that year. He married Mary Woodbury, daughter 
of John Woodbury, of Beverly, and both were admitted to the 
church there, September - 5, 1703. They were dismissed to the 
church at Bridgewater, January 12, 1706-07. In 1706 William Con- 
ant purchased land of Nathaniel Allen on the north bank of the Sa- 
tucket river, in East Bridgewater. On this he built a house the 
same year, which he occupied until his death, and which stood until 
1811, when it was taken down. His will was proved in 1754. 

183 



LEACH AND ALLIED FAMILIES 

VI. David Conant, son of William and Mary (Woodbury) Conant, 
was born in Beverly, December 11, 1698, and removed to Bridge- 
water with bis parents while yet a child. He occupied the house 
built by his father until 1780, when it passed into the Whitman 
family, and he removed to Lyme, New Hampshire, where he died 
April 3, 1789. David Conant married Sarah Hay ward, who was 
born in 1705, daughter of Benjamin and Sarah (Aldrich) Hayward, 
and great-granddaughter of Thomas Hayward, who came from Eng- 
land and settled at Duxbury, later becoming one of the original set- 
tlers and proprietors of Bridgewater. 

VII. David (2) Conant, son of David (1) and Sarah (Hayward) 
Conant, was born April 6, 1726, in Bridgewater, Massachusetts. He 
was a lifelong resident of the town, living in a house which he built 
near his father's in South Bridgewater. He died in 1760. David 
(2) Conant married, in 1748, Bhoda Latham, daughter of Thomas 
and Deborah (Harden) Latham. 

VIII. Elias Conant, son of David (2) and Rhoda (Latham) Con- 
ant, was born in Bridgewater, Massachusetts, in 1749, and was a res- 
ident of the town throughout his life, a prosperous farmer and well- 
known citizen. He served for a short period during the American 
Revolution, as a member of Captain Allen's company, Colonel 
Cary's regiment. Elias Conant married, in 1774, Joanna, who was 
born in 1755, daughter of Phineas Conant. 

IX. Martin Conant, son of Elias and Joanna (Conant) Conant, 
was born in Bridgewater, Massachusetts, August 26, 1787. He mar- 
ried, in 1805, in Bridgewater, Lucy Mehurin, who was born there 
July 9, 1785. Mr. Conant removed to Lyme, New Hampshire, 
where he was a farmer and shoemaker, and where he died April 
8, 1877. His wife died June 1, 1873, in Lyme. Among their chil- 
dren was Marcus, mentioned below. 

X. Marcus Conant, son of Martin and Lucy (Mehurin) Conant, 
was born in the town of Lyme, New Hampshire, September 12, 1806. 
He was educated in the schools of his native town, and on complet- 
ing his studies learned the trade of wheelwright. Completing his 
apprenticeship at the age of twenty-one years, he went to Bridge- 
water, the home of his ancestors for so many generations, and here 
he followed the carpenter's and millwright's trades. He subse- 
quently became interested in cotton-gin manufacturing, and for a 
period of years was connected with the firm of Carver, Washburn 
& Company, and later with Bates, Hyde & Company, and Joseph 
Carver. He was well known and highly respected throughout the 
community. 

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LEACH AND ALLIED FAMILIES 

On May 18, 1835. Mr. Conant married Hannah Leach, who was 
born in Bridge water, Massachusetts, daughter of Hosea and Han- 
nah (Keith) Leach, and a descendant of the founder, Lawrence 
Leach, through Giles (II), John (III), Jesse (IV), Giles (V), and 
Hosea (VI). They were the parents of two children: 1. Phebe, 
who married James Cushing Leach, of Bridgewater. (See Leach, 
VIII). 2. Joanna, who married Alfred Hall, deceased, of Raynham, 
3Iassachusetts, and now resides in Bridgewater; their children are: 
William Morton and Francis Marcus; both are well known lawyers 
of New York City. 

Mr. Conant spent the last years of his life with his daughter, Mrs. 
Leach, in Bridgewater, where he died at the age of ninety-five years, 
and was buried in Mount Prospect Cemetery, in that town. 

The following is the description of the coat-of-arms of above 
named Leach family: 

Leach Arms — Ermine, a rose gules, on a chief indented of the last three crowns or. 
Crest — On a wreath of the colors an arm erect proper, grasping a snake vert. 
Motto — Virtus est vcnerabilis (Virtue is venerable). 




I8 5 



The Dowley=Esterbrook Families 



jgy| HE origin of this surname is of great interest, and knowl- 
Hl^fl edge of its source represents the collective result of 
research by many famous authorities. The source is 
local, and the name signifies literally "at the dowl," 
or "the dowler," one who lived at the dowl. The root 
"Dowle" is noted as follows in the "Promptorium Parvulorum," 
edited by Albert Way in 1865: "Dole, merke, meta, tramaricia." 
Way has another important note on this: "Forby gives this word 
as still used in Norfolk, the mark being often a low post, called a 
dool-post. . . . Bishop Kennet states that landmarks, or bound- 
ary stones, are in some parts of Kent called 'dowle-stones,' and ex- 
plains dole, or doul, as signifying 'a bulk, or green narrow slip of 
ground left unplowed in arable land.' " According to the authority 
Bardsley, Queen Elizabeth in her "Injunctions," 1559, directs that 
at the customary perambulations on the Eogation Days, the admo- 
nition shall be given, "cursed be he which translateth the boundes 
and dolles of his neighbor." This makes clear that dowle was a 
form of dole, or doll, (a partition). Thomas at the dowle, or Wil- 
liam Dowler, meant one who resided on such a strip of land, or by 
such a landmark. The name, of course, underwent many variations 
throughout the centuries, and we find to-day the forms of Dowle, 
Dowler, and Dowley, most commonly in use, both in England, Ire- 
land, and in the United States. 

The Dowley Arms — Gules a buck's head cabossed bendways argent attired or, be- 
tween two bendlets of the last. 

George Stevens Dowley — The Dowley family has been established 
in the State of Vermont for several generations, and the name is 
intimately connected with the town of Wardsboro, in that State. 
It was here that the late George Stevens Dowley, a leader and influ- 
ential factor in the business life of Brattleboro, Vermont, was born on 
August 16, 1843. He was the son of Darius L. and Antis (Baldwin) 
Dowley. Darius L. Dowley was the owner of extensive farming 
lands in Wardsboro, a prosperous farmer, and highly respected and 
honored citizen. This property was located in the southwestern 
part of Wardsboro, and here young Dowley passed his early years 
in the healthful atmosphere of country life, and in the air which, 
breeds self-reliance, love of independence, and unswerving integrity. 
He was given the advantage of an excellent education, and after 
attending the elementary school of Wardsboro, entered the high 

186 



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THE DOWLEY-ESTERBROOK FAMILIES 

school. Immediately after his graduation he entered the business 
world, securing a position in a comparatively humble capacity in the 
railway office in the city of Brattleboro, where the family had 
removed a short time previous. He rapidly proved his ability, 
however, and was advanced to the position of assistant bookkeeper. 
In this position he made the collections for the railroad; these were 
made monthly, and often amounted to a sum varying between four 
and six thousand dollars. So complete was the trust placed in Mr. 
Dowley 's integrity that during the entire period in which he served 
in this post it was not even considered necessary that he have a 
guard. He was one of the most valued employees in the railroad 
office, and from the first a man whose ability might be relied upon 
in any contingency and whose honesty and ambition for the best 
interests of his employers was beyond doubt. 

He attracted the attention of business men in the city, among them 
Philip Wells, who was then cashier of the Bank of Brattleboro. This 
gentleman went one day to the freight office where Mr. Dowley was 
employed, and suggested to him he take a place in the bank, placing 
before him the advantages which such a position would offer, and 
the wider field for advancement which entrance into the world of 
finance would open up to him. Relying upon the advice of the older 
man, Mr. Dowley accepted the offer, and at the age of twenty years 
entered the Brattleboro Bank, at the time totally without experience 
in banking. This fact, perhaps, was one of the determining factors 
in his later success in the banking world, for his mind, unencum- 
bered by unnecessary theoretical knowledge which tends toward 
making the mind stale, attacked and evolved new solutions for 
problems, some of which radically changed methods in the bank and 
brought him forcibly and favorable before the notice of his superior 
officers. He was closely watched in his progress by Captain Sam- 
uel Eoot, then president of the bank, and by Philip "Wells, whose 
'protege he was and whose firm friend he had become. These two 
men brought much influence to bear on the forming of the character 
and opinions of Mr. Dowley, and were the largest factors in his 
early years in the bank. He rose with great rapidity through the 
minor offices of the bank, and soon became one of the most valued 
members of the staff. He was an unusually clear, quick thinker, 
given to analysis, and possessed the talent of logically determining 
the outcome of conditions in the banking world. He foresaw clearly 
the possibilities attending the issue of government war bonds, and 
profited largely by careful investment in them. 

In recognition of his services and appreciating the value of his 
ability in the affairs of the bank, the officers of the Brattleboro Bank 
elected Mr. Dowley, at the age of twenty-four years, to the position 
of cashier, in July, 1868, three years after the institution's recogni- 
tion under the national banking laws of 1865. Succeeding the presi- 

187 



THE DOWLEY-ESTERBROOK FAMILIES 

dency of Mr. Root, the warm friend and sponsor of Mr. Dowley, 
came that of Mr. William P. Cune, and it was under this administra- 
tion that he held the office of cashier. In 1S68, at the death of Mr. 
Cune, Mr. Dowley was elected to the office of president. He con- 
tinued in the chief executive office until the time of his death. Of 
his service in this capacity and its value to the institution, a recent 
biography of him says: 

He identified himself completely with the interests of the bank, and, indeed, his 
personal history became its history; his reputation, its reputation; his interests, its 
interests. While the bank had always been a prosperous institution, it grew to a very 
large extent, under the most capable management of Mr. Dowley. developing rapidly 
until it became one of the most important financial institutions in that part of the 
State. But while this growth was rapid, and Mr. Dou-ley's policies progressive, they 
were none the less solid and secure ; for his business judgment was such that it seemed 
well nigh infallible, and the concern was never engaged in any transaction other than 
the most substantial. 

He was a prominent figure in finance throughout the State, and 
was associated with numerous large enterprises. He was a director 
of the Vermont Valley Railroad Company and of the Vermont Live 
Stock Company. 

Mr. Dowley figured largely in public life In Brattleboro, and held 
many offices of responsibility and trust. He was a member of the 
personal staff of Governor Levi K. Fuller, at one time treasurer of 
the village school district, and also county treasurer. His religious 
affiliation was with the Universalist church of Brattleboro, and he 
always maintained an active interest in its work, contributing lib- 
erally to the support of all its charitable and benevolent movements. 

George Stevens Dowley married, in 1870, Ada E. Esterbrook, 
daughter of the late William Haile Esterbrook, of Brattleboro. Mrs. 
Dowley survives her husband, and resides at the handsome family 
residence on Main street, Brattleboro. She is active in the interests 
of civic welfare, and is well known in the best circles in the city. 
She is a member of the Society of Daughters of the American Revo- 
lution, of the Society of Colonial Dames, and of the Daughters of 
1812. Mrs. Dowley is prominent in club life in the city, and is a 
member of the Woman's Club. She is also a member of the Univer- 
salist church of Brattleboro. 

Mr. Dowley died at his home in Brattleboro, Vermont, November 
24, 1896, and his death marked the passing of a figure which had 
been particularly notable in the financial history of Vermont. He 
was known throughout the State, and was regarded as an authority 
on banking questions in New England. He was a man of positive 
conviction and inflexible will; yet, despite a conservatism which 
characterized him, was progressive, and possessed a foresight which 
enabled him to employ methods in his establishment which were 
untried in the banking world. His interest in the city of Brattle- 
boro was great, and he was closely identified with all movements for 

188 






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P.E3IDCNCE OF MRS. GEORGE; S. DOWLZY". 
BRAT rUCBCRO, VE RMONT, 



THE DOVVLEY-ESTERBROOK FAMILIES 

the betterment of any and all conditions in it — his interest was 
unselfish, and for it he was deeply loved and honored by men in all 
classes of life. His interest in philanthropic undertakings was pro- 
verbial, and he was sought with assurance by all philanthropic 
workers, who seldom were turned away. He was universally loved 
and respected, and his loss was deeply mourned. 

(The Esterbrook Line.) 

Arms — Azure, a fesse or between three boars' heads couped at the neck argent, 
crined oi the second. 

Crest — A boar's head of the shield. 

I. Thomas Esterbrook, progenitor of the American family, and 
its immigrant ancestor, was a native of England, where he was 
born about 1629. He is first of record in the New England colonies 
in 1669, on February 12 of which year he signed the agreement 
between Mr. Willett and the church at Swansea, Massachusetts. He 
was prominent in the affairs of early Swansea, and was a town 
officer. He died April 11, 1713, aged eighty-three years, and was 
buried in the Kickamuit Cemetery at Warren, Rhode Island. Thomas 
Esterbrook married Sarah, daughter of John and Sarah Woodcock. 

II. Thomas (2) Esterbrook, son of Thomas (1) and Sarah (Wood- 
cock) Esterbrook, was born in the town of Swansea, Massachusetts, 
October 18, 1670. He married, before 1703, Elizabeth Thurber, 
daughter of John Thurber, and granddaughter of John Thurber, 
the founder of the Thurber family in America, who came from Eng- 
land with his wife Priscilla,and settled at Swansea. She died Septem- 
ber 27, 1724. Thomas (2) Esterbrook died September 27, 1727. 

III. Robert Esterbrook, son of Thomas (2) and Elizabeth (Thur- 
ber) Esterbrook, was born at Swansea, Massachusetts, August 12, 
1705. He married, June 15, 1727, Sarah Luther, born December 
25, 1707, daughter of Elder Samuel and Sarah Luther, of Warren, 
Rhode Island. 

Elder Samuel Luther was born October 25, 1663, and died July 
23, 1714, a son of Samuel Luther, and grandson of John Luther, of 
Gloucester, Massachusetts, the founder of the family in America, 
and a prominent and well known sea captain, who was killed in Del- 
aware Bay, in 1645, by the Indians there, while on a trading expedi- 
tion, with all of his party except a boy of ten years, who is supposed 
to have been his son Samuel, later an elder of the Baptist church in 
Swansea. 

IV. Warren Esterbrook, son of Robert and Sarah (Luther) Es- 
terbrook, was born August 23, 1748. It is shown by the record of 

189 



THE DOWLEY-ESTERBROOK FAMILIES 

the War Department that "Warren Easterbrooks" served as a pri- 
vate in the Warren Guard, Rhode Island troops, in the Revolution- 
ary War. The muster roll "of the Warren Guard, commanded by 
Sergt. Thomas Eastabrook now in service of the U. S., stationed 
in said Warren in the State of R. I. Engaged for one month April 
26, 1778," dated at Warren, May 18, 1778, shows that this soldier 
entered the service April 26, year not stated. He subsequently 
drew a pension from the United States for his service in the Revolu- 
tion. In 1779 he settled in Brattleboro, Vermont, and there estab- 
lished himself in the carpenter's trade, working for a time in the 
East Village, but afterward locating in the southwestern part of the 
town. Here he followed the occupation of farming, until he became 
totally blind. He bore this affliction with fortitude until his death, 
twenty years later, on June 29, 1838. 

Warren Esterbrook married, January 18, 1770, Rosamond Haile, 
born about 1750, died April 26, 1S13 ; daughter of William Haile and 
Elizabeth (Franklin) Haile. Her parents were married in 1717, 
and had children: Lillis, married Jeremiah Bowen, of Barrington; 
Barnard, married Mary Hill, and was lost at sea in 1778 ; Sylvester, 
said to have been captured by the British in the Revolution and to 
have died in captivity; Betsey, married John Harris; Ruth, died 
aged twelve years; John, married Sarah Brown; Rosamond, be- 
came the wife of Warren Esterbrook. 

Barnard Haile, father of William Haile, and grandfather of Ros- 
amond Haile, was born in 1687, and married, January 21, 1711-12, 
Elizabeth Slade, born December 2, 1695, daughter of William and 
Sarah (Holmes) Slade, and granddaughter of Edward Slade (or 
Slead), born in Wales, settled about 1680, in Somerset, Massachu- 
setts, where he married Sarah Holmes. Rev. Obadiah Holmes, 
grandfather of Sarah (Holmes) Haile, was born at Preston, Lan- 
cashire, England, in 1607 ; was a grand juror at Rehoboth in 1619, 
and died October 15, 1682 ; his son, Jonathan Holmes, had a daugh- 
ter Sarah Holmes, who became the wife of William Slade, men- 
tioned above. Sarah Holmes died September 11, 1761, aged ninety- 
seven years. Richard Haile, father of Barnard Haile, was born 
about 1610; married Mary Bullock, who was born February 16, 
1652, daughter of Richard and Elizabeth (Ingrah^m) Bullock. He 
died September 29, 1720 ; his wife died February 15, 1729-30. Rich- 
ard Bullock, father of Mrs. Haile, was a resident of Rehoboth in 
1643; was appointed collector of excise of Rehoboth in 1613; and 
was town clerk from 1659 to 1668 ; his wife died January 7, 1660. 

V. Major James Esterbrook, son of Warren and Rosamond 
(Haile) Esterbrook, was born in the town of Warren, Rhode Island, 
in 1775, and accompanied his parents to Brattleboro, Vermont, in 
1779. For many years he followed the occupation of farming there, 

190 






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THE DOWLEY-ESTERBROOK FAMILIES 

but subsequently became active in the State militia, and rose to the 
rank of major in his regiment. 

He married, April 17, 1799, Polly Stewart, daughter of Colonel 
Daniel Stewart, and a descendant of Alexander Stewart, the first 
of the family of whom we have definite information. • Their chil- 
dren were: 1. Maria, born September 7, 1800; married, July 31, 
1822, Rufus Pratt, of Brattleboro ; she died October 19, 1857. 2. 
Charlotte E., born June 13, 1802; married, April 10, 1S25, William 
Bullock. 3. Daniel S., born April 17, 180-1; married, May G, 1832, 
Betsey Gladden; he died September 19, 1869; lived at Brattleboro. 

4. Dorothy M., born January 27, 1S06 ; married, October 5, 1828, Sol- 
omon Pessenden; she died May 27, 1878; he was an innholder, born 
July 23, 1801; died Deceinber, 1891; resided at Halifax, Vermont; 
at Salem, New York; Hinsdale, Warwick, Keene, New Hampshire, 
and West Brattleboro, Vermont. 5. Nancy, born October 8, 1808; 
died April 28, 1819; married Weslev Jacobs. 6. Mary Ann, born 
November 6, 1810, died March IS, 1861 ; married, July 4, 1838, Har- 
vey Houghton. 7. James H., born August 10, 1812 ; married Nancy 

5. French ; he died April 9, 1862. 8. William H., mentioned below. 
9. Emily S., born September 16, 1816; died in 1892; married, Sep- 
tember 20, 1836, Henry A. Gane. 10. Cyrinthia J., born April 25, 
1819; died January 10, 1819; married, January 5, 1813, Benjamin 
P. Tilden, of Keene, New Hampshire. 11. George W., born Decem- 
ber 2, 1821 ; married, October 11, 1815, Nancy A. Goddard. 12. 
Harriet E., born August 16, 1821; died November 5, 1875; married 
Albert A. Cortis. 

Major James Esterbrook died March 5, 1856. 

VI. William H. Esterbrook, son of Major James and Polly (Stew- 
art) Esterbrook, was born in Brattleboro, Vermont, July 31, 1S14. 
He received his education in the public schools of West Brattleboro, 
but at an early age entered the shop of Asa Dickinson, where he 
learned the trade of tinsmith. He later became a partner in the 
firm of J. H. and W. II. Esterbrook, organized in 1837. The firm 
began business as dealers in stoves and hardware and as tinsmiths 
in the Vinton building at the corner of Canal and South Main streets, 
and the partners continued in business for twenty-seven years. The 
senior partner died April 9, 1862, and William H. Esterbrook con- 
tinued the business alone for three years, at the end of which time 
he disposed of his interests to Wood & Kathan and retired from 
active business life. 

He was prominent in the business and financial interests of the 
city, and was a director of the Vermont National Bank. He was a 
zealous and faithful member of the Universalist church, of which 
his brother and two others, Arnold Hines and Alfred Simonds, were 
the founders. He joined the church September 17, 1813, and was 

191 



THE DOWLEY-ESTERBROOK FAMILIES 

elected a deacon in 1861 ; he was always a generous contributor to 
its endeavors, and subscribed $1,000 to the building fund, and be- 
queathed $2,000 to the church in his will. His political affiliation 
was with the Republican party. 

William Haile Esterbrook married, October 28, 1845, Adeline S. 
Thayer, who was born in Dummerston, Vermont, January 12, 1824, 
and died at Brattleboro, October 5, 1889. She was very active in 
church and benevolent work. Mrs. Esterbrook was a daughter of 
Louis and Lucine (Miller) Thayer. The children of Mr. and Mrs. 
Esterbrook were : 1. Ada E., born October 5, 1S46 ; married, May 
17, 1870, George S. Dowley (see Dowley). 2. Mary A., born July 
15, 1848 ; married, March 16, 1868, Lucius H. Richardson, of Brat- 
tleboro, member of the firm of W. P. Richardson & Company; they 
are the parents of one son, Charles, employed in the Vermont Na- 
tional Bank, who married Vinnie Elmer. 3. Cynthia J., bora 1852, 
died in 1853. 4. Charles W., born in 1854 ; died in 1863. 

William H. Esterbrook died at his home in Brattleboro, Vermont, 
on December 11, 1895. 




19* 




The Stratton=Ensign Family 

The Stratton Arms — Argent four bars embattled counter embattled sable, an 
escutcheon gules in center. 

Crest — An eagle or, wings inverted, standing on a man's hand in armor couped at 
the wrist argent. 

Motto — Surgere tento (I attempt to rise). 

#al MONG the most ancient and distinguished families of 
New England, where it has made its home from the 
earliest colonial period, is that of Stratton, which can 
indeed claim a great and honorable antiquity in the 
mother country before its enterprising sons came to the 
New World and sought for themselves and their descendants the 
freedom and opportunities that it offered. It was founded in this 
country by one Samuel Stratton, a native of England, in which 
country he was born in 1592, and who came to the New England Col- 
onies with his wife and family some time prior to 1617, in which 
year we first have record of him here. His wife, whom he had 
married in England, probably died shortly after their arrival in 
the colonies, and comparatively little is known concerning her. 

/. Samuel Stratton was surveyor of town lots at Watertown, Mas- 
sachusetts Bay Colony, as early as 1647, and took the oath as free- 
man there May 18, 1653. His home was situated in that part of 
Watertown which has since become Cambridge, in the neighborhood 
of the present Lowell Park, and adjacent to the property that after- 
ward became the estate of James Russell Lowell. Samuel Strat- 
ton, after the death of his first wife, married, August 28, 1657, Mrs. 
Margaret Parker, the widow of William Parker, of Boston. By his 
first marriage he had two sons, and by the second the following chil- 
dren : Samuel, Jr. ; John, who is mentioned at length below ; and 
Richard, the progenitor of the Easthampton, Long Island, branch of 
the family. 

II. John Stratton, son of Samuel and Margaret (Parker) Strat- 
ton, was born at Watertown, Massachusetts Bay Colony, and made 
that place his home throughout his life. He married Elizabeth 
Traine, and they were the parents of the following children : Eliza- 
beth, born at Watertown, and died in infancy; John, born at Wa- 
tertown ; Elizabeth ; Joseph, who is mentioned below ; Samuel ; Re- 
becca; Ebenezer, died in infancy ; Ebenezer (2) ; Jonathan. 

III. Joseph Stratton, second son of John and Elizabeth (Traine) 

193 



THE STRATTON-ENSIGN FAMILY 

Stratton, was born at Watertown, and resided there all his life. He' 
married Sarah How, and they were the parents of a large family 
of children, of whom one was Jonathan, who is mentioned at length 
below. 

IV. Jonathan Stratton, son of Joseph and Sarah (How) Strat- 
ton, was born at Weston, Massachusetts, in the year 1714, and took 
part in the Eevolution. He served as a private in the company of 
Colonel Lamson, and marched to Lexington, April 19, 1775, upon 
receiving the alarm. He married Dinah Bemis, of Waltham, No- 
vember 1, 1738, and among their children vras Jonathan, Jr., who is 
mentioned below. 

V. Jonathan (2) Stratton, son of Jonathan (1) and Dinah (Be- 
mis) Stratton, was born March 8, 1746. He served in the Revolu- 
tion, as did his father, his name appearing on the muster and pay 
rolls of Captain Jonathan Fiske, as one of Colonel Brooks' troops 
which were called out March 4, 1776, for five days service, and sta- 
tioned at Dorchester Heights. He also performed other military 
services at different times during the war. He married, Septem- 
ber 20, 1768, Sarah Childs, and among their children was Shubael 
C. Stratton, who is mentioned below. 

VI. Shubael C. Stratton, son of Jonathan (2) and Sarah (Childs) 
Stratton, was born December 6, 1769, at Weston, Massachusetts, and 
made his home there and at New Salem. He married Betsey Cook, 
and among their children was Ira Stratton, with whose career we 
are here especially concerned. 

VII. Ira Stratton, son of Shubael C. and Betsey (Cook) Stratton, 
was born January 6, 1804, at New Salem, Massachusetts, and grew 
up to manhood there. Throughout life he displayed an extraor- 
dinary talent for practical affairs, and was besides justly regarded 
by his friends and fellow-citizens generally as always maintaining 
the highest standards of business ethics and good citizenship. As 
a child he attended the local public schools, but did not continue his 
studies after reaching the age of fourteen years. At that age, 
when most boys are still attending school and quite dependent upon 
their parents in all the essential matters of life, this precocious and 
enterprising lad left school and made his way to the West. The 
western part of the United States was a very different region at that 
time from what it is today, and entirely deserved its title of the 
"Wild West." Undeterred by these considerations, however, the 
lad embarked upon his adventure into the wilderness and pene- 
trated into the depths of the region. There he remained for a 
period of two years, but at the end of that time returned to the East, 

194 



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THE STRATTON-ENSIGN FAMILY 

and as a youth of sixteen secured a position as a hand in a brush 
factory. Pie remained in that employ until he had mastered the 
trade, and shortly afterwards was chosen foreman of a large brush 
factory at Cambridgeport by its owner, Mr. Flavel Coolidge, whose 
daughter he later married. 

He continued in that position for a number of years and gained a 
wide and expert knowledge of the brush industry, as well as of busi- 
ness methods generally, and upon the death of his father-in-law 
became the proprietor of the factory and the large business done by 
the concern. This he increased very largely, and eventually opened 
a brush shop in partnership with the rirm of Sheriff & Eastham on 
Exchange street, Boston. This enterprise turned out most success- 
fully, and in time became the chief outlet into the retail market of 
the product of the factory. But Mr. Stratton was one of those na- 
tures that is never satisfied unless enlarging the scope of its activity, 
and it was not long before he was venturing into an entirely new 
sphere of business. He formed a partnership with Mr. Amory 
Houghton and established a factory at Somerville, Massachusetts, 
for the manufacture of glass. After a time, however, Mr. Stratton 
found that this business became uncongenial to him, and he sold 
his interest in it to his partner, and thereafter devoted his time and 
attention to the management of his large estate. 

Ira Stratton was united in marriage, on the 6th day of November, 
1835, with Martha Ann Coolidge, daughter of Flavel and Anna 
(Wilds) Coolidge, the former owner of the old brush factory that 
afterwards came into the possession of Mr. Stratton. They were 
the parents of the following children: Flavel Coolidge, born Octo- 
ber 4, 1836, and died February 15, 1810; Flavel Coolidge (2d), born 
February 14, 1810, who is mentioned below ; Anna Maria, born Feb- 
ruary 4, 1848, and died September 23, 1850 ; Martha Louise, born 
February 4, 1851, and is mentioned at length below in connection 
with Dwight W. Ensign, whom she afterwards married. . 

VIII. Flavel Coolidge Stratton, second child of Ira and Martha 
Ann (Coolidge) Stratton, was born February 14, 1840, at Cam- 
bridge, Massachusetts. He studied as a lad at the New Salem 
Academy, where he was prepared for college, and later entered Har- 
vard University, in 1858, and was graduated therefrom with the 
degree of Bachelor of Arts in 1861, in the year in which he attained 
his majority. He then became a student of the law, but before 
engaging in active practice went abroad and visited for a time in 
England. While in that country, Mr. Stratton engaged in the bank- 
ing business with the firm of Belding Keith & Company. Upon re- 
turning to the United States he removed to Erie, Pennsylvania, 
and there engaged in the dry goods business. Upon his father's 
death in 1873, however, he retired from business and resided with 
his mother at Cambridge until his death, which occurred suddenly 

195 



THE STRATTON-ENSIGN FAMILY 

from heart disease, July 23, 1906. Flavel Coolidge Stratton was a 
prominent Mason and a conspicuous figure in the social life of Cam- 
bridge. A friend of his, speaking of him at the time of his death, 
said: "He was learned, yet unpretentious; thoughtful, yet not 
effusive in speech; tender as a woman in his sympathies, yet lion- 
hearted for the right. ' ' 

Dwight Watts Ensign, who is mentioned above as having married 
Martha Louise Stratton, was born August 2, 1839, at Sheridan, 
Chautauqua county, New York, a son of Seymour P. and Diantha 
(Holmes) Ensign, the former engaged in business as a book-seller 
at Erie, Pennsylvania. Seymour P. Ensign was a son of Otis En- 
sign, and a grandson of Eliphalet Ensign, who was killed in the 
Indian massacre of Wyoming Valley, where his son, Otis Ensign, 
was one of the few that survived. Otis Ensign served with the 
Continental army in the Revolutionary War, and was one of the 
force under General Washington which wintered at Valley Forge, 
and was also present at the execution of Major Andre. Dwight 
Watts Ensign had intended to enter the West Point Military 
Academy, and studied with that end in view. Unfortunately, how- 
ever, he fell a victim to rheumatic fever, which prevented his en- 
trance to the Academy, and he thereupon took up the profession of 
civil engineering. Mr. Ensign travelled in the West in 18S2, and 
for a time lived at Devil's Lake, in North Dakota, where he engaged 
in township speculation, and was elected to represent that place in 
the State Legislature. He served on that body in 1886 and 1887, 
and was a member of several important legislative committees. 

Toward the end of 1S87, however, he returned East and took up 
his abode at Cambridge, Massachusetts, as the representative of 
the Dakota and Eastern Mortgage and Loan Company. He became 
very prominent in business circles both East and West, and enjoyed 
in an unusual degree the respect and confidence of his associates. He 
was a man of unusual cultivation, and was very conspicuous in the 
social and intellectual life of Cambridge, and a member of several 
prominent clubs and fraternal organizations, including the Sons 
of the American Revolution and the Boston Art Club. In his re- 
ligious belief, Mr. Ensign was a Unitarian, and was a member of the 
Second Church of that denomination at Boston, and served on the 
building committee of the new church. He was a man of dominant 
personality and strong character, and realized in every particular 
the highest ideals expressed in the word gentleman. 

Dwight Watts Ensign was united in marriage (first) October 23, 
1873, at Geneva, Illinois, with Helen J. Nelson, and they were the 
parents of two children: Emery Seymour, of East Orange, New 
Jersey, and Helen Marguerite, of Geneva, Hlinois. Mr. Ensign 
married (second) Martha Louise Stratton, on November 20, 1889, 
who is mentioned above as a daughter of Ira and Martha Ann (Coo- 
lidge) Stratton. 

196 



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THE STRATTON-ENSIGN FAMILY 
(Coolidge Line.) 

-Arms: — Vert, a griffin segreant or. 
Crest — A demi-griffm as in arms. 
Motto — Virtute et fide. (By bravery and faith). 

Flavel Coolidge, father of Mrs. Stratton, was born in the year 
1775, the youngest of eleven children born to Elisha Coolidge and 
his wife. In the year 1786, when he was eleven years old, his father 
and the entire family joined the Shaker community at the time of its 
establishment at Shirley, Middlesex county. The Shaker Society 
was originated by Ann Lee, who came from Liverpool, England, 
May 19th, 1774, and arrived in New York on the 6th of August fol- 
lowing, with eight of her disciples. She rapidly built up a number 
of communities in various parts of the Eastern States, the first 
being situated at Watervliet, New York, and another shortly after 
appearing at Shirley. It was in the latter community that the early 
life of Flavel Coolidge was passed, but upon attaining his majority 
in 1796 he left Shirley and came to Cambridgeport, where he learned 
the trade of brush-making. For a time thereafter he was engaged 
in business as a carpenter with Josiah and Thomas Mason, and dur- 
ing this period built a house for himself. He became one of the 
founders of the First Universalist Church at Cambridge, and was a 
deacon thereof for many years. Eventually he founded the suc- 
cessful brush factory at Cambridgeport which has been mentioned 
before as the place where Ira Stratton learned that business and 
was afterwards his possession. 

Flavel Coolidge was married in January, 1806, to Anna Wilds, a 
daughter of Elijah, Jr. and Eunice (Stafford) Wilds, and grand- 
daughter of Elijah and Anna (Hovey) Wilds, who were all con- 
verts to the Shaker faith. To Mr. and Mrs. Coolidge the following 
children were born : Merrick, October 6, 1806, who married Sarah 
Ann Tucker, November, 1831, and died in 1850 ; Martha Ann, who 
has been mentioned above as the wife of Ira Stratton ; Flavel, Jr., 
born August 8, 1816, and died at Cambridgeport, Massachusetts, 
February 28, 1891. He married (first) Betsy Perkins, and (second) 
Almira Peirce. 




197 



Danielson=Lockwood Families 

Arms — Argent, a bend sable. 



TnllS; understand the meaning to a man of the honor of his 
(mw\ family — to know the general status in a democracy of 
B^f, families of old and honorable lineage, is to know and 
SjjXJMl understand the meaning and brightness of the national 
honor. For this can never be any brighter than the honor 
of the family. This statement is nowhere more clearly and conclu- 
sively proved than in the Roman civilization, in which the dominant 
unit was the family, and in which the parent was given the power to 
slay any of his sons who brought disgrace to the family name. To-day 
the weapon which the community uses to punish the crime of stain- 
ing family honor is public opinion. Public opinion, the moral law, 
love of country, home and God, are what have made the aristocracy 
of America, not an aristocracy of wealth, nor noble blood in the 
ordinary interpretation of the word, but an aristocracy of right and 
of noble deeds. 

In the foremost ranks of this aristocracy in the State of Connec- 
ticut, is the Danielson family, which holds a place of honor and 
respect in the community eclipsed by none. The Danielson family 
is of Scotch origin and was established in America in the middle 
part of the seventeenth century. Since the time of its founding the 
family has been prominent and active in the service of the country, 
and has furnished its sons liberally in times of peace and war. Its 
members have from time to time been distinguished in military ser- 
vice, and have rendered valuable services in official life. The bor- 
ough of Danielson, in the State of Connecticut, the home of several 
generations of Danielsons, was named in their honor, and is to-day 
a silent monument to them, mute evidence of the high place which 
they have always held in the hearts and minds of the community. 

I. Sergeant James Danielson, progenitor of the family in Amer- 
ica, was a native of Scotland, whence he emigrated to the New 
"World, settling on Block Island, now the town of New Shoreham, 
Rhode Island, among the earliest residents of that place. Early 
land records show him to have been a man of considerable fortune. 
He assumed a prominent place in the town. Between the years 
1688 and 1705 he purchased several large tracts of land in Block 
Island, and was admitted a freeman of Rhode Island at the May ses- 
sion of the General Assembly in 1696. In 1700, he was elected ser- 

198 



DANIELSON-LOCKWOOD FAMILIES 

geant of the town of New Shoreham. In September, 1696, he 
agreed to raise £100 to pay for making a suitable harbor. In the 
same year he served as a soldier in the expedition against Quebec, 
under General Wolfe, and participated in the engagement on the 
Heights of Abraham against the French under Montcalm. In early 
life he served almost continuously in the wars against the Indians, 
and in reward for heroic services received a grant of land in Volun- 
town, in the eastern part of Connecticut, from the General Assem- 
bly. His purchases of land were very extensive. In 1706 he bought 
eight hundred acres of land on the Quinebaug river, in what is now 
the town of Pomfret. This included a mansion house and barn. 
The following year he bought a tract of two thousand acres of land 
lying between the Quinebaug and Assawauga rivers. He is said 
to have been the first settler south of Lake Mashapaug, at the south- 
ern end of which he built a garrison house. This new settlement 
afterward became the present town of Killingly. James Danielson 
became one of the most prominent and influential citizens of the 
community. He presented the town with a burying ground, located 
between the two rivers above named, and was the first to be buried 
in it. He died on January 22, 1728, at the age of eighty years. 

He was twice married, the maiden names of his wives being un- 
known. His first wife was Abigail. His second wife, Mary Rose, 
died February 23, 1752, in her eighty-sixth year. 

II. Samuel Danielson, son of Sergeant James and Mary Rose 
Danielson, was born in 1701. He inherited a large part of his fath- 
er's extensive property holdings, including his homestead, in what 
is now the town of Killingly. He succeeded to his father's place in 
the community, which was much like that of the English country 
squire. He became a leader in the industrial affairs of the town. 
Part of the vast Danielson holdings on the Quinebaug river became 
the site of a manufacturing village named Danielsonville, now known 
as Danielson. 

Samuel Danielson married Sarah Douglas, on March 26, 1725. She 
was born about 1704, and died March 29, 1774, aged seventy. He 
died in 1780, at the age of eighty-five years. 

III. Colonel William Danielson, son of Samuel and Sarah (Doug- 
las) Danielson, was born August 11, 1729, in the town of Killingly, 
Connecticut, and resided there all his life, becoming very prominent 
in the town affairs. He was elected constable and collector of taxes 
in 1760. In the same year he was elected lieutenant. In 1774 he 
became first major of the Eleventh Militia Regiment; and in the 
following year took one hundred and forty-six men from Killingly 
to Cambridge, Massachusetts. He became colonel in 1776, and af- 
ter the close of the Revolutionary War a general of militia. In 

199 



DANIELSON-LOCKWOOD FAMILIES 

1788, Colonel William Danielson was a member of the State Con- 
vention called to ratify the national Constitution. 

He married, October 29, 1758, Sarah Williams, born in 1737, died 
January 10, 1809. He died in Killingly, August 19, 1798. 

IV. General James Danielson, son of Colonel William and Sarah 
(Williams) Danielson, was born in Killingly, Connecticut, January 
18, 1761, and died there October 25, 1827. He married, on Decem- 
ber 3, 1788, Sarah Lord, of Abington, Connecticut. She was born 
June 17, 1769, and died April 28, 1852. 

V. Hezekiak Lord Danielson, son of General James and Sarah 
(Lord) Danielson, was born in Danielson, Connecticut, December 
16, 1802, and resided there all his life. He was prominent in local 
affairs in the town, and was a deacon of the Congregational church. 
He died in 1881. 

He married Laura Weaver, of Brooklyn, Connecticut. Their 
children were : 1. Charlotte Tiffany, born in 1827 ; married Or- 
ville M. Capron, and resides in Danielson. 2. Lucy Storrs, born in 
1829; married John Hutchins, and resides in Danielson. 3. Eliza- 
beth S., born in 1831 ; married Charles C. Cundall, and died in Se- 
attle, Washington, July, 1916. 4. John Weaver, mentioned below. 
5. Joseph, born in April, 1835, died in 1898. 6. Edward, born in 
1837, died in 1882. 7. Daniel, born in 1842, now a resident of Dan- 
ielson. 8. Henry M., born in 1845, resides in Danielson. 

VI. John Weaver Danielson, son of Hezekiah Lord and Laura 
(Weaver) Danielson, was born in Danielson, Connecticut, March 30, 
1833, and received his early education in the public schools. He 
later attended the Woodstock Academy, after leaving which he 
entered the business world as a clerk in the establishment of Edwin 
Ely. Shortly afterward he was given the position of clerk in the 
mill office in his native town, of which Amos DeForest Lockwood 
was agent. 

In 1860 he left Connecticut, and went to Lewiston, Maine, in com- 
pany with Mr. Lockwood, who was superintending the construction 
and equipment of the Androscoggin Mills there. Mr. Danielson 
remained in Maine for thirteen years. In 1873 he resigned as agent 
and went to Providence, Rhode Island, where in partnership with 
Mr. Lockwood he engaged in business. Mr. Lockwood died in 1S84, 
and in the same year Mr. Danielson was elected treasurer of the 
Quinebaug Company of Danielson, and the Lockwood Company of 
Waterville, Maine. He rapidly became a power in the line of indus- 
try in which he was engaged, and a leader in several enterprises 
of considerable magnitude. He was treasurer of the Wauregan 
Mills at Wauregan, Connecticut; the Lewiston Bleachery and 

200 



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DANIELSON-LOCKWOOD FAMILIES 

Dye Works at Lewiston, Maine, and the Ponemah Mills at 
Taftsville, Connecticut. In addition to his huge cotton interests 
in the New England States, he was also a stockholder in sev- 
eral cotton mills in the South. Mr. Danielson was a well- 
known figure in the financial world. In 1877 he became a 
member of the corporation of the Providence Institute for 
Savings and in 1S84 was elected a director of the same institu- 
tion. He was also a director of the Ehode Island Hospital Trust 
Company, and a member of its finance committee ; from 1887 to 
1908 he served as treasurer of the Rhode Island Hospital. He was 
a deacon of the Central Congregational Church at Providence. 
From 18S6 until the time of his death, Mr. Danielson was a member 
of the Ehode Island Historical Society. 

John Weaver Danielson married, August 24, 1858, Sarah Deming 
Lockwood, born May 30, 1836, at Slatersville, Rhode Island, the 
daughter of Amos De Forest and Sarah Fuller (Deming) Lock- 
wood. Mrs. Danielson survives her husband and resides at No. 
160 Waterman street, Providence. Their children were : 1. Edith 
Lockwood, married Elisha Harris Howard, of Providence; chil- 
dren: i. John Danielson Howard, who married Mildred Grand- 
staff; they have one daughter, Catherine Howard; ii. Elisha Harris 
Howard, Jr. ; iii. Alice Lockwood Howard, married Raymond E. 
Ostby, of Providence. 2. Alice Weaver, the wife of Theodore P. 
Bogert, of Providence, Rhode Island; has adopted two children — 
Alice, who died at the age of one and one-half years, and Edith. 3. 
Amos Lockwood, married Charlotte Ives Goddard, and had one 
child: Henry L. Danielson, who died at the age of fourteen years. 
4. John De Forest, died October 16, 1909; married Pauline Root, 
who now resides in Boston. 

Mr. Danielson was a member of the Hope and Art Clubs of Prov- 
idence, of the Arkwright Club of Boston, and of the Oquossoc Ang- 
ling Association of the Rangely Lakes, Maine. He was a man of 
sterling worth, and greatly respected and loved in Providence. The 
following is an excerpt from the resolution passed by the Rhode 
Island Historical Society at the time of his death : 

He was conspicuous for his wide activity and success in business and manufac- 
turing interests, and his devotion to the mission of the Christian Church. He was 
wise in counsel, upright in life, public spirited as a citizen, and greatly honored by all 
who knew him. 

(The Lockwood Line.) 

Lockwood is an English surname of very ancient origin, and is 
found in the Domesday Book, which dates back a period of eight 
hundred years. It is a place name, and the family has several 
branches in England, Staffordshire, Yorkshire, County Essex, and 

201 



DANIELSON-LOCKWOOD FAMILIES 

Northampton. The family is a very ancient and honorable one, and 
entitled to bear arms by royal patent. The coat-of-arms of the 
Lockwoods is derived from the Rev. Richard Lockwood, rector of 
Dingley, County Northampton, in the year 1530. 

Arms — Argent a fesse between three martlets sable. 

Crest — On the stump of an oak tree erased proper a martlet sable. 

Motto — Tutis in undis. 

I. Robert Lockwood, the immigrant ancestor of the family in 
America, was a native of England, and emigrated to the colonies 
in the year 1630. He came first to Watertown. Massachusetts, 
where he was admitted a freeman on March 9, 1636-37. He was the 
executor of the estate of one Edmund Lockwood, supposed to have 
been his brother. About 1616 he removed from Watertown, Massa- 
chusetts, to Fairfield, Connecticut, where he died intestate, in 1658. 
Robert Lockwood was admitted a freeman at Fairfield, Connecticut, 
May 20, 1652. He was appointed sergeant at Fairfield in May, 1657, 
and is said to have lived for a time in Norwalk, Connecticut. In 
1660 he deeded to Rev. John Bishoj) the house and lot which he 
purchased of Elias Bayley, Rev. Mr. Denton's attorney. 

He married Susannah , who married (second) Jeffrey Fer- 
ris, and died at Greenwich, Connecticut, December 23, 1660. Chil- 
dren: 1. Jonathan, born September 10, 1631. 2. Deborah, born 
October 12, 1636. 3. Joseph, born August 6, 1638. 4. Daniel, born 
March 21, 1610. 5. Ephraim, born December 1, 1611. 6. Gershom, 
mentioned below. 7. John. 8. Abigail, married John Harlow, of 
Fairfield, Connecticut. 9. Sarah. 10. Mary, married Jonathan 
Heusted. 

The inventory of the estate of Robert Lockwood, dated Septem- 
ber 11, 1658, amounted to £167, 63s, taken by Anthony Wilson and 
John Lockwood. On May 13, 1651, Susannah Lockwood, wife of 
Robert Lockwood, gave evidence in a witch case at a court held at 
New Haven, Connecticut, and stated that she was present when 
goodwife Knapp was hanged for a witch. (New Haven Colonial 
Records). 

//. Lieutenant Gershom Lockwood, son of Robert and Susannah 
Lockwood, was born in Watertown, Massachusetts, September 6, 
1643, and died in Greenwich, Fairfield county, Connecticut, March 
12, 1718-19. He removed to Greenwich with his father when he was 
nine years of age. He became one of the twenty-seven proprietors 
of the town of Greenwich, and held many positions of public trust 
and importance in the town. By trade he was a carpenter, and was 
the principal builder in the town. In 1694-95 Gershom Lockwood 
and his son were taxed on £153 15s. He made his will November 
22, 1692, and was called at that time Gershom Lockwood, Senior. 

202 



DANIELSON-LOCKWOOD FAMILIES 

Lieutenant Gershom Lock wood married (first) Lady Ann Milling- 
ton, a daughter of Lord Millington, of England. She came to New 
England in search of her lover, a British army officer. Failing to 
find him, she taught school, and subsequently married Gershom 
Lockwood, of Greenwich, Connecticut. In 1660 her parents sent her 
from England a large oak chest, ingeniously carved on the outside, 
and strongly built; tradition says that the case contained half a 
bushel of guineas, and many fine silk dresses. The chest has been 
handed down through several generations and at last accounts was 
in the home of Mr. Samuel Ferris, in Greenwich, Connecticut. 

Lieutenant Gershom Lockwood married (second) Elizabeth, 
daughter of John and Elizabeth (Montgomery) Townsend, and the 
widow of Gideon Wright. The children of Lieutenant and Ann 
(Millington) Lockwood were: 1. Gershom. 2. William, died 
young. 3. Joseph. 4. Elizabeth, married John Bates. 5. Hannah, 
born in 1667; married (first) John Burweli; married (second) 
Thomas Hanford. 6. Sarah, received by her father's mil "a cer- 
tain negro girl being now in my possession." 7. Abraham, twin of 
Sarah, mentioned below. 

III. Abraham Lockwood, son of Lieutenant Gershom and Ann 
(Millington) Lockwood, was born about 1669, in Greenwich, Con- 
necticut, and died in June, 1717, at the age of seventy-seven years. 
He was the first of the line to remove to Rhode Island, and there 
established the family. He was a resident of Old Warwick, Rhode 
Island, and a prosperous farmer and land owner there. 

He married about 1693, Sarah Westcott, born in 1673, daughter 
of Amos and Deborah (Stafford) Westcott. Their children were: 

1. Deborah, married, November 29, 1725, Nathaniel Cole. 2. Amos, 
mentioned below. 3. Adam, married, December 24, 1734, Sarah 
Straight. 4. Sarah, married, June 6, 1728, Abel Potter. 5. Abra- 
ham, married Mary . 

IV. Captain Amos Lockwood, son of Abraham and Sarah (West- 
cott) Lockwood, was born in Warwick, Rhode Island, about 1695, 
and died there on March 11, 1772. He was admitted a freeman of 
the Colony of Rhode Island, April 30, 1723. (Rhode Island Co- 
lonial Records, vol. 4, p. 327). Captain Amos Lockwood was prom- 
inent in public life in the colony, and held the office of deputy from 
Warwick, May 1, 1749. 

He married Sarah Utter, December 23, 1725. She was the daugh- 
ter of William and Anne (Stone) Utter, of Warwick, Rhode Island, 
and was born August 1, 1707, died January 4, 1780. Their children 
were: 1. Amos, Jr., born April 25, 1727; married Mary Knight. 

2. Sarah, born January 26, 1728-29 ; married Sion Arnold. 3. Ann, 
born December 28, 1730 ; married Joseph Arnold. 4. Benoni, men- 

203 



DANIELSON-LOCKWOOD FAMILIES 

tioned below. 5. Alice, born October 10, 1735 ; married John Healy. 
6. Marcy, born November 26, 1737; married Stephen Greene. 7. 
Waite, born September 2, 1742 ; married William Greene. 8. Phebe, 
born June 20, 1744. 9. Barbary, born April 24, 1747. 10. Abra- 
ham, born December 26, 1748; married Patience Greene. 11. Mil- 
lacent, born April 25, 1750. 

V. Captain Benoni Loclcwood, son of Captain Amos and Sarah 
(Utter) Lockwood, was born November 26, 1733, in Warwick, Rhode 
Island. He removed from Warwick to Cranston, Rhode Island, 
where he became a leading citizen and active in military affairs. 

He married, April 5, 1772, Phebe Waterman, born April 11, 1748, 
died October 19, 180S, daughter of Resolved and Sarah (Carr) Wa- 
terman. She married, after the death of Captain Lockwood, Moses 
Brown, who died in 1836. Captain Benoni Lockwood died in Crans- 
ton, Rhode Island, February 19, 1781, aged forty-eight years. The 
children of Captain Benoni and Phebe (Waterman) Lockwood were : 

1. Sarah, born April 24, 1773 ; married Bates Harris. 2. Avis, born 
December 7, 1774. 3. Benoni, mentioned below. 4. Phebe, born 
December 9, 1778. 

VI. Benoni (2) Lockivood, son of Captain Benoni (1) and Phebe 
(Waterman) Lockwood, was born in Cranston, Rhode Island, April 

2, 1777. During the early years of his life he followed the sea, 
ranking as captain. He later entered the profession of civil engi- 
neering, in which he engaged for the remaining years of his life. 
He died in Cranston, April 26, 1852. The following mention of him 
is found in the "History of Warwick, R, I.," p. 311: "Dan'l Ar- 
nold left legacies to the Shawomet Baptist Church, which has 
brought to light the existence of a few members who claimed to be 
the church; their names are Benoni Lockwood, Amelia Weaver, 
Lucy A. Lockwood and Eliza T. Lockwood." 

Captain Benoni (2) Lockwood married, April 29, 1798, Phebe 
Greene, daughter of Rhodes and Phebe (Yaughan) Greene. Their 
children were: 1. Rhodes Greene, died young. 2. Phebe Greene, 
married Reuben Peckham. 3. Sarah. 4. Mary. 5. Benoni, born 
April 26, 1805 ; married Amelia Cooley. 6. Avis Waterman, mar- 
ried Rhodes B. Chapman. 7. Amos De Forest, mentioned below. 8. 
Anna Tucker, born October 13, 1813, married James Dennis. 9. 
Moses Brown, born August 25, 1815 ; died May 13, 1872. 10. Dor- 
cas Brown. 

VII. Amos De Forest Lockwood, son of Captain Benoni (2) and 
Phebe (Greene) Lockwood, was born at Pawtuxet, Rhode Island, 
October 30, 1811. His education was terminated in his sixteenth 
year, and at that age he entered the business world in the employ 

204 






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DANIELSON-LOCKWOOD FAMILIES 

of the firm of Peck & Wilkinson, merchants and manufacturers, of 
the town of Rehoboth, ten miles from his home, and his occasional 
visits to his home were made on foot. For two years he served as 
clerk in the store, and for two years was a mill hand, acquiring a 
knowledge of the manufacture of cotton fabrics. Thence he became 
an operative in the employ of Aliny, Brown & Slater, at Slatersville, 
Rhode Island. He found this work congenial and put all his energy 
into an exhaustive study of its every phase, familiarizing himself 
with all the details of the work, and making himself in a short time 
one of the firm's most valued employees. He later became superin- 
tendent of the mill before he had attained his majority, and three 
years later was made resident agent. After eight years of faithful 
service in this capacity he became one of a company formed to rent 
and operate the property, which was successfully carried forward 
for a period of ten years. 

Mr. Lockwood remained a resident of Slatersville twenty-one 
years, and his influence upon the community was most salutary. He 
had early formed religious connections under the care of Rev. 
Thomas Vernon, at Rehoboth, and his life and conduct were calcu- 
lated to inspire noble motives in others. When the lease of the 
Slatersville property expired, Mr. Lockwood became interested in 
the Quinebaug Mills of Danielson, Connecticut, and was one of the 
original proprietors of the Wauregan Mills in Plainfield, same 
State, which were begun under his supervision and managed by him 
several years. After residing in Danielson five years he went to 
Lawrence, Massachusetts, in 1855, and rearranged the Pacific Mills 
of that State. Three years later, in 1858, as mechanical engineer, 
he took charge of extensive operations for Boston capitalists at 
Lewiston, Maine, and in other places in that State and Northeast- 
ern Massachusetts. He still resided in Danielson until 1860. Un- 
der his supervision the Androscoggin Mills at Lewiston were built, 
equipped, and put in operation, and for several years he was resi- 
dent agent. He resided twelve years in Lewiston, where the opera- 
tions under his charge were very profitable, and he acquired a great 
variety of business interests. He was elected treasurer of Bowdoin 
College, and about the same time became a corporate member of 
the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions, both 
of which positions he filled during his life. 

In the spring of 1874 a corporation was formed to engage in man- 
ufacturing at Waterville, Maine, and Mr. Lockwood was chosen 
treasurer of the company, which took his name, and the Lockwood 
Mills, erected according to his plan, were operated with great suc- 
cess and profit. In 1873 he returned to Rhode Island, and continued 
thereafter to reside in Providence. At the time of his decease he 
was president of the Saco water power machine shop at Bidde- 
ford, Maine. The minutes of the directors relating to his death 

205 



DANIELSON-LOCKWOOD FAMILIES 

speak of him as one who had been associated with them from the 
beginning of the enterprise, and one who was interested and active 
in its success, and whose loss could not be measured, and "to the 
managers a personal loss which cannot be tilled. " The institutions, 
corporations and associations of various kinds with which he was 
identified numbered nearly one hundred. His memoralist says: 
"It seems amazing that one man has done so much and done it so 
well, and, yet, as one has said, 'was never in a hurry.' " Mr. Lock- 
wood was one of the early presidents of the Congregational Club of 
Rhode Island, which passed appropriate resolutions following his 
death, of which the following is the closing paragraph : 

Resolved, That in the death of Amos D. Lockvvood we have suffered no common 
loss. He was identified with the industries of our State, with its soundest business 
enterprises, with its charitable institutions and with its religious life. In all these 
departments his influence was felt in a marked degree, and always on the side of 
right. By his death we have lost a leader of industry, who was an ornament to our 
community, a counselor whose advice was always wise, a man whose uprightness and 
integrity stood firm as the everlasting hills, a friend whose kindliness endeared him 
to all who knew him, a Christian whose daily life exemplified the faith which he 
professed. 

Mr. Lockwood lived in the times of the greatest development in 
the American industries, and he contributed no small share not only 
to the material development of the region in which he lived but also 
to its moral and social uplifting. He assisted in planting the cotton 
industry in the South, where it has grown to large volume. The 
directors of the Pacelet Manufacturing Company at Spartanburg, 
South Carolina, passed proper resolutions upon his death, which 
follow : 

Resolved, That we have heard, with much regret, of the death of Amos D. Lock- 
wood, for whom we have the highest respect and regard. 

Resolved, That in him was found a true friend not only of our company but also 
of the entire South. While his death will be a great loss to the many enterprises with 
which he was connected, the entire manufacturing interest of the South is no less a 
sufferer. By his works he showed great faith in the future of this country. Full of 
energy and experience he commanded our respect and confidence. Frank and candid, 
useful in every way, full of honors, a Christian gentleman, we saw in him a man as 
he should be. His life was worth living. 

A man of strong convictions, he was of most kindly nature, and to 
him the home circle was very dear. He was a child when among chil- 
dren; was very fond of music and gifted with a sweet voice, which 
retained its strength and purity to the last. He was never too busy or 
too weary to listen to siniging or join in it. Particularly marked in his 
observance of the Sabbath, he could ill bear the presence in his fam- 
ily of any one who intruded themes of business on sacred time. He 
never would permit repairs on mills under his control on that day. 
Having been asked his opinion in regard to Sabbath work in manu- 
facturing establishments, Mr. Lockwood closed his letter in reply 

206 



DANIELSON-LOCKWOOD FAMILIES 

with the following words: "My habit from the commencement of 
my business life has been to work only six days in a week, and to 
have those under me do the same ; and never have I departed from 
this custom except when property has been in danger from fire and 
flood." Kind, charitable, as he was in respect to the opinions and 
practices of others, his convictions were an abiding law to him- 
self. This appears, also, in his staunch adherence to the cause of 
temperance. 

Mr. Lockwood was one of the early presidents of the Congrega- 
tional Club of Rhode Island. As an expression of a sense of be- 
reavement and an estimate of his character, at a meeting held Feb- 
ruary 11, 1884, the following resolutions, offered by Hon. Rowland 
Hazard, were unanimously adopted: 

Whereas, It has pleased Almighty God to remove from us, by sudden death, our 
well-beloved friend and associate, Amos D. Lockwood, a former President of the 
Club, a valued member of the Congregational Church, a citizen of this Commonwealth, 
known and respected of all men for his sagacity, for his prudence, for his kindly 
courtesy, for his sterling integrity, and for his Christian character ; and 

Whereas, We desire to give some expression, however inadequate, to the feelings 
which we share in common with this whole community, it is therefore, 

Resolved, That in the death of Amos D. Lockwood we have suffered no common 
loss. He was identified with the industries of our State, with its soundest business 
institutions, and with its religious life. In all these departments his influence was felt 
in a marked degree, and always on the side of right. By his death we have lost a 
leader of industry, who was an ornament to our community, a counselor whose advice 
was always wise, a man whose uprightness and integrity stood firm as the everlasting 
hills, a friend whose kindliness endeared him to all who knew him, a Christian whose 
daily life exemplified the faith which he professed. 

Resolved, That when such a man dies, it is the duty of the living to bear testimony 
to the worth of the dead. We perform this duty with no empty form of words. With 
true and earnest feeling we would say: Here was a man of whom we were justly 
proud; here was a life rounded and filled with duties faithfully performed; here was 
an example to put to shame our own shortcomings, and to lead us upward to loftier 
heights of Christian living. 

Resolved, That we tender our heartfelt sympathies to the afflicted family of our 
deceased friend. Within the sacred circle of private grief we cannot intrude, but the 
memory of his noble life, the recollection of his kindly deeds, and the record of his 
Christian example form an heirloom in which we also have a part. We ask that those 
who were near and dear to him will permit us to lay our tribute of respect upon his 
tomb. Careful of his own reputation as a business man he would not speak ill of others. 

He married, May 27, 1835, Sarah Fuller Deming, of Boston, born 
August 24, 1812, died May 23, 1889, daughter of Charles and Mehit- 
able ^Fuller) "Deming, of Needham. Children: 1. Sarah Deming, 
mentioned below. 2. De Forest, born 1838, died young. 3. Amelia 
De F., born November 29, 1840, died in 1910, unmarried. 4. Mary, 
born August 8, 1847, died young. 

VIII. Sarah Deming Lockwood, eldest child of Amos De Forest 
and Sarah F. (Deming) Lockwood, was born May 30, 1836, in Sla- 
tersville, and became the wife of John W. Danielson ( see Danielson 

VI). 

207 



Editorial 

LESSONS OF THE WORLD WAR 
In the last number of ''Americana" was expressed the conviction 
that, since the close of the World War, all the nations of the earth, 
and none more than the United States, would have intricate prob- 
lems for solution — some long in the thought of its people, some 
growing out of changed conditions and expansion of vision, some 
out of mere desire for change. These conditions are well considered 
in an address delivered last December, in Atlantic City, before the 
War Emergency and Reconstruction Conference of the Chamber of 
Commerce of the United States, by John D. Rockefeller, Jr., and 
now published in neat pamphlet form. 

It is to be said at the outset, that Mr. Rockefeller, of large means 
and great enterprise, is neither faddist nor monopolist, but a 
straightforward man of affairs, and who, so far as conditions have 
permitted, has carried his ideas into practical effect among those 
with whom he has been associated either as fellow-managers or em- 
ployees. His address is well worthy of the broadest circulation, and 
his thoughts of the closest attention. The following excerpts pre- 
sent its most salient features : 

The war has taught many lessons ; one of the most useful is the 
value of co-operation. The successful outcome of the conflict was 
largely the result of the most complete co-operation. Irrespective of 
race, color or creed, men worked and fought and suffered and died, 
side by side. The kinship of humanity has come to be understood as 
never before. Common danger, common toil, common suffering, 
have developed the spirit of brotherhood. 

Today we stand at the threshold of the period of reconstruction. 
As we address ourselves to the grave problems which confront us, 
problems both national and international, we may look for success in 
their solution just in so far as we continue to be animated by the 
spirit of co-operation and brotherhood. The hope of the future lies 
in the perpetuation of that spirit. Only as those who sit around the 
peace table are imbued with it, will their efforts result in an outcome 
at all commensurate with the price which has been paid for peace. 

Shall we cling to the conception of industry as an institution, pri- 
marily of private interest, which enables certain individuals to ac- 

208 



EDITORIAL 

cumulate wealth, too often irrespective of the well-being;, the health 
and the happiness of those engaged in its production! Or shall we 
adopt the modern viewpoint and regard industry as being a form of 
social service, quite as much as a revenue-producing process/ 

The soundest industrial policy is that which has constantly in 
mind the welfare of employes as well as the making of profits, and 
which, when human considerations demand it, subordinates prohts 
to welfare. Industrial relations are essentially human relations. 

In the light of the present, every thoughtful man must concede 
that the purpose of industry is quite as much the advancement of so- 
cial well-being as the accumulation of wealth. It remains none the 
less true, however, that to be successful, industry must not only 
serve the community and the workers adequately, but must also 
realize a just return on capital invested. 

The parties to industry are four in number: they are Capital, 
Management, Labor and the Community. Capital is represented by 
the stockholders and is usually regarded as embracing Management. 
Management is, however, an entirely separate and distinct party to 
industry — its function is essentially administrative ; it comprises the 
executive officers, who bring to industry technical skill and manager- 
ial experience. Labor consists of the employes. Labor, like Capital, 
is an investor in industry, but Labor's contribution, unlike that of 
Capital, is not detachable from the one who makes it, since it is in 
the nature of physical effort and is a part of the worker's strength 
and life. 

Here the list usually ends. The fourth party, namely, the Com- 
munity, whose interest is vital, and in the last analysis controlling, 
is too often ignored. The Community's right to representation in 
the control of industry and in the shaping of industrial policies is 
similar to that of the other parties. Were it not for the Commun- 
ity's contribution, in maintaining law and order, in providing agen- 
cies of transportation and communication, in furnishing systems of 
money and credit and in rendering other services — all involving con- 
tinuous outlays — the operation of Capital, Management and Labor 
would be enormously hampered, if not rendered well nigh impossi- 
ble. The Community, furthermore, is the consumer of the product 
of industry, and the money which it pays for the product reimburses 
Capital for its advances and ultimately provides the wages, salaries 
and profits that are distributed among the other parties. 

It is frequently maintained that the parties to industry must 
necessarily be hostile and antagonistic. I am convinced that the oppo- 
site is true ; that they are not enemies but partners ; and that they 
have a common interest. Moreover, success cannot be brought about 
through the assumption by any one party of a position of dominance 
and arbitrary control; rather it is dependent upon the co-operation 
of all four. Partnership, not enmity, is the watchword. 

209 



EDITORIAL 

In illustration of the possibilities of close practical co-operation, 
Mr. Rockefeller cites the fact that, since the United States went into 
the war, the representation of both Labor and Capital in common 
councils has been brought about, through the War Labor Board, 
composed equally of men from the ranks of Labor and Capital, to- 
gether with representatives of the public. When differences have 
arisen in industries where there was no machinery to deal with such 
matters, the War Labor Board has stepped in and made its findings 
and recommendations. In this way, relatively continuous operation 
has been made possible and the resort to the strike and lockout has 
been less frequent. 

Mr. Rockefeller further instances three important semi-govern- 
mental bodies in Great Britain which have in some degree or other 
brought about improved conditions between employers and em- 
ployed ; and also shows that the same principles have been in oper- 
ation for varying periods of time in a number of industries in the 
United States, including the Standard Oil Company of New Jersey, 
the Colorado Fuel and Iron Company, the Consolidated Coal Com- 
pany, and others, in all of which he himself is largely interested, and 
the prime mover in the ameliorating conditions which he recom- 
mends to the country at large. His elucidations in the pamphlet 
from which we quote, are well worth the earnest consideration of 
every association of employers and employees throughout the land. 



LITERARY NOTES 



As an historical background to the present-day conditions in Rus- 
sia growing out of German intrigue, is "The Whirlwind,'' by Edna 
Worthley Underwood. With an ample knowledge of the Russian 
events of the eighteenth century so far as they have become known, 
of Russian literature, and a clear appreciation of the character of 
the Russian people and of the intriguers and diplomats who en- 
tered the court circles, the author has drawn a series of vivid pen- 
pictures of every class of creature entering into the direful events of 
that day, all told in a story of thrilling interest. The opening scenes 
are of the last days of the reign of the Empress Elizabeth, intro- 
ducing a question which was of moment throughout the world — 
would Catherine become empress, or would her husband, Feodor- 

210 



EDITORIAL 

ovitch, come to the throne? — as he did. There is a tangled web of 
conspiracies, culminating in the murder of the illfated monarch at 
the hands of Orloff, the chosen favorite of the empress. (Small, 
Maynard & Co., Boston; $1.50). 

To its large list of excellent county and local histories, The Lewis 
Historical Publishing Company adds another of peculiar interest, 
in "History of Lowell (Mass..) and its People," by Mr. Frederick 
W. Coburn. Advance sheets present features which the ordinary 
annalist neglects, and which, as a matter of faet, can only be han- 
dled by such an appreciative litterateur as the author of this work. 
The features we refer to are the very complete chapters on Art and 
Literature. L T nder the former head are well written accounts of 
various memorial buildings adorned with paintings and etchings by 
Whistler and others. The literary celebrities of Lowell make a 
goodly array of names, and the story of the famous " Lowell Offer- 
ing," which even caught the fancy of the oftentimes over-critical if 
not sarcastic Charles Dickens, makes most pleasant and instructive 
reading — instructive, as showing how many clever writers found 
their first inspiration in "The Offering." We do not know of an- 
other local history adorned with such matter. 

The editor of this Magazine has viewed with a great interest, but 
tinged with sorrow, many pages of a work now going through the 
press, "History of Worcester (Mass.) and Its People," (Lewis His- 
torical Publishing Co.). This is the completion of the life work of Mr. 
Charles Nutt, of the city thus commemorated. He had completed 
the historical narrative, and a great mass of family pedigrees and 
genealogy, and had seen much of it in print T and passed away, in the 
prime of life, the result of a short illness which threatened little. 
Only remaining to be done by his assistant, were the foreword and 
a very small number of personal narratives. In his monumental 
history the gifted author, — skilled as antiquarian, genealogist and 
historian — methodized his work with wisest judgment, and prose- 
cuted it with remarkable enthusiasm and Industry, leaving behind 
him his final tribute to the people of the famous city in which he took 
a wholesome pride, and to whose traditions, history and destiny, 
he was intensely loyal. 

For many years Mr. Nutt had practically devoted his entire time 

211 



EDITORIAL 

to the collection and classification of New England genealogy and 
family history, and we do not know of another in that entire region 
who made so great an accumulation. All this is in the hands of 
the Society which publishes this Magazine. 

The following biographical narrative is contributed by an inti- 
mate friend of the deceased : 

Charles Nutt was born in Natick, Middlesex county, Massachu- 
setts, September 26, 1S68, the son of Colonel William Nutt, who 
served in the Civil War. 

His preparatory education was acquired in the schools of his 
native place, he graduating from the Natick High School in 1886, 
president and valedictorian of his class. He then entered Harvard 
University, took second-year honors in physics in 1887, and was 
graduated in 1890 with the degree of Bachelor of Arts, magna cum 
„, laude, both for general rank and for honors in physics. During his 

course in school and college, Mr. Nutt did newspaper work for the 
Natick "Bulletin," Natick "Citizen" and Boston "Evening Rec- 
ord," this experience laying the foundation for his after career in 
journalism as one of the best-known newspaper men in the State 
of Massachusetts. In 1890, the year of his graduation from .Har- 
vard, he accepted a position as reporter on the staff of the Worces- 
ter "Daily Spy," for many years the leading paper in that thriving 
city. In 1891 he founded "The Paragraph," in New Rochelle, New 
York, and later became the owner of newspaper and printing plants 
at New Rochelle and Mamaroneck, New York. On October 1, 1899, 
he purchased the Worcester "Daily Spy," and conducted it until 
June 1, 1904, a period of five years, when it passed out of his hands 
and was suspended. The plant had been destroyed by fire, May 21, 
1902, and the loss was disastrous to the business. 

With thorough training, true journalistic instinct and broad 
knowledge of affairs, Mr. Nutt reflected honor upon his profession, 
and in his conduct of the various papers with which he was identi- 
fied he made them the exponent of the highest interests of the com- 
munity of the State and of the Nation. In addition to his journal- 
istic work he devoted much time to genealogical research, and from 
1904 until his death was associated with the Lewis Historical Pub- 
lishing Company, of New York, and at the time of his death was 
nearing completion of "A History of Worcester," which will be 
read with great interest by his many friends and acquaintances in 
Worcester, his adopted city. He completed a history of the First 
Massachusetts Heavy Artillery, which was begun by the late Hon. 
Alfred S. Roe ; wrote a history of the Crompton & Knowles Loom 
Works, one of the largest enterprises in Worcester; and was the 

212 



EDITORIAL 

author of several other works which received favorable comment 
from the press and from the reading public. 

Although so much of his time and thought were given to the duties 
above mentioned, Mr. Nutt was also an active participant in polit- 
ical affairs, in which he took a keen interest, and was chosen by his 
fellow-citizens to serve as delegate to various Republican conven- 
tions, including the State Convention when the late Theodore Roose- 
velt was nominated for Governor of New York. He was the can- 
didate of the Republican party for the office of supervisor; during 
the presidential campaign of 190-i he was in charge of the Speakers ' 
Bureau of the Massachusetts Republican State Committee, and had 
been chairman of the Fourth "Ward Republican Committee of New 
Rochelle, and treasurer of the New Rochelle Republican Club. Mr. 
Nutt held membership in the Massachusetts Sons of the American 
Revolution; the New England Historic-Genealogical Society; the 
Worcester Society of Antiquity; Huguenot Council, Royal Ar- 
canum, of New Rochelle ; Huguenot Lodge, Free and Accepted Ma- 
sons, of New Rochelle, and during his collegiate course was a mem- 
ber of the Pierian Sodality, in which he played the double bass, and 
he was also a member of various other clubs. 

Mr. Nutt married (first) August 26, 1891, Ada Sophia Robinson, 
born March 5, 1871, at Natick, died November 17, 1909, at Worcester, 
daughter of Walter Billings and Ella Maria (Bullard) Robinson. He 
married (second) at Haverhill, New Hampshire, November 28, 1911, 
Lucia Jeanette Morrill, born November 28, 1885, at Benton, New 
Hampshire, daughter of Eben and Nanc} T (Holt) Morrill, of Haver- 
bill, New Hampshire. Children by first wife : 1. Isabel Ella, born 
at New Rochelle, New York, June 27, 1892; married, February 15, 
1919, Robert Trumen Bamford, United States Navy, of Ipswich, 
Massachusetts. 2. Harold, born December 3, 1893, at New Rochelle, 
New York; graduate of Worcester Polytechnic Institute, class of 
1916. 3. Arthur, born February 6, 1895, at New Rochelle, New 
York; graduate of Worcester Polytechnic Institute, class of 1916; 
married, November 29, 1917, Anne Josephine Dewey, of Buffalo, 
New York, daughter of Frank Cline and Helen May (Keon) Dewey. 

4. Dorothy May, born August 23, 1897, at New Rochelle, New York. 

5. Charles Stanley, born at Worcester, November 10, 1899 ; seaman, 
United States Navy, on United States Steamship "Kansas." Child 
of Mr. Nutt bv second wife, born at Worcester: Ruth Nutt, born 
April 7, 1913. ' 

In the death of Mr. Nutt, which occurred September 26, 1918, at 
his summer home in Wareham, the city of Worcester lost a man 
who had made a name for himself in the city of his adoption, a man 
of courage and determination, of untiring energy who added to 
these qualities the courtesy of a gentleman. The interment was in 
Dell Park Cemetery, Natick, Massachusetts. 

213 



Statement of the Ownership, Management, Circulation, Etc. 



Required by the Act of Congress of August 24, 1912. 



OF AMERICANA, published Quarterly at Somerville, New Jersey, for October 1st, 1918. 

City and State of New York, 1 
County of New York, j ■ 

Before me, a Commissioner of Deeds, in and for the State and county and city 
aforesaid, personally appeared Marion L. Lewis, who, having been duly sworn according 
to law, deposes and says that he is the Vice-President and Manager of The American 
Historical Society (Americana), and that the following is, Jo the best of his knowledge 
and belief, a true statement of the ownership, management, etc., of the aforesaid pub- 
lication for the date shown in the above caption, required by the Act of August 24, 
IQI2, embodied in section 443, Postal Laws and Regulations, printed on the reverse 
of this form, to wit : 

1. That the names and addresses of the publisher, editor, managing editor, and 
business managers are : Publisher, The American Historical Society, Inc. Editor, 
Fenwick Y. Hedley, No. 267 Broadway. New York. Managing Editor, Marion L. 
Lewis, No. 267 Broadway, New York. Business Manager. Marion L. Lewis, No. 267 
Broadway, New York. 

2. That the owners are: Benjamin F. Lewis, Sr., No. 908 Central avenue, Wil- 
mette, 111.; Marion L. Lewis, No. 267 Broadway, N. Y. ; Metcalf B. Hatch, Nutley, 

.N. J.; Ed. Lewis, No. 2121 Foster avenue, Brooklyn, N. Y.; Florence A. Kelsey, Great 
Barrington, Mass.; Benjamin F. Lewis, Jr., 542 South Dearborn street, Chicago, 111. 

3. That the known bondholders, mortgagees, and other security holders owning or 
holding 1 per cent, or more of total amount of bonds, mortgages, or other securities are: 
None. 

4. That the two paragraphs next above, giving the names of the owners, stock- 
holders, and security holders, if any, contain not only the list of stockholders and security 
holders as they appear upon the books of the company bast also, in cases where the 
stockholder or security holder appears upon the books of the company as trustee or in any 
other fiduciary relation, the name of the person or corporation for whom such trustee is 
acting, is given ; also that the said two paragraphs contain statements embracing affiant's 
full knowledge and belief as to the circumstances and coaditions under which stock- 
holders and security holders who do not appear upon the books of the company as 
trustees, hold stock and securities in a capacity other than that of a bona fide owner ; 
and this affiant has no reason to believe that any other person association, or corporation 
has any interest direct or indirect in the said stock, bonds, car other securities than as so 
stated by him. 

M. L. LEWIS, Business Manager. 
Sworn to and subscribed before me this 3rd day of October, 1918. 

ROBERT H. HAGEMANN, JR., 
Commissioner of Deeds of New York City. 
(My commission expires Nov. 14, 1918). 



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